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Full text of "An English translation of the Sushruta samhita, based on original Sanskrit text. Edited and published by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna. With a full and comprehensive introd., translation of different readings, notes, comperative views, index, glossary and plates"

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(  IN  THREE  VOL  UMES.  ) 



No.    lO,    KASHI    GHOSE'S   LANE.       ' 

1907.  *  -• 

.  f' 


Printed  by  J.  N.  Bose. 
'  '^  /        College  Square,  Calcutta. 

MW  Riqhtx  Rexd'ved) 


( In  Durbar  dress ) 

II  w^ff^  II 



Xo  special ^polcfgy  is  necessary  for  the  publication 
of  an  English  translation  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita.  The 
vast  medical  literature  of  ancient  India  practically 
remains  as  yet  unexplored,  and  any  undertaking,  which 
„has  the  obiect  of  making  that  terra  incognita,  known  to 
thescientific  world,  is  bound  to  be  welcomedby  the  public. 
Spasmodic  attempts  have  been  made  by  several  scholars 
and  erudite  bodies  to  bring  out  an  English  translation  of 
the  Sushruta  Samhita,  as  the  most  representative  work  of 
the  Ayurveda,  but  we  regret  to  say  that  such  efforts  have 
hitherto  proved  abortive.  In  spite  of  incomplete  infor- 
mation on  the  subject  many  drugs  of  the  Ayurvedic 
?vlateria  Medica  have  been  adopted  by  different  foreign 
systems  of  medicine,  and  this  has  afforded  us  a  fresh 
impetus  to  issue  an  English  translation  of  the  book,  which 
not  only  deals  with  the  essentials  of  Indian  Therapeutics 
but  embraces  the  whole  range  of  the  science  of  A3airveda, 
as  it  was  understood   and  practised  by  the  Vedic  sages. 

We  sincerely  hope  that  the  English  rendering  of 
Sushruta,  which  we  have  undertaken,  will,  when 
completed,  supply  a  long-felt  want  and  help  to  start 
a  fuller  inquiry  into  the  properties  of  the  indige- 
nous drugs  of  India.  Many  institutions  have  been 
already  started  both  in  England  and  Germany  with 
the  sole  object  of  studying  the  reti(^logy  of  tropical 
diseases,  and  of  formulating  an  empirical  system  of 
their  prevention  and  cure,  and  we,  hope  an  I4nglish 
translation    of  the    Sushruta    Samhita,    embracing  as  it 


does  the  results  of  researches  made  by  our  ancient 
Rishis  ill  the  land  of  their  origin(^  may  contribute  no 
small  amount  of  useful  information  to  those  bodies. 
"We  have  many  things  to  learn"  observes  Lt.  Col.  C.  P. 
Lukis,  M.b.,  F.R.C.S.,  I. M.S.,  Principal,  Medical  College, 
Calcutta,  "from  the  people  of  this  country  in  respect 
of  medicine  and  medical  science,"  and  five  doubt  not 
that  an  accurate  knowledge  of  the  contents  of  this 
splendid  monument  of  the  Ayurveda  in  quarters  where 
it  has  every  chance  of  being  utilised  and  improved 
upon  will  make  the  Inmian  race  better  equipped  too 
combat  the  ills  of  life. 

A  few  remarks  on  the  method  we  have  adopted  in 
editing  this  work  are  necessarv  by  way  of  explana- 
tion. We  have  carefully  collated  all  the  available 
texts  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita,  whether  printed 
or  otherwise,  expunging  from  the  body  of  our  work 
all  texts,  which,  though  not  proved  to  be  wholly 
spurious,  are  of  questionable  authority,  and  putting 
them  in  foot-notes  as  "Different  Readings"  or  "Additional 
Texts."  In  cases  of  doubt  or  discrepancy  of  opinion 
we  have  thought  fit  to  abide  by  the  decision  of 
our  revered  preceptor,  Mahamahopadhyaya  Kaviraj 
Dvarkanath  Sen,  Kaviratna,  and  inserted  within 
brackets  explanatory  clauses,  where  a  strictly  literal 
translation  of  texts  would  not  convey  their  true  meaning. 
In  many  instances  it  is  impossible  to  find  in  the  English 
language  equivalent  words  for  the  technical  terms  of  the 
A3'urveda.  In  such  cases  we  have  put  approximate 
English  words  within  brackets,  after  the  original  Sanskrit 
terms.  For  exapiple  we  have  translated  the  term  Ojah 
as  albumen.  Sut  the  Ojah  of  the  Ayurveda  is  a  disputed 
thing,  t  It  may  mean  something  like  but  not  exactl)' 
albumen;    glycogen,     which    contributes    largely     to 

Ill  "^        , 

the  reproductive  activity  of  tlfe  body  in  certaiR)*instances. 
would  appear  to  be  the  more  correct  description.  In 
cases  like  this  we  h'ave  not  put  before  our  readers, 
any  suggestions  of  our  own,  but  left  them  free  to 
draw  their  own  inference.  And  for  this  purpose  we 
further  intend  to  Append  to  the  last  volume  of  this 
work  an  index  a,nd  a  glossary  illustrating  the  possible 
meanings  of  the  Ayurvedic  terms  with  English  and 
Latin  synonyms,  wherever  possible.  The  true  meaning 
of  the  Ayurveda  can  be  better  explained  or  understood 
only  with  the  light  of  moder.n  science,  and  we  leave  it 
to  our  European  colleagues  to  carry  on  the  research  on 
the  lines  we  have  suggested  with  regard  to  this  ancient 
S3'stem  of  medicine,  which  a  better  knowledge  of  its 
principles  and  methods  will  enable  them  to  do. 

By  a  lamentable  oversight,  the  terms  Vayu,  Pittani, 
Kaphah  and  Dosha  have  been  translated  as  wind,  bile, 
phlegm  and  humour  in  the  first  few  chapters. 

For  the  sake  of  convenience  we  have  divided  the 
entire  work  into  three  volumes,  the  first  containing  only 
the  Sutrasthanam,  the  second  Xidanam,  Sharira  and 
Chikitsa,  and  the  third  Kalpa  and  Uttara  Tantram. 

We  have  adopted  the  diagrams  of  surgical  instruments 
from  that  most  valuable  work  of  the  Thakore  Saheb  of 
Gondal,  called  the  History  of  the  Aryan  Medical 
Science,  for  which  I  am  particularly  indebted  to  His 

In  conclusion,  we  beg  to  conve\'  our  sincerest  thanks 
to  our  preceptor's  son  Kaviraj  Jogendranath  Sen  Vidya- 
bhusana  M.  A.,  Dr.  U.  D.  Banerji  L.  R.  C.  P.,  M.  R.  C.  S. 
(Lond),  and  Lt.  Col.  K.  P.  Gupta  M.  A.,  M.  D.,  I.  ^l.  S., 
Professor  Janakinath  Bhattacharya  M.A.  B?L.,  P.R.S. 
for  having  kindly  examined  the  different  portions 
of  the    manuscript.     I  am  grateful  to  Dr.  Surendranath 

<■    IV 


f  # 

(josvaini   B^A.,  L.  M.  S.    teo,  for   the  kind  interest    he 
has  all 'along  taken  in  the  publicittion   of  this    work  and 
/>i"or   various    intelhgent  suggestions,  which  haxc  been  of 
consfderable  help  to  me. 

My  thanks  are  also  due  to  numerous  learned  authors, 
ancient  and  modern 'from  whose  writings,  I  ha\e  found 
it  necessary  to  make  frequent  quotcition^. 

10,  Kashi  Ghose's  Laxe.    ]  KUNJA    LAL  BIIISHAGKATNA. 

i.-^t  TJeceiiiher,  igoy.  \ 

CALCUTTA.  J  Kaviraj. 



Sushruta  :— His    age    and    personality  :— A    few 

preliminary  observations  regarding  the  technique  of  the 
Ayurvedic  system  of  medicine  are  necessary  at  the 
outset  to  correctly  understand  thp  aim  and  scope  of  the 
Sushruta  Samhita.  Who  was  Sushruta  ?  When  and 
where  did  he  live  and  flourish  ?  These  are  questions 
that  would  naturally  suggest  themselves  to  the  readers  of 
the  following  pages  ;  but  the}^  can  only  be  imperfectly 
answered  like  all  similar  questions  respecting  the  lives 
of  our  ancient  worthies.  In  a  country  like  India 
where  life  itself  was  simply  regarded  as  an  illusion,  the 
lives  of  kings  or  commoners  were  deemed  matters  of  little 
moment  to  the  vital  economy  of  the  race  ;  and  all  histories 
and  biographies  were  looked  upon  as  the  embodiment 
of  thLe  flimsy  vanities  of  life.  Lives  of  saints  and  canonised 
kings  had  been  made  use  of  in  certain  instances  as  themes 
of  national  epics.  But  they  were  intended  more  to  elucidate 
or  enunciate  the  doctrines  of  certain  schools  of  Ethics  or 
Metaphysics  than  to  record  any  historical  fact  or  event. 
Authentic  history  we  have  none  beyond  chronicles  of  state 
events  and  royal  names  in  some  instances  ;  and  those  which 
are  usually  found  in  the  Sanskrit  Puranas  are  strange  com- 
binations of  myths  and  legends,  which  often  contradict 
each  other.  Hence  the  utter  futility  of  attempts  to  explain 
a  historical  fact  by  the  light  of  a  votive  npdal  or  tablet 
unearthed  perhaps  frorri  the  ruins  of  one  of  sur  ancient 
cities.  Such  an  endeavour  serves,  in  most  cases,  only  to 
make  the  "  darkness  visible,  "  •  and  the  confusion  more 

ii  'iNTROniTCTIOX. 

Identity  of  Sushruta  and  Divodasa  :— It  is  only  safe 
to  assert  that  Sushruta  was  of  tl>e  raceof  Vishvamitra.  The 
Mahabharatam  f  i)  represents  him  as  a  son  of  that  roval  sage. 
This  coincides  with  the  description  given  of  him  in  the  present 
recension  of  the  Samhita.  The  Garuda  Puranam  (2)  places 
Divodasa  as  fourth  in  descent  from  Dhanvantari,  the  first 
propounder  of  medical  science  on  earti},  whereas  the 
Sushruta  Samhita  describes  the  two  as  identical  persons.  But 
this  apparent  anomaly  in  the  Samhita  can  be  accounted 
for,  if  we  consider  that  in  some  parts  of  India  the  custom 
still  prevails  of  appending,  for  the  purposes  of  better  identi- 
fication, the  name  of  one's  father,  or  of  a  glorious  ancestor 
to  one's  name,  and  it  is  therefore  not  surprising  that 
Divodasa  (the  preceptor  of  Sushruta),  who  was  a  firm 
believer  in  the  doctrine  of  psychic  transmigration,  should 
represent  himself  as  an  incarnation  of  Dhanvantari,  and 
a=.sume  his  name  and  style  in  the  usual  wav.  Revond  this 
meagre  genealogy  we  possess  no  trustworthy  information 
regarding  the  life  and  personalitv  of  Sushruta,  the  father  of 
Indian  Surgery. 

Age  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita:— We  have  no  means  of 
ascertaining  what  the  Samhita  was  like  as  originally  written 
hv  Sushruta,  the    present  being  only  a  recension, or  rather  a 

Mahahhiralam — Anushasan  Parva,  Ch.  W 

(2}    f^-^rf*T^TC^T<T  Tnf^E^T^?i:  %<^v.  1 

^T5?I^T3I»??T'Pr*T^r:  f^Tr??T^»^^3:  II 

Garuda  PuranAm,  Chap.  139,  \'s.  8- 11, 



recension  of  recensions,  made  oy  N^garjuna  (i)?  All  opinions 
concur  in  identifying  hifn  ^with  the  celebrated  founder  of 
the  Madhyamika  school  of  Buddhistic  philosophy — a  fac| 
which  materially  assists  us  in  fixing  the  age  of  the  present 
Samhita.  A  few  quotations  from  the  Vriddha  (old)  Sushruta 
are  all  that  are  preserved  of  the  oViginal  Sainhitu.  But 
their  genuineness  is  ot  a  problematic  character,  and  we  are 
not  sure  whether  the}-  are  the  productions  of  lesser  lights, 
or  of  ancient  though  less  renowned  commentators,  attri- 
buted to  the  master  to  invest  thciU  with  a  greater  sanctity 
;ind  authority— a  practice  which  was  quite  common 
amongst  the  bibliographers  of  Ancient  India. 

Date  of  Nagarjuna  :— At  all  events  Nagarjuna  who 
redacted  the  Sushruta  Samhita  lived  about  the  latter  part  of 
the  fourth    century    before    the__Chris£ian   era  ;(2)  and    the 

Dallanas  Commentary,  Sulrasth^nam,  Ch.  I.  i. 

Dallana  mentions  the  names  of  Jejjada,  Gayadasa  etc.,  as  the  redactors 
of  the  original  Samhita,  and  rejects  as  spurious  or  of  questionable  authority 
the  texts  which  cannot  be  found  in  their  editions  of  the  work.  Must 
probably  the  authoritative  verses  are  quotations  from  the  Vriddha  Sushruta. 

Recension  or  Pratisamsk^ra  consists  in  curtaiUng  statements  that  have 
been  made  inordinately  elaborate,  and  in  dilating  upon  truths  lliat  have 
been  very  succinctly  dealt  with  in  the  original  book.  A  Redactor  or 
Pralisamaskarta   makes  an  old  book  new  again. 

A  Samhita,  on  the  other  hand,   deals  with  aphorisms    coniained    in    the 

Vedas.  ^ 

t^T^f^lfST?!  #f%m'TTT:  H^lf^cTT:  I 

(2)      rT^T   VUT^Jf!:  SIT^nFff^  qif*!/^:  ! 

Rijatarangini  I.  Taranga.  Vs.  172-173. 

IV  wtroAj 


original  or  V^rtddha  Sus|jruta  'must  have  been  wriUen  at 
least  two  centuries  earlier  in  order 'to  acquire  that  hoary 
aythority  and  prescription  of  age,*  which  alone  could 
have  given  its  right  to  a  recension  at  the  time.  Several 
scholars  on  the  authority  of  a  very  vague  and  general 
statement  concerning*  the  recension  of  the  Samhita 
in  Dallana's  commentary,  ascribe  th'e  authorship  of  the 
Uttaratantram  (latter  portion  of  '.the  Sushruta  Samhita)  to 
Nagarjuna.  We,  on  the  other  hand,  hold  the  Uttaratantram 
to   be   neither   an    interpolation,  nor  a  subsequent  addition, 

•  but  that  it  forms  an  integral  portion  of  the  book  as  it  was 
originally  written,  though  not  planned  by  the  Rishi. 
In  the  first  Chapter  of  Sutrasthanani  Divodasa  formally 
divides  the  Science  of  Ayurveda  into  eight  subdivisions, 
such  as,  the  Shalya  (surgery),  Sh^iakya  (portion  treating  of 
diseases  restricted  to  super-clavicular  regions  such  as  the 
eyes,  etc.),  Kaya-Chikitsa  (general  diseases  such  as,  fever, 
etc.),  but  does  not  speak  anything  about  them  in  the  first  five 
Sthcinas  or  subdivisions  of  the  book.  It  is  only  once  in 
the  25th  chapter  of  the  Sutrasthanani  that  he  mentions 
the  name  of  Netravartma  (diseases  of  the  eyelids)  in  con- 
nection with  the  classification  of  surgical  operations.  It  is 
inxpossible  that  Divodasa  would  fall  short  of  his  duties 
by  omitting  to  give  instructions  on  all  the  subdivisions  of 
the  Ayurveda  as  he  promises  at  the  outset,  or  that  Sushruta 
would  leave  his  Samhita,  which  is  pre-eminently  a  work 
on   surgery,    incomplete    by  banishiiTg_^ophthalmic  ^surgery, 

\  laryngotomy  or  fever-therapeutics  from  his  work.  From 
I  the  general  plan  of  the  book  we  can  safely  assert  that 
Sushruta  dealt  with  easier  or  more  elementary  topics  in 
the  first  five  subdivisions  of  his  Samhita  in  the  manner  of 
our  modern  progressive  readers,  reserving  the  discussion 
of  those  re^uirmg  a  more  advanced  knowledge  and  skill 
for  the  Uttaratantram.  The  Uttara*^^antram  has  not  been 
incluued  within  the  five  original  subdivisions  of  the  Samhita 
inasmuch    as   it  embraces   and    more   elaborately    discusses 



lupics  which  legitimately  beloi^g  to,  ^or  are  but»incidentairy 
mentioned  in  those  subdivisions.  Hence  it  is  more  ot 
the  nature  of  an  appendix  or  supplement,  arising  out  of  the^ 
exigencies  of  the  original  subdivisions.  It  is  probable  that 
Nagarjuna  might  have  redacted  this  part  of  the  Samhita 
in  common  with  its  other  portions. (i} 

Western  opipions*  on  the  subject :— The  consensus 
of  western  opinions  is  to  place  Nagarjuna  in  the  first 
quarter  of  the  third  Century  B.  C.  (2),  and  for  fixing 
Sushruta  as  a  contemporary  of  Sakya  Sinha  Buddha.  It 
i^  contended  that  the  age  immediately  preceding  Sakya 
Muni  was  a  period  of  decadence  in  Hindu  thought  ;  and 
the  Sushruta  Samhita  must  have  been  the  fruit  of  a  revived 
intellectual  activity  which  usually  follows  the  advent  of  a 
new  creed^an  assumption  which  is  in  favour  of  the 
hypothesis  of  Greek  influence  on  the  Hindu  system  of 
medicine.  But  great  men  there  had  been  in  India  before 
Buddha.  The  age  which  immediately  preceded  the  age 
of  Buddha  was  by  no  means  an  age  of  decadence  properly 
speaking,  the  age  which  followed  the  downfall  of  Buddliisin 
shows,  on  the  contrar}',  signs  of  true  decadence.  India  had 
had  eminent  philosophers  and  scientists  almost  contempo- 
raneously with  the  great  Buddha.  The  chronological  facts 
collected  above  from  the  Mahabharatam,  and  the  Garuda 
Puranam  could  have  been  construed  to  prove  that  the 
age  of  Sushruta  was  prior  to  that  of  the  Mahabharatam 
but  for  the  internal  evidence  furnished  by  the  Samhitn 
itself  as  to  the  probable  date  of  its  composition  which  we 
shall  have  occasion  to  deal  with  later  on.  ♦> 

Extraneous  Evidence  :— Sushruta  is  mentioned  in    the 

(i)     MaMmahopadhyaya    Kaviraj  Dvaiaka  N^lh  .^en     Kaviialna      of 
Calcutta  subscribes  to  this  opinion  — Tr.  ■, 

(2)  Bael's  Buddhistic  Records  of  the  Western  World.    \'ol.  II.   P.  212. 
Stein's  Rdjatarant^uai.  > 

(3)  Lalita-Vistarain — Raja  R.  L.  Mitter's  Edition,  Chaptef  I. 

VI  *  INTRODUCTION.       ^- 

V^rtikas    oP'(i)  Katyayana   ^4    Century  B.  C.)  and  we  have 

no    hesitation   in   saying   thatP'^Iie*  original    Sarnhita     was 

^vritten    at    least    two  centuries  before  the  birth  of  Buddha. 

We   are    equally   ready   to   admit,    on  the  other  hand,  that 

the  tinal  recension  of  the  Sarnhita  by  Nagarjuna,  at  least  the 

form    in    which    we    have    it,    was    made   about  the  second 

Century  B.  C.  '         ^ 

Two  Nagarjunas  :— Several  scholars,  on  the  authority 
of  Dallana  (the  celebrated  commentator  of  the  Sushruta 
Samhita)  endeavour  to  establish  the  identity  of  Nagarjuna 
(the  redactor  of  this  Samhita)  with  his  namesake,  the 
celebrated  alchemist  of  the  tenth  Century  (2).  But  their 
contentions  fall  to  the  ground  when  we  know  that  many 
verses  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita  occur  in  the  works  of 
Bagbhat  (Ashtangahridayam)  and  Madhava  (Nidanam), 
which  are  two  of  the  works  which  were  translated  by  the 
order  of  the  Kaliph  (3)  in  the  eighth  century.  The  internal 
evidences  of  the  book  do  not  supply  us  with  any  authentic 
material  to  compose  anything  like  a  biography  of  this 
father  of  Hindu  Surgery.  • 

Internal  Evidence  :— The  line  in  the  Samhita,  which 
has  formed  the  veritable  bone  of  contention  amongst 
scholars  of  all  shades  of  opinion  as  throwing  a  light  upon 
the  probable  date  of  its  composition,  occurs  ni  the  Sharira — 
Sthanam,  in  connection  with  the  development  of  the  foetal 
body  and  reads  as  "Subhuti  Gautama  said  that  it  is  the 
trunk  that  tirst  developed." 

Conflicting  testimonies  and  the  uncertain  indication 
of  materiaSs  at  our  disposal  :  — It    is  a    matter  of  historic 

(l)    f^^ffll^^^tf" 

K;5 lyayana'si  V^rlikas  lo  Panini's  Grammar. 

"'   Chakra  Dutta — Rash^yandhikara. 
(3)      P.  C.  Roy— Hindu  Chcmislry  p.  X\'1II.  (1902), 



certainty  that  Subhuti  was  o^e  of, the  personal  disciples 
of  Sakya  Sinha  Buddha,  and  that  it  was  customary 
amongst  the  contemporaVy  Buddliists  to  append  the  appela- , 
tion  of  their  (i)  lord  fGautama  or  Rodhisattva)  to  the  "name 
of  a  proselyte  to  accentuate  his  wisdom  and  sanctity  in  the 
world.  A  certain  section  of  scholars  is'never  tired  of  setting 
up  this  line  as  a  conclusive  evidence  of  the  fact  that  the 
Samhita  was,  at  best,  a  contemporary  production  of  early 
Buddhism.  But  they  shut  their  eyes  to  opinions  of 
Shaunaka  and  others  on  the  subject  quoted  exactl)'  in  the 
same  portion  of  the  book,  which  places  the  date  of  its 
composition  at  least  several  centuries  earlier.  Shaunaka, 
who  was  the  si.vth  in  remove  from  the  immortal  Vyasa  in 
direct  line  of  discipleship,  was  the  author  of  the  renowned 
Shaunaka  Samhita  of  the  Atharvan.  These  facts  lend  a 
very  plausible  colour  to  our  hypothesis  that  the  original 
Sushruta  Samhita  which,  was  first  composed  perhaps  con- 
temporaneously with  the  latter  portions  of  the  Atharvan, 
naturally  discussed  the  opinions  of  Shaunaka  and  other 
Vedic  embryologists,  while  Nagarjuna,  at  the  time  of 
redacting  that  book,  quoted  the  opinion  of  his  contemporar}' 
Subhuti  for  the  purpose  of  giving  him  an  equal  status  with 
the  Vedic  Rishis,  if  for  nothing  else. 

Greek  Influence  : — As  regards  Hellenic  influence  on  the 
Hindu  system  of  medicine  and  on  the  Sushruta  Samhita  in 
special,  we  must  disabuse  our  mind  of  all  sentiments  of 
racial  vanity  and  proceed  to  investigate  the  case  in  a 
scientific  and  unprejudiced  spirit  before  giving  a  more 
detailed  account  of  the  contents  of  the  SushrutaiSamhita. 

(i)  Nagarjuna  Bodhisattva  was  well  practised  in  the  art  of  compound- 
ing medicine.  N^gSrjuna  Bodhisattva  by  moistening  all  the  great  stones 
with  a  divine  and  superior  decoction  changed  them  into  gold.  — Bael's 
Buddhistic  Records  of  the  western  world  Vol.  II. 

AnuvSk  19,  45.  46.  5. 


Su^hrufa  and  Hippocrates  -.—From  the  very  apparent 
similarity  which  exists  between  jhe  contents  of  this  Samhita 
•and  tjie  aphorisms  of  Hippocrates,  many  western  scholars 
are  apt  ,to  conclude  too  hastily  that  the  ancient  Indians 
drew  their  inspiration  in  the  healing  art  from  the  medical 
works  of  the  Greeks.  But  the  reverse  may  be  said  of 
the  Greeks  as  well  with  the  greater  confidence  because  such 
an  assertion  is  supported  by  historic  facts,  and  confirmed  by 
the  researches  of  the  scholars  of  the  west  (i).  According 
to  all  accounts  Pythagoras  was  the  founder  of  the  healing 
art  amongst  the  Greeks  and  the  Hellenic  peoples  in  general 
(2).  This  great  philosopher  imbibed  his  mysteries  and 
metaphysics  from  the  Brahmanas  of  India.  Mr.  Pocock 
in  his  Jnt^ia  in  Greece  identifies  him  with  Buddhagurus  or 
Buddha,  and  it  is  but  an  easy  inference  to  suppose  that 
he  carried  many  recipes  and  aphorisms  of  his  master's 
Ayurveda  with  him.  The  sacred  bean  of  Pythagoras  is 
thought  to  have  been  the  (3)  Indian  Nelumbium  (Utpalam). 
We  know  thai  simnllaneously  with  the  birth  of  Buddhism, 
Buddhist  Sramanas  were  sent  out  to  Greece,  Asia  minor. 
Egypt  and  ether  distant  countries  to  preach  their  new 
religion.  They  were  known  to  the  Greeks  and 
there  is  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  Greek  Simnoi 
(venerable)  were  no  other  than  the  Buddhist  Sramanas  (4). 
Now  a  missionary  usually  teaches  the  sciences  of  his 
country  in  addition  to  the  preaching  of  his  gospel.  The 
distant  mission  stations  or  monasteries    of    Buddhism   were 

(1)  There*1s  no  ground  whatever  to  suppose  that  Sushruta  borrowed 
his  system  of  medicine  from  the  Greeks.  On  the  contrary,  there  is  much 
to  tell  against  such  an  idea— Weber's  History  of  Indian  Literature. 

(2)  The  Origin  and  Growth  of  the  Healing  Art — Bedroe  P.  162. 

(3)  Pratt's  FloNiering  Plants.  Vol.  I    P.  57. 

(4)  These  *Simoi  (venerable)  whom  Clemeni  of  Alexandria  has 
narraleil  to  have  rendered  worship  to  a  pjTamid  originally  dedicated  to 
tiie  relics  of  a  god,  were  the  Buddhi!»t  Arhals  (venerables)  Sramanas. 

Lalita-Vistaram— T\:iia    R^jendra  I.ala  Milter's  Edition.  Ch.  I. 


the  principal  centres  for  disseaiinating  Brahm^»nic  culture 
in  distant  lands,  and  Hippocrates,  though  he  did  his'  utmost 
to  liberate  medical  sciertce  iVom  the  thraldom  of  speculative 
philosophy,  yet  might  have  thought  it  necessary  tG>tetain 
only  those  truths  of  the  Ayurveda  which  Pythagoras  and 
the  Buddhistic  brotherhood  might  have  imported  into  his 
country,  and  which  do  not  exactly  appertain  to  the  domain 
of  pure  metaphysics.  Of  course,  it  is  quite  possible  for  men 
of  different  nationalities  to  arrive  at  the  same  truth  cr 
conclusion  independently.  There  are  coincidences  i'l  science 
as  in  art  and  philosophy,  (i)  Gravitation  and  circulation 
of  blood  (2)  were  known  ta  tfite  Indians  long  before 
the  births  of  Newton  and  Harvey  in  Europe.  The  cele- 
brated atomic  theory  was  preached  in  the  Gangetic  valley 
some  five  hundred  years  before  the  birth  of  Christ  (3). 
But  well  may  we  ask  those,  who  still  adhere  to  this  Hellenic 
hobby,  to  look  at  the  reverse  side  of  the  picture  as  well. 
It  may  be  stated  without  the  least  fear  of  contradiction 
that  the  Charaka  and  Sushruta,  through  the  Channel  of 
Arabic,     Persian     and      Latin    translations   still   form    the 

Siddhanla  Shiromani  (Bhaskaracharyaya)  GolodhyAya. 

iT^^TR  ^R  ^fq  II    ???Tg  lifqcT'  ^^  %-^^  ^^^i  t%Tr:,  cI^t^  f^q^r 

^JTT  T\\^^  T.w^^m:  I     VTT^fl^TaiiT  |     (BhavaprakasUa). 

The  Hdrita  Samhitd,  which  according  to  certain  scholars,  is  older  than 
the  Sushruta  SamhitS,  refers  to  the  circulation  of  blood  in  describing 
I'induroga  (Anemia).  The  disease,  he  observes,  is  caused  by  eating  clay 
which  thus  blocks  the  lumen  of  veins  and  obstructs  the  circulation  of  blood, 
Bhcivamisra,  the  celebrated  author  of  Bh^vaprakdsham,  and  who  is  a 
century  older  than  Harvey,  has  the  above  couplets  bearing  on  the  sufcject. 

(3)     Vaiseshika  Darshana  by  Kandda. 

X  Introduction. 


basis  of  all  sj-stems  of  s^ienti^c  medicines  in  the  world  (i). 
Of  these,  the  Sushruta  Samhit^  is  the  most  representative 
;vork  of  the  Hindu  system  of  medicine.  It  embraces  all 
that  can  possibly  appertain  to  the  science  of  medicine  (2). 

Sushruta  prior  to  Charaka  :— The  general  consensus 
of  expert  opinion  is  to  place  Charaka  prior  to  Sushruta  in 
respect  of  time.  But  the  Puninas  unat^mously  describe 
Sushruta  as  a  disciple  of  Dhanvantari,  the  first-propounder 
of  medical  science.  The  long  compounds  (samasas)  used 
by  him,  the  prose  and  metrical  portions  of  the  Sushruta 
after  the  models  of  Jaimini,  Patanjali,  and  other  philosophi,r 
cal  writers  who  had  adopted  prose  or  metre  according  to 
the  e.xegetic  or  rationalistic  tenor  of  the  subjects  in  their 
works,  have  all  been  cited  to  prove  Sushruta  a  contemporary 
of  the  Darshanas,  or  of  Buddha.  But  these  may  serve,  at 
least,  to  fix  the  date  of  the  recension  by  Nagarjuna,  i.e.,  the 
Sushruta  Samhita  as  we  have  it,  but  can  never  help  to 
determine  the  chronology  of  Sushruta,  the  disciple  of  Dhan- 
vantari "who  was  churned  out  of  the  primordial  ocean  in 
the  golden  age    (Satya   Yuga)    (3).     On  the    other    hand,  if 

(l)   A,    "The  great  works  of  Charaka  and  Sushruta  were  translated  into 

Arabic,  under  the  patronage  of  Kaliph  Almansur,  in    the   seventh  century. 

The  Arabic  version  of  Sushruta  is  known  by  the  name  of  "  Kelale- 
Shawshoore-al-Hindi."  These  translations  in  their  turn  were  rendered  into 
Latin.  The  Latin  versions  formed  the  basis  of  European  medicine,  which 
remained  indebted  to  the  Eastern  science  of  medicine  down  to  the 
seventeenth  century."— History  of  the  Aryan  Medical  science  (Th^kore 
Saheb  of  Gondal)  P.  196. 

B,  For  tljc  indebtedness  of  Arabic  school  of  Medicine  to  the  works  of 
Indian  masters,  see  Puschmann  P.  162. 

C.  BednVe.  Book  IV.  Ch.  IL  286—299. 
(2)     Dr.  Wise  (Hindu  system  of  medicine). 

f^>?fT  ^?5^^'  ^'n?T^T  5B5f5TfT:  II 

Garuda  PurSnam.     Chip.  142,  Vs.  5-6. 

INTROniTC?ION.    ,  xi 

the  testimonies  of  the  Puninas -♦have  anj-  histor^6al  worth, 
we  ca!i  safely  place  him  somewhere  in  the  Satya  Yuga,  (age) 
at  least  in  those  dim  centuries  which  immediate})'  succeeded 
the  composition  of  the  Atharvan.  Charaka,  too.  in  coi^nec- 
tion  with  his  discourse  on  the  development  of  the  foetal  body 
has  cited  the  opinion  of  Dhanvantaii  (ij  on  the  subject 
(tiie  same  as  promulgated  in  the  Sushruta  S'amhita)  & 
referred  his  disciples  to  the  Dhanvantari  school  of  surgeons 
(meaning  Sushruta  and  his  school)  in  cases  where  surgical 
aid  and  knowledge  are  necessary  ;  this  proves  that  Sushruta 
was  before  Charaka. 

Sushruta  as  a  Surgeon : — Stishr'uta  was  emphatically  a 
'•'igeon,  and  the  Sushruta  Samhiti  is  the  only  complete 
'ok  we  have  which  deals  with  the  problems  of  practi- 
)cal  surgery  and  midwifer}'.  Almost  all  the  other  Samhitas 
written  by  Sushruta's  fellow  students  are  either  lost  to  us, 
lor  are  but  imperfectly  preserved.  To  Sushruta  may  be  attri- 
buted the  glory  of  elevating  the  art  of  handling  a  lancet 
or  forceps  to  the  status  of  a  practical  science,  and  it  maj' 
not  be  out  of  place  here  to  give  a  short  history  of  the 
Ayurveda  as  it  was  practised  and  understood  in  Pre-^uhsrutic 
times  if  only  to  accentuate  the  improvements  which  he 
introduced  in  every  branch  of  medical  science. 

Commentators  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita : — We  would 
be  guilty  of  ingratitude  if  we  closed  this  portion  of  our 
dissertation  without  expressing  a  deep  sense  of  our  obliga- 
tion to  Jejjada  Achiirya,  Gayadasa,  Bhaskara,  Madhava, 
Brahmadeva,  Dallana  and  Chakrapani  Datta,  the  celebrated 
commentators  and  scholiasts  of  the  Samhitd,  'ji'lio  have 
laboured  much  to  make  the  book    a   repository    of  priceless 

(i)    ^^i'f*T?fTiaTqKfH  ^^^f^:  I 

Charaka,  .Shariraslhiinam.  Chap.  \'. 

I^Tt  EfTcT^T^Tt  ssit^'^^'I^^  II    '  "> 

Charaka,  ChikitshSsth^nam.  Chap.  V. 


wisdom  ancf  experienge.     D'allana    has    made    use  of  all  the 
commentaries    in     revising     and     collating     the     texts     of 
.Sushruta  Samhita. 

Origin  and  History  of  the  A  yurveda :  —In  the  science 
of  medicine,  as  in  all  other  branches  of  study,  the  ancient 
Aryans  claim  to  have  derived  their  knowledge  from  the 
gods  through  direct  revelation.  Su*shruta  in  his  Samhita 
has  described  the  Ayurveda  as  a  subdivision  (Upanga)  of  the 
Atharvan  (i),  while  according  to  others  the  science  of  the 
Ayurveda  has  its  origin  in  the  verses  of  the  Rik  Samhita 
(2).  Indeed  the  origin  of  the  science  is  lost  in  dim  anti- 
quity. Death  and  disease  there  had  been  in  the  world  since 
the  advent  of  man  ;  it  was  by  following  the  examples  of 
lower  animals  in  disease,  that  our  primitive  ancestors 
acquired  by  chance  the  knowledge  about  the  properties  of 
many  valuable  medicinal  drugs.  There  is  a  verse  in  the 
Rigveda  which  shows  that  the  lower  animals  were  the 
preceptors  of  man  in  matters  of  selecting  food  stuffs  and 
medicinal  simples  (3K  Individual  experiences  in  the  realms 
of  cure  and  hygiene  were  collected,  and  codified,  and  thus 
formed  the  bases  of  the  present  Ayurveda.  The  verses  in 
the  Vedas  clearly  mark  each  step  in  the  progress  of  medical 
knowledge.  The  properties  of  a  new  drug  were  always 
hymned  in  a  Vedic  verse  with  a  regularity  which  enables  us 
to  put  our  finger  upon  the  very  time  when  a  particular 
drug  of  our  Materia  Medica  first  came  to  be  of  service  of 
man  (4). 

(i)     Sushruta  Samhita,  Sutrasthanam.   Ch.  I.  3. 

(2)  ^jrC^^T^^i?  ^qt?: 

Charana  ^^•uha  by  \^y5sa. 

(3)  jitfwT^*  ^w(f[  I     ^?^^  «i»  I  ^^  I  ^a. 

(4)  A.  ipc:  wii:  ^gfi'?Tt^5Tifn  It^r'^q^rd'T^  1 


Atharvan  SamhitS 
U.      Sec  also  Ibid  I    2    II.  4.  7.  9.  25,  27  and  36. 


Discrepancies  accounted'  for  : — Verses  q\i  medicine, 
hygiene,  and  surgery,  etc.  lie  scattered  throughout  the  four 
Vedas.  Those  having  bearing  on  Medicine  proper  occur 
most  in  the  Rigveda,  and  perhaps  it  was  for  this  reasoT^i  that 
Agnivesha,  who  was  a  physician,  has  ascribed  the^origin  of 
the  Ayurveda  to  revelations  in  the  Rik  Samhitd.  Precepts" 
relating  to  the  art  anu  practice  of  surgery  are  found  most  in 
the  Atharvan  (i),  which  amply  accounts  for  the  fact  of 
Sushruta's  opinion  of  holding  the  Ayurveda  as  a  subdivision 
of  the  Atharvan,  as  he  was  pre-eminentl}'  a  surgeon  himself. 
Different  kinds  of  physicians  :— Vedic  India,  like 
Ancient  Egypt,  recognised  the  principle  of  the  division  of 
labour  among  the  followers  of  the  healing  art.  There  were 
Shalya  Vaidyas  (surgeons),  Bhisaks  (physicians)  and  Bhisag- 
atharvans   (magic  doctors),    and    we  find  that  at  the  time  of 

{  the  Mahabharatam,  which  nearly  approaches  the  age  of  our 
author,  the  number  of  the  sects  had  increased  to  five  which 

J  were  named  as  Rogaharas  (physicians^  Shalyaharas  (sur- 
geons), Vishaharas  (poison  curers),  .  Krityaharas  (demon- 
doctors)  and  Bhisag-Atharvans  (2). 

In  the  Vedic  age  (before  the  age  of  Sushruta)  physicians 
had  to  go  out  into  the  open  streets,  calling  out  for  patients 
(3^  They  lived  in  houses  surrounded  by  gardens  of 
medicinal  herbs.  The  Rigveda  mentions  the  names  of  a 
thousand  and  one  medicinal  drugs  (4).  Verses  eulogising 
the  virtues  of  water  as  an  all-healer,  and  of  certain  trees  and 
herbs  as  purifiers  of  the  atmosphere  are  not  uncommon  in  the 
Vedas.  Indeed  the  rudiments  of  Embryology,  Midwifery, 
child    management    (pediatrics)  and  sanitation  were    foimu- 

(i)    ciwT?^Tre5nf^=^=^  '^]'^T\^  ?^Tf*ni5iTW^M  1 

Rik  Samhitfi  I  M.  1 16-16. 
(2)     MahAbhdratam.  Shantiparva.  Rajadharmanu^hashan  Parv5dhydya. 

(3)  ^cT'  f^^^^  I 

Rigveda.  IX  M»  112.  ■> 

(4)  sifT*  %  ^m^  fm^  ^^'^g^f^TT.    Rik. 


lated  in  thecage  of  the  Vedas  i^nd  Brahmanas,  and  we  shall 
present^'  see  how  from* these  scanty-  and  confused  materials 
Sushruta  created  a  science  and  a  Sanjhita  which  inv'ice  the 
ddmirs^.ion  of  the  world  even  after  thousands  of  years  of 
human  prc*gress. 

Origin  of  A'yurvedic  Surgery  :  — In  India,  as  in  all 
other  countries,  curative  spells  and  hewing  mantras  preceded 
medicine  (i)  ;  and  the  first  man  of  medicirte  in  India  was 
a  priest,  a  Bhisag  Atharvan,  who  held  a  superior  position  to 
a  surgeon  in  society.  The  first  Aryan  setLlements  in  the 
Punjab  were  often  assailed  by  the  dark  aborigines  of  the 
country,  and  in  the  wars  .that  ensued  surgeons  had  fre-' 
quently  to  attend  to  the  Aryaa  chiefs  and  soldiery.  So  in 
the  Rigveda  (2)  we  find  that  legs  were  amputated  and 
replaced  by  iron  substitutes,  injured  eyes  were  plucked  out, 
and  arrow  shafts  were  extracted  from  the  limbs  of  the 
Aryan  warriors.  Nay  we  have  reasons  to  believe  that 
many  difficult  surgical  operations  were  successfully  per- 
formed, thougli  some  of  them  sound  almost  incredible. 
But  although  the  aid  of  surgery  was  constantly  sought 
for,  surgeons  were  not  often  allowed  to  mix  in  the 
Brahmanic  society  of  Vedic  India.  This  is  hinted  at  by 
our  author  when  he  says  that  it  was  during  the  wars  be 
tween  the  gods  and  demons  that  the  Ashvins,  the  surgeons 
of  heaven,  did  not  become  entitled  to  any  sacrificial  oblation 
till  they  had  made  themselves  eligible  for  it  by  uniting  the 
head  of  the  god  of  sacrifice  to  his  decapitated  body.  The 
story  of  the  progress  of  Ayurvedic  surgery  is  long  and  inter- 
esting, but  it    must    suffice    here  to    mention  that  with    the 

(1)     Bedroe"s   Origin    of  the   Healing    Art,    and    Sir  John  Lubbock's 
Prehistoric  times, 

(2)     ^^  5igi^i^?5l  f^aj^i^^ait  V%  f|fIWfT%  flsi^"*f'  II 


•  «  »  *  » 

Rik  Samhita  I  A.  8  Ad.  186  S.  116.   5. 


' '  > ' 

return  of  peace,  the  small  Aiynn  settlements  grew  in  number 
and  prosperit}-.  And  the  rich  Ar3'an  nobles  now  travelled  in 
stately  carriages,  and  as  there  were  constant  accidents  ihere  ■ 
arose  a  class  of  surgeons  who  exclusively  devoted  tlfemselves 
to  the  treatment  of  injured  animals.  The  surgeons,  now  no 
longer  required  in  camps  and  on  battle  fields,  had  to  attend 
on  the  rich  ladies  at  baronial  castles  during  parturition,  the 
magic  doctor  (Bhisag  Atharvan)  who  could  assuage  fever  and 
concoct  lo\e  potions  (i)  being  held  as  the  greatest  of  them 
all.  But  the  Vedic  Aryans  had  a  regular  armoury  against  pain 
and  suffering,  which  is  in  no  way  inferior  to  our  present 
day  Materia  Medica.  But  of  that  we  shall  speak  later  on 
in  connection  with  the  therapeutics  of  Sushruta. 

The  scope  and  nature  of  Sushruta's  Surgery  :- So 

rnuch  for  the  history  of  Vedic    Surgery.     It    is    in    the    Su- 

(shruta  Samhita  that  we  first  come  across  a  systematic 
method  of  arranging  the  surgical  experiences  of  the  older 
surgeons,  and  of  collecting  the  scattered  facts  of  the  science 
^fom  the  vast  range  of  Vedic  literature.  Sushruta  had  no 
desire  of  abandoning  the  Vedas  in  the  darkness  and  pushing 
en  an  independent  voyage  of  discovery.  The  crude  methods 
and  the  still  cruder  implements  of  incision  such  as,  bits  of 
glass,  bamboo  skins  etc.,  laid  down  and  described  in  the 
Samhita,  may  bj  the  relics  of  a  primitive  instrumentalogy 
which  tiiund  favour  vviih  our  ancestors  long  before  the 
hymnisation  of  any  Rik  verse.  Practical  surgery  requires 
a  good  knowledge  of  practical  anatomy.  The  quartered 
animals  at  the  Vedic  sacriiices  afforded  excellent  materials 
for  the  framing  of  a  comparative  anatomy  (2)'.  Sushruta 
devoted    his    whole   life  to  the  pursuit  of  surgery  proper,  to 

Rik  Samhit5.  X  M.  145  S.  i. 
(2)     Vide  .^itareya  Br^hmana  I,  2.  II,  i±.  Ill,  37, 


which  he  b/'ought  a  niyid  stored  with  luminous  analogies 
from  the  lower  animals.  It  was  he  who  first  classified  all 
♦.surgical  operations  into  five  differe'nt  kinds,  and  grouped 
them  under  heads  such  as  Aharya  (extractions  of  solid 
bodies),  Bhedya  (excising),  Chhedya  (incising),  Eshya  (prob- 
ing), Lekhya  (scarifying),  Sivya  (suturing),  Vedhya  (punc- 
turing) and  Visravaniya  (evacuating  fluids).  The  surgery 
of  Sushruta  recognises  a  hundred  and  twenty-five  different 
instruments,  constructed  after  the  shape  of  beasts  and 
birds,  and  authorises  the  surgeon  to  devise  new  instruments 
according  to  the  exigencies  of  each  case.  The  qualifications 
and  equipments  of  a  surgeon  are  practically  the  sam*^  as 
are  recommended  at  the  present  time.  A  light  refresh- 
ment is  enjoined  to  be  given  to  the  patient  before  a  surgical 
operation,  while  abdominal  operations,  and  operations  m 
the  mouth  are  advised  to  be  performed  while  the  patient  is 
fasting.  Sushruta  enjoins  the  sick  room  to  be  fumigated 
with  the  vapours  of  white  mustard,  bdellium,  Nimva ' 
leaves,  and  resinous  gums  of  Shala  trees,  etc.,  which  fore- 
shadows the  antiseptic  ^bacilli)  theory  of  modern  times.  The 
number  of  surgical  implements  described  in  the  Samhita  is 
decidedly  small  in  comparison  with  the  almost  inexhaustible 
resources  of  western  surgery,  and  one  may  be  naturally  led 
to  suspect  the  au' henticity  of  the  glorious  achievements 
claimed  to  have  been  performed  by  the  surgeons  of  yore  ; 
but  then  their  kno  vledge  of  the  properties  and  virtues  of 
drugs  were  so  great  that  cases,  which  are  reckoned  as 
surgical  nowadays,  were  cured  with  the  help  of  medicines 
internally^pplied.  "Surgery,"  says  Tantram,  is  mutilation 
not  doctoring  (i).    It  should    only  be    employed    when    the 

(l)  Aif^s^qfq*  f^5n  tf^  si«3f^^  ifT<qi^T  I 

].\TKOI)lf?TIO.\,,  xvii 

alTected  vital  energy  is  not  strcnig  enough  to  al^lie  effect  the 
cure  that  the  surgeon  is  justified  to  handle  his  kniYe.  We 
find  in  the  Samhita  that  ophthalmic,  obstetric  and  other 
operations  were  performed  with  the  utmost  skill  and 
caution.  ' 

Plastic  and  Rhinoplastic  Operations  :-  Doctor 
Hirschberg  of  Berlin  ^ys — "the  whole  plastic  surgery  in 
Europe  took  a  new  flight  when  these  cunning  devices 
of  Indian  workmen  became  known  to  us."  The  transplan- 
ting of  sensible  skin-flaps  is  also  an  entirely.  Indian  method 
(Sushruta,  Sutrasthanam,  Ch.  XV'I).  It  is  Sushruta  who 
first  successfully  demonstrated  tlie  feasibility  of  mending  a 
dipt  earlobe  with  a  patch  of  sensible  skin-flap  scraped  from 
the  neck  or  the  adjoining  part. 

To  Sushruta  is  attributed  the  glory  of  discovering  the 
art  of  cataract-crouching  which  was  unknown  to  the  sur- 
'  geons  of  ancient  Greece  and  Egypt.  Limbs  were  amputated, 
abdominal  sections  were  performed,  fractures  were  set, 
dislocations,  hernia  and  ruptures  were  reduced,  hcemorrhoids 
rind  fistula  were  removed,  and  we  take  pride  in  saying  that 
the  methods  recommended  in  the  Sushruta  Samhita  some- 
times prove  more  successful  than  those  adopted  by  the 
surgeons  of  modern  Europe,  as  we  shall  have  occasion  to 
observe  later  on.  In  tho  case  where  the  intestines  are  injured, 
Sushruta  advises  that  "the  protruded  part  should  be  gently 
replaced  by  following  with  the  fingevP  A  surgeon  should 
enlarge    the    wound   in  it,  if  necessary,  by  means  of  a  knife. 

"m^^  ^ffT  fTf%T^^  fm^-^  f^^ftg^  II 

Mahanilatanlram,   Patola  X.  \'~..  72-74. 

B.  See  the  Article  on  "Ileredily  and  some  of  its  Surgical  Aspects," 
By  F.  C.  Til/ell,  m.  d.  The  ^fediL»al  Advance  Vd.  LXIV.  June  iqo6. 
Page  357. 



xviii  j\TkMfnnrT[o\, 

In  the  cas%  where  the  intestine  is  severed,  the  severed 
parts  s'hoLild  be  held  together  by  applying  living  black 
ants  to  •  their  ends.  Then  their  bodies  should  be  cut  off 
Teaviifg  only  the  heads  to  serve  the  same  purpose  which 
in  moderrt  improved  European  surgery  an  animal  tissue  like 
catgut  is  expected  to  4'ulfill.  After  this  the  intestine  should 
be  fairly  replaced  in  the  abdominal  Ct^-ity  and  the  external 
opening  stitched  and  properly  dressed.  We  abstain  here 
from  a  lengthy  description  of  the  different  methods  recom- 
mended by  the  Sushruta  in  cases  of  abdominal  and 
peritoneal  wounds.  We  only  ask  our  readers  to  compare 
this  Chapter  (II  Chikitsa^thaTiam)  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita 
with  the  Chapter  in  anv  work  on  European  chirurgery 
whicli  deals  with  the  same  subject.  Certain  medicinal 
plasters  were  used  to  be  applied  to  localise  the  shafts  of  arrows 
embedded  in  the  limbs  of  wounded  soldiers  and  their  exact 
locations  were  ascertained  from  the  inflammation  caused 
bv  the  application  of  such  a  plaster  with  a  precision  which 
would  be  sometimes  welcome  even  in  these  days  of  Rontgen 

Lithotomic  Operations  :  -In  these  cases,  elaborate 
instructions  have  been  given  for  making  the  perineal 
incision,  as  well  as  about  the  care  and  general  management 
of  the  patient  after  the  operation.  In  a  case  of  Shukra- 
shmari  (seminal  or  spermatic  concretion)  the  forma- 
tion and  existence  of  which  have  been  verv  recentlv 
discovered  bv  English  pathologists,  Sushruta  enjoins  that 
the  stone,  if  in  the  urethra,  should  be  removed  with  the 
help  of  Anyvdsanam  and  urethral  enematas,  failing  which 
the  penis  should  be  cut  open  and  the  concretion  extracted 
with  the  help  of  a  hook.  Kavinij  I'mesii  Chandra  (Jupla 
in  the  introduction  to  his  Vaidyaka  Shavda-Sindhu  remarks, 
that  he  and  !>,  Durgddasa  Gupta  M.  B.  translated  the 
Chapters  on  lithotomic  operations  and  instrumental  parturi- 
tion «f  the  Susbrufa  Samhita  for  the  perusal  of  Dr  Charles, 
the    then    Principal    of     the     Medical     College,     Calcutta. 


t  > 


''Dr.    Charles    highly    praised    the    pvocess    ot    clelivt^ry     in 
difficult  ca^es  and  even    coijfessed    I  hat    with    all    his   great 
experience    in    midwifery    and    surgery    he    never    hdi}  any 
idea    of   the    like    heing  found  in  all  the  medical  \\;orks  that 
came  under  his  observation." 

Amputation  : — Amputation^  were  freely  made  and 
medicated  wines,  were  given  to  the  patients  as  anccsthe- 
tics  (i).  These  conclusivelv  show  thai  the  surgery  of 
Sushruta  does  not  rest  content  with  the  mere  bursting  or 
opening  of  an  abscess,  and  the  healing  of  the  incidental 
wound,  but  lays  down  processes  for  major  operations  as  well. 
The  removal  of  the  cicatrix  until  it  becomes  of  the  same 
colour  with  the  surrounding  skin  and  the  growth  of  hair 
thereon  are  suggestions  which  we  find  nowhere  else. 

Ophthalmic  Surgery  : — Of  the  seventy  six  varieties  of 
ophthalmic  diseases.  Sushruta  holds  that  fifty-one  are  surgical 
OP*-"  Tra  Tantram  Ch.  Vlllu  The  mode  of  operation  which 
is  tV'  be  performed  in  each  case  has  been  elaborately  de- 
scribed in  the  Samhita,  and  does  not  unfavourably  compare 
in  most  instances  with  modern  methods  of  ophthalmic 
surgery.  Sushruta  was  aware  of  the  fact  that  the  angle  of 
veHection  is  equal  to  the  angle  of  incidence,  and  that  the 
same  ray  which  impinges  upon  the  retina  serves  the  double 
purpose  of  illumining  the  eye  and  the  external  world,  and 
is  in  itself  converted  into  the  sensation  of  light. 

Midwifery  : — It  is  in  the  region  of  practical    midwifery 

that  one  becomes  so  much  impressed  with  the  greatness    of 

Sushruta.  The  different  turning,  flexing,  gliding  movements, 

the  application  of  the  forceps  in  cases  of  difficult  la1:)our    and 

other    obstetric    operations    in\uiving    the    deslructioJi    and 

mutilation    of   the    child,    such    as    craniotomy,    were     iirsl 

systematically     described    in    the    Subhiuta     Sauihitd    lung 

before    fillets    and    forceps   were    dreamt    of  in  Europe,  and 

thousands  of  years  before  the  birth  uf  Christ.    Sushruta,  who 

<  } 

(i)      For  llie  use  of  .Sanmohinis   (an,Teslheiics)  for  surgical  purposes,   sec 

Hhoia  Prabandlia  \>v  I'.allAla  T'andil. 


advocates  Clesarean  se^nion  iri  hopeless  cases  of  obslruclion, 
lays  down  that  the  instrument  should  be  employed  only  in 
♦those  cases  where  the  proportion  between  the  child  and  the 
maternal  passage  is  so  defective  that  medicated  plasters, 
fumigations,  etc..  are  not  sufficient  to  effect  a  natural  delivery. 
His  directions  regarding  the  management  of  the  puerperal 
state,  lactation  and  management  of  the  chijd  and  the  choice 
of  a  wet-nurse  are  substantial!}- the  same  as  are  found  in 
modern  scientific  works  of  European  authors.  A  feeling  of 
pride  and  joy  moves  our  heart  when  we  contrast  these 
glorious  achievements  of  our  ancestors  with  the  meanness  of 
results  which  modern  Europe  has  gained  in  this  department 
of  midwifer}-.  In  those  old  days  perhaps  there  were  no 
hospitals  to  huddle  patients  together  in  the  same  room  and 
therebv  to  create  artificiallv  septicemic  poisons  which  are 
now  so  common  and  so  fatal  in  lying-in  rooms.  A  ne^-'^' 
built  Iving-in  room  in  an  open  space  abunduntly  suf^s-ea  J 
with  the  rays  of  the  sun  and  heat  of  the  burning  f^ie  for 
each  individual  case,  the  recommendation  of  a  fresh 
bamboo-chip  for  the  section  of  the  cord  are  suggestions 
the  value  of  which  the  west  has  yet  to  learn  from 
the  east. 

Dissection  :--Sushruta,  himself  a  practical  surgeon,  was 
the  first  to  advocate  dissection  of  dead  bodies  as  indispen- 
sable for  a  successful  student  of  Surgery.  The  Paritschittas  of 
ancient  Egypt  perhaps  learnt  their  art  from  the  Purusachettas 
(Dissector)  of  ancient  India.  With  a  candour  less  common 
among  western  scholars  Dr.  Wise  observes  that,  ''the 
Hindu  philosophers  undoubtedly  deserve  the  credit  of  having, 
though  opposed  bv  strong  preiudire,  entertained  sound  and 
philosophical  views  respecting  the  uses  of  the  dead  to  the 
living,  and  were  the  first  scientific  and  successful  cultivator? 
of  the  most  important  and  essential  of  all  the  departments  of 
medical  knowledge,  practical  anatomy".  A  bungling  burgeon 
is  a  public  danger  and  Sushiuta  savs  iliat,  "theorv  without 
practice  is  like  a  onc-wingetl  bird  that  is  incapable  of  flight". 



>  > 

Study  of  Practical  Surgery  :— To  give  effii-iency  in 
surgical  operations,  the  pupils  of  Dhan^antari(Sushruta  etc.) 
were  asked  to  try  their  knives  repeatedly  first  on  natural 
and  artificial  objects  resembling  the  diseased  parts  ofv>  the 
body  before  undertaking  an  actual  operation.  Incision,  for 
example,  was  practised  on  Pushpafala  /cucerbeta  maxima), 
Alavu  (Longenaris  Vulgaris)  or  Trapusha  (cucmis  pubescuas), 
evacuating  on  leatfier  bags  full  of  water  and  on  the  urinary 
bladders  of  dead  animals,  scarification  on  the  hides  of 
animals  on  which  the  hair  was  allowed  to  remain.  Venesec- 
tion was  practised  on  the  vessels  of  dead  animals  and  on  the 
stalks  of  the  water-lily  :  the  art  .of  stuffing  and  probing  on 
bamboo  reeds  etc.  :  extraction  of  solid  bodies  on  Panasa 
(Artocarpus  Integrifolia)  and  such  like  fruit,  scraping  on 
wax  spread  on  a  Shalmali  (Bombox  Malabaricum)  plank, 
and  suturing  on  pieces  of  cloth,  skin  or  hide.  Ligaturing 
and  bandaging  were  practised  on  dummies,  cauterisation 
(both  actual  and  potential  )  on  pieces  of  flesh,  and  cathe- 
terisation  on  unbaked  earthen  vessels  filled  with  water. 
It  is  almost  with  a  feeling  of  wonder  we  hear  him  talk  of 
extirpation  of  uterine  excrescences  and  discourse  on  the 
necessity  of  observing  caution  in  surgically  operating  upon 
uterine  tumours  (Raktarvudai.  These  facts  should  be 
borne  in  mind  as  thev  would  help  us  a  good  deal  in  account- 
ing for  the  numerous  anomalies  that  are  to  be  found  in 
the  anatomical  portions  of  the  Samhita. 

Study  of  Practical  Anatomy  :— We  have  stated  be- 
fore that  tb.e  quartered  sacrificial  animals  afforded 
excellent  materials  for  the  framing  of  comparative  anatomy. 
The  Aitareya  Brahmana  contains  special  injunction  for  the 
quartering  of  such  animals  (i)  and  we  are  told  that  the 
preceptors   availed    themselves   of  the  religious  meetings  to 

(i)  The  Ailaicya  Firaliniana  describes  a  )iaitirular  wav  of  tlividini; 
the  orgaas  and  viscera  of  the  sirriticjjil  animals  'wliich  was  kepi 'secret 
among  the  priesls.  Aitareya  Brahmana  VIII.    i. 



deinonslrjiLe  the  lessons  ou^  practical    anatomy.     We   come 

acrosj;  such  terms  as  the    heart,    stomach,    brain,    intestines, 

anus,  liver,  spleen,  uterus  etc',  iv  the  Rigveda,  and  the 
*'  Aitaj-e3'a  Brdhmana  (i).  There  is  an  entire  h\inn  (Rik) 
devoted*  to  the  subject  and  treatment  of  Phthisis  ( Knja 
Yakshma)  which  becomes  utterly  unintelligible  in  the 
absence  of  an  accurate  knowledge  about  the  structure  of 
lungs,  and  mechanism  of  the  human  heart.  The  Vtdic 
Arya  fully  understood  the  resultant  nature  of  the  human 
organism.  The  Rik  Mantra,  which  to  this  day  is  recited  on 
the  occasion  of  a  funeral  ceremony,  ampl}'  testifies  to  the  fact 
that  he  used  to  look  upon  his  mortal  frame  as  the  product 
of  the  combination  of  the  five  physical  elements  (2). 
He  understood  the  effects  of  different  drugs  upon  diges- 
tion and  the  office  which  the  tendons,  muscles,  flesh 
and  nerves,  etc.  respectively  serve  in  the  economy.  It  is 
in  the  Sushruta  Samhita  that  we  find  a  systematic  attempt 
at  arranging  together  the  facts  of  anatomical  observation. 
The  age  of  Sushruta,  the  Acharyic  age  of  the  Ayurveda, 
was  a  period  of  scientific  investigation.  The  sturd}-  Aryan 
colonists  exchanged  their  simple  mode  of  living  for  luxuiy 
and  ease.     The  number  of   general   diseases  was  great.      Jn 

( 1 )  A.     fT^T  ^^^  f ?gjnri:«3  f^fsffTTiRii 

Rik  Samhita  \'.    \'II,    I, -'3, 538. 

H.     \ide  also  .Ailareya  BrShmana  I  2.   II  12.  Ill  37. 

(2)  The  iialuie  of  the  huiiiaii  body  as  tile  resulting  efi'ect  of  tlie  C(im- 
hinatidii  dftlu'  live  elementals  havcheen  clearly  described  in  the  verse. 

^Tqt'TTiI^  qf?  era  n  f%rT?ft^y'l«I^  wfaf^VTTSlf  1»:  I 

*  Rik  Samhita  X  M.  16  S.  3. 

Which  l)eing  translated  reads  :—  Let  his  eye  go  t(j  the  sun,  let  his  breath- 
wind  nVx  with  the  wind'of  the  atmosphere,  and  to  the  sky.  earth  and  the 
cereals  the  parts  which  ha\e  spriint;  out  of  them.  Cvc. 

ixTR'onurTioN.     »  XX  111 

vain  did  the  holy  Narada  (i)  ^reacl]  the  gospd  of  plain 
living  and  high  thinking,  and  exhort  them,  like  Cato, 
to  return  to  their  simpl'e  mode  of  life.  The  long  peace 
brought  opulence  in  its  train  and  wealth  begot  indolence 
and  disease.  Men  like  Bharadvaja,  Angira,  Yamadagni, 
Atreya,  Gautama,  Agastya,  Vdmadeva',  Kapisthala,  Asa- 
marthya,  Bhargava,  Kusliika,  Kdpya,  Kashyapa,  Sharkara- 
ksha,  Shaunaka,  Manmathayani,  Agnivesha,  Charaka, 
Sushruta,  Narada,  Pulastya,  Asita,  Chyavana,  Paingi  and 
Dhaumya  etc.  began  to  write  Samhitas.  Each  hermitage  was 
a  College  of  Ayurveda,  and  the  empirical  method  of  investi- 
gation was  introduced  into  each  department  of  the  science 
of  cure. 

Anatomical  Anomalies  in  the  Samhita :— Having 
got  so  far  in  our  analysis,  before  passing  on  to  the  study  of 
the  Anatomical  portion  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita,  we  must 
try  to  account  for  the  many  anomalies  and  discrepancies 
that  have  crept  into  or  have  been  suffered  to  remain  in  the 
present  recension  of  the  book.  Take,  for  example,  the  line 
in  which  Dhanvantari  is  made  to  speak  of  three  hundred 
bones  in  the  human  organism.  It  is  impossible  that  the 
human  frame,  in  so  short  a  time,  has  got  rid  of  so  many  of 
of  its  skeletal  accessories  simply  through  disuse,  or  because 
of  their  becoming  superfluous  in  the  altered  condition  of  its 
environments.  More  absurd  is  it  to  think  that  Sushruta, 
who  discards  all  authority  except  the  testimony  of  positive 
knowledge,  would  write  a  thing  which  none  but  the  blind 
would  believe  in  a  dissecting  room.  The  spirit  of  the  a^re 
ill  which  he  flouri:>lied  piecliided  the  possibility  oT^  such  an 

Anomalies  accounted  for  :  -In  ancient  India,  subjects 
chosen  for  the  demonstration  of  practical  anatomy  were 
always  children  (2),  and  naturally  those  bones,  which  are 
(i)     Vide  Aitann'a  Br5hmana  VII.  13. 

(2)  The  injunction  of  ihe  Hindu  Sllasiras  is  ihat  '-corpse  of  persons 
more  than  2  years  old  should  he  burned."     Cremation  of  dead  bodies  bein" 

xxi\-  f       (\'^Roi)rc~Ti().\. 

fused  or''«'inaslon"iised  inlo'one  whole  durine:  adult  life,  have 
been'  separately  enumerated — a  circumstance  which  may, 
to  some  extent,  account  for  th'e  excess  in  the  number  of 
bon'es  described  in  this  Samhita  (i).  Likewise  the  theory  that 
Sushrula  might  have  included  the  teeth  and  the  cartilages 
within  the  list  of  s'iveletal  bones  comes  very  near  the  truth, 
but  It  does  not  reflect  the  whole  trtith  either.  The  fact  is 
that  the  orignial  Sushruta  Samhita  has  passed  through 
several  recensions  ;  and  we  have  reasons  to  believe  that  the 
present  one  by  Nagarjuna  is  neither  the  only  nor  the 
last  one  made.  The  redactors,  according  to  their  own  light, 
have  made  man\-  in'terpbLitions  in  the  text,  and  when 
Brahmanas,  thev  have  tried  to  come  to  a  sort  of  compromise 
at  points  of  disagieement  with  the  teachings  of  the  Vedas  12). 
Therefore  it  is  that  we  come  across  such  statements  in  the 
Samhita  as  ''there  are  360  bones  in  the  human  body,  ;-|0 
it  is  in  the  Vedas,  but  the  science  of  surgery  recognises  three 
hundred  skeletal  bones."  What  lends  a  greater  colour  to  the 
hypothesis  is  that  Sushruta,  who,  in  the  Chapter  on  Marma 
Shariram,  has  so  accurately  described  the  unions  of  bones 
and  ligaments,  anastomoses  of  nerves,  veins  and  arteries  etc., 

obligatory  on  Government,  ;is  well  as  on  private  individuals,  it  was  almost 
impossible  to  secure  a  full-grown  anatomical  subject  in  I'auranic  India, 
the  more  so  when  we  consider  that  the  Hindus  look  upon  the  non-crema- 
tion and  mutilation  oi  a  corpse  vvilii  a  peculiar  horror  as  it  prevents  the 
spirit  from  purging  off  its  uncleanness  in  the  funeral  fire,  and  bars  ilf 
access  to  a  higher  spiritual  life.  Naturally  in  later  and  more  cere- 
moniil  times  the  interred  corpses  of  infants,  less  than  2  \ears  old,  had 
to  be  unearthed  and  dissected  for  anatomical  purposes  ;  and  these  portions 
of  the  Sushruta  SamliitS  might  have  been  modified  by  the  subsequent 
commentators  in  order  to  conform  them  to  occular  proofs.— T.  R. 

(i)  See  Tiray's  Anatomy  {1897)  p.  2S8  and  301  Figs.  248  and  262. 

(2)    "'?f^T*fgtw;  vi?i':  ^^rfij^:  ^T^?nf"  1" 

\ishnu  Smriti.      Ch,  96.  55. 
(,'haraka.  Shfiriraslli^nani. 


must  have  described  their  courszs  and  locations,  a,L?  otherwise 
it  would  have  been  quite  impossible  for  practical  suigeons, 
for  whom  it  was  intended,  to  conform  to  the  directions  of  the 
Samhita  in  surgically  operating  on  their  patients'  limbs^,  and 
to  avoid  those  vulnerable  unions  or  anastomoses  as"'enjo'ned 
therein.  These  Marmas  have  been  'divided  into  three 
classes  such  as,  the  Sadya-prana-hara  :  Kala-pnina-hara, 
and  Vaikalya-kara,  according  as  an  injur}'  to  any  of  them 
proves  instantaneously  fatal,  or  fatal  in  course  of  time,  or 
is  followed  b}-^  a  maimed  condition  of  the  limb  concerned. 
The  fact  is  that  the  study  of  practical  Anatomy  was  in  a 
manner  forbidden  in  the  reig>n  of  Ashoka  Pij-adarshi 
inasmuch  as  ail  religious  sacrifices  were  prohibited  by  a 
royal  edict  (i),  and  the  subsequent  commentators  (who 
were  also  redactors  on  a  small  scale)  of  the  Sushruta 
■jSamhita,  in  the  absence  of  any  positive  knowledge  on  the 
subject,  had  to  grope  their  way  out  in  darkness  as  best 
they  could  ;  hence,  this  wanton  mutilation  of  texts  and 
hopeless  confusion  of  verses  in  the  Sharira  Sthanam  of  the 
present  day  Sushruta  Samhita,  which  should  be  re-arranged 
and  restored  to  their  proper  chapters  before  any  definite 
opinion  can  be  pronounced  on  the  anatomical  knowledge 
of  the  holy  Sushruta. 

Sushruta  as  a  Biologist  •.  —  h^  the  tirst  chapter 
of  his  Sh.irira  Sthanani,  Sushruta  discusses  the  question. 
what  is  man,  wherein  lies  his  individualit v,  why  does 
he  come  into  being,  why  does  he  die  at  all  ?  Like 
all  Indian  philosophers,  Sushruta  argues  the  question 
down  from  the  universe  to  man.  The  factors  or  laws, 
that  govern  the  evolution  of  the  universe  in  its  phy- 
sical aspect,  are  extended  to  cover  the  evolution  of  the 
physical  aspect  of  man  (organic  evolution).  There  is  but 
one  law  and  one  force  which  run  through -the  three  plains 
of  mind,  matter  and  spirit.     Physiology,  that    fails  to    loc^k 

(l)      fournal  of  ihe  .\siiiUc  Society  i.f  CulciUla  \'n\.  \'U.      P.  26f. 



into  the  iKiLure  of  life  and  iU  background  and  tries  to  ex- 
plain  t-.iway  thib  intelligent,  living  force  as  the  product  of 
chemiQal  action  of  the  organ'ic  cells,  is  no  Physiology  at 
all.  '.Cell  is  not  life,  but  there  is  life  in  a  cell.  Cells  may  be 
called  the  true  bearers  of  li-fe.  Dr.  Weismann  insists  that  it 
is  more  correct  to  sppak  of  the  continuity  of  the  general 
protoplasm  than  of  "the  germ  ceils."  Professors  Geddes 
and  Thomson  observe  that,  "the  bodies  are  but  the  torches 
which  burn  out,  while  the  living  flame  has  passed  through- 
out the  organic  series  unextinguished.  The  bodies  are  the 
leaves  which  fall  in  dying  from  the  continuously  growing 
branch.  Thus  although  deafh  take  inexorable  grasp  of  the 
individual,  the  continuance  of  the  life  is  still  in  a  deep  sense 
unaffected  ;  the  reproductive  elements  (cells)  have  already 
claimed  their  protozoan  immortality,  are  already  recreating 
a  new  body.'"  But  to  invest  these  reproductive  cells  with 
immortality,  and  to  deny  the  same  to  the  individual  self, 
which  directs  and  controls  these  protoplasms,  and  is  before 
and  behind  them,  is  like  the  statement  of  Prof.  Huxlev 
when  he  admits  the  chance  of  the  physical  transmigration 
of  the  organic  constituents  of  the  human  body,  and  yet 
denies  the  possibility  of  an  individual  self  continuing  in  any 
other  form.  "It  is  sensibility,"  observes  Sushruta,  "that 
precedes  the  senses  ;  and  self,  the  sensibility  proceeds  from 
the  self  to  which  all  such  conditions  are  referred  as  mine." 

Sushruta's  Theory  of  Cosmogony  is  based  on  the 

old  S;inkhya  Duality  of  Prakriti  (Objective)  and  Purusha 
(Subjective).  The  two  are  coeval  and  co-extensive  realities. 
Out  of  the  Avyakta  (unmanifest)  or  Prakriti  has  evolved 
the  Mahai,  the  (inimatcd  cosmic  matter.  Out  of  this 
cosmic  matter  has  evolved  Ahamk;ira  (the  sense  of  indivi- 
dualit\-  or  more  correctly  egoism)  which  is  divided 
into  thrt-e  kinjs  such  as  the  Vaikarika  (phenomenal, 
ihought-fornii,  Taijasa  (kinetic),  and  Bhut;idi  (pertaining 
In  il^e  first  form  of  matter).  This  \'"aik;irika  Ahamkara 
in   combination   with  the    Taijasa    Ahamkara    has    fathered 

iNTRonurfioN.    >  xxvii 


the  eleven  sense  organs,  whith.  in  combinatiqii  with  the 
Bnutadi,  have  produced  the  five  Tanmatras  or  {iroper 
sensibles  of  touch,  sight,  ^  hearing,  etc.  The  material 
principles  of  sound,  light,  taste,  smell,  etc.,  are  biJ't  the 
modifications  of  these  five  Tanmatras,  of  which'*  Akisha 
(ethereon),  Vayu  (ether),  light,  and  soui-^d,  etc.  are  the  grosser 
forms.  In  other  wordfl,  these  Tanmatras  may  he  defined 
as  the  atomic  essences  of  the  material  principles  of  sound, 
light,  ether,  etc.  In  addition  to  these,  Sushruta,  Hke 
Kapila,  admits  the  existence  of  a  kind  of  atom-like  units 
of  consciousness,  which  he  calls  Purusha.  The  combination 
of'  the  sixteen  aforesaid  categories  and  the  Purusha  is 
for  the  expansion  and  liberation  of  the  latter.  A  human 
being  (individual),  who  is  the  fit  subject  for  medical 
treatment,  is  the  product  of  the  combination  of  Purusha 
with  the  five  primordial  material  principles  (iMahabhutas). 
The  Purushas,  real  selves  of  beings,  the  sources  of 
their  vital  energy,  and  the  controllers  and  directors  of 
all  organic  or  mental  actions,  are  extremely  subtile  in  their 
essence,  and  manifest  themselves  onlv  through  the 
combination  of  the  seed  (paternal  element)  or  ovum 
(maternal  element).  It  is  the  Karma  (dynamics  of  acts 
done  by  a  person  in  a  prior  existence)  which  deterinines 
the  nature  of  the  body  it  will  be  clothed  with,  as 
wcii  cts  che  nat'Te  of  the  womb  it  shall  be  conceived  in, 
in  its  next  incarnation. 

Nature  of  Self  :  —  v^; elf  is  a  simple  substance,  and,  as 
such,  is  immaterial.  Force  is  substance  and  substance,  is 
force.  It  is  endued  with  constructive  intelligepce,  and, 
like  gravitation  or  cohesion,  can  permeate  a  material  body, 
without,  in  any  way,  disturbing  h.  It  is  adaptative  or 
elective,  or,  in  other  words,  elects  that  kind  of  selves  for 
its  parents  as  are  best  suited  to  the  purposes*  of  its  being. 
Man  is  the  outcome  of  an  influx  of  a  se.f,  a  force,  a  dynamis 
with  its  path  determined  by  the  dynamics  of  the  d^jeds 
of  its   prior    existence.     To    think    that  vitality  starts  from 

xxviii  ,    iNTifoniTCTioN. 

protoplastfv  is  insanity.  Cimemically  examined  protoplasm 
is  but',  C,  O,  H,  N  anci  S.  But  no  amount  of  C,  O,  H,  N 
afid  S  put  together  will  constit<ite  life.  The  idea  that 
life 'iias  nothing  prior  to  it,  that  the  force  which  controls 
the  co-ordination  of  man's  economy  perished  with  the  death 
of  his  organism,  is'quite  puerile.  Life  is  expansion  and 
not  creation,  and,  as  such,  is  linked  to  those  unseen 
realities  which  constitute  its  prior  and  future  selves.  We 
see  only  the  middle  link  in  the  chain  of  existence  which 
we  call  life,  but  take  no  notice  of  the  preceding  or  succeeding 
ones  which  are  invisible  (i).  The  grosser  material  body 
is  linked  to  a  finer,  imma<;erial  one,  in  as  much  as  nothing 
can  exist  vvithout  being  attached  to  its  antecedent.  So 
at  each  conception  there  is  the  influx  of  a  new  self,  for 
the  lifeless  constituents  of  a  human  body  can  not  create 
a  man,  no  matter  how  many  chemical  or  physiological 
actions  may  be  postulated  to  run  to  their  rescue. 

Ayurvedic  Embryology  :  — Before  entering  into  the 
discussion  of  Sushruta's  tiieory  of  conception,  we  shall  take 
a  little  more  trouble  to  enunciate  fully  the  Vedic  theories 
on  the  subject.  "The  child  is  the  fruit  of  the  combination 
of  sperm  and  ovum"  (2'.  It  lies  with  its  head  downward 
inside  the  uterus,  a  fact  which  facilitates  its  passage  out  of, 
and  protects  its  form  from  the  effects  of  anv  injur}'  done  to 
that    viscus.   (3)     The    eyes    of   the    child    a-y    ..n^finrtltTi'', 

Bhagavat  Gita  II.  28. 

(2)    ^f  ^wic^t  ^ra:  ';^»j]3R^5i'^^f^:  1 

Astanga  llridayam  (Vagbhat) 
c  ShArira  SthSnam.     Ch,  I.  i. 

«  *  *  ^    r\^Tf[  ^'^^Vh  ?clT  1 

'  *  Aiteriya  Brahmana  \'I.  ic    g(^ 

introduct?oa.     i  xxix 


as  the  cephalic  portion  of  the  feJal  body  is  tirst  ,».1eveloped. 
The  factors,  which  are  essential  to  the  developme'nt  of 
the  fetal  hody,  from  the  time  of  fecundation  to  the 
'ippearance  of  the  characteristic  sense-organs,  have  '^een 
described  in  a  verse  of  the  Rig  Veda  (i).  In  thfe  Vedic 
mythology  each  organic  function  is 'consecrated  to  the 
tutelage  of  a  presiding^'  deity,  and  a  Vedic  Aryan  loves 
to  call  a  thing  oftener  by  the  name  of  its  divine  custodian 
than  by  that  of  its  own.  Rightly  translated,  the  verse 
would  read  as  follows  :  — "May  Vishnu  (the  presiding 
deity  of  ether  and  nerve  force)  expand  thy  uterus,  may 
Tvashta  (the  presiding  deity  'of  heat  and  metabolism) 
bring  about  the  full  differentiation  of  the  limbs  and  the 
sex  of  the  foetus,  may  Prajapati  (the  presiding  deity  of 
the  ovum)  sprinkle  thy  uterus,  and  mayst  thou  conceive 
through  the  blessing  of  the  lortl  of  human  destiny.  May 
Snrasvati  (goddess  of  intellect)  and  the  Ashvins,  the 
surgeons  f>1'  the  gods  (the  |iresiding  deity  of  fission,  etc.) 
help  thee  in  taking  the  seed."  Now,  the  development  of 
the  fetal  body  takes  place  after  the  pattern  of  its  father's 
species,  and  this  conformity  to  the  pattern  of  its  species 
represents  an  act  of  intellection.  Hence,  the  aid  of  the 
goddess  of  intellect  has  been  invoked  with  that  of  the 
celestial  surgeons,  who  preside  over  the  process  of 
cell-division,  so  essential  to  the  formation  of  the  fetal 
limbs.      Divested    of   its    allegory,    the    verse     would    mean 

(i)     f^^?itf^  ^^?tg,  ^^T^qTt%  f^sig  I 

JTwf  ^f%  f^5?t^T#,  w  ^f?  T?:«^frr  I 

rf  Tf  5fIW  ^WlH'i  ^^fT  *?Tffl  fl^f?^  II 

'  Rik  Samhila  X,  M.  184,  S. 

XXX  t      INTfionUCTION. 

that  the  •§perm  led  into  a  healthy  and  well-developed 
uteru5  through  the  agency  of  the  Vayu  (increased  activity 
of  the-^  local  nerves)  meets  the  'maternal  element  (ovum) 
in  tViat  viscus.  Then  the  impregnated  matter  undergoes 
a  process  of  fission,  and  takes  shape  after  the  pattern  of 
its  father's  species.  •  When  we  think  of  so  many  idle 
speculations  as  regards  the  proces%  of  fertilisation,  which 
obtained  credence  so  late  as  the  beginning  of  the  i8th 
century  in  Europe,  and  the  controversies  that  arose 
between  the  Ovists,  Performists  and  Animalculists  (i),  we 
cannot  help  regretting  that  the  Ayurvedic  Embryology, 
which  started  under  such  h'appy  auspices,  could  not  fully 
solve  the  problem  of  fertilisation  even  before  the  advent 
of  the  Tantrik  age.  The  fundamental  principles  with 
which  the  Embryology  of  the  Acharyayas  (Sushruta, 
Dhanvantari,  etc.)  was  started  are  substaritially  the  same 
as  have  now  been  discovered  by  the  researches  of  the 
Western  workers.  Sushruta  in  his  dissertation  on  the 
subject  showed  the  illegitimacy  which  lay  at  the  root  of  his 
predecessor's  theory  (  Sharirasthanam  Chap.  II.  )  and  took 
up  research  exactlv  where  the  Vedic  Rishis  had  left  off. 
He  clearly  demonstrated  the  fact  thai  "by  a  physiological 
process  known  as  Rasapika  (metabolism)  the  hmph  chyle 
is  metamorphosed  into  sperm  in  men,  or  into  ovum  in 
women,  in  the  course  of  a  month.  The  catamenial  fluid 
is  carried  down  into  the  uterus  through  its  proper  ducts. 
The  sperm  or  ovum  is  thus  the  quintessence  of  a  man's 
or  a  woman's  body.  The  sperm  meets  the  ovum  (Artavam) 
in  the  ute;-us,  which  resembles  a  lotus-bud  in  shape,  and 
whose  aperture  is  shut  up  with  a  mucous  deposit  as 
soon  as  fecundation  takes  place.  The  most  favourable 
time  for  fecundation  is  between  the  fourth  and  twelfth 
day  after  the  af)pearance  of   the    flow    (Garbhakala)"  as   has 

(»)    For  a  short  history  of  tlie  Theories  of  Fertilisation,  Vide  Evolution 
of  Sex  (Prof.  P.  Geddes  and  J.  A.  Thompson)  Chap.  XII.  pp.  169— 171. 

JNTRODUCT?0\.       >  XXXI 

I' I 

been    lately    demonstrated    by   'the     researches  ''of     Prof. 
Von  Ott.  (I). 

Sexual  Diamorphism  :— Some  light  is  thrown  on  the 
relative  preponderance  of  the  sperm  and  ovum  in  the  Birth 
of  a  female  child.  "When  the  maternal  element  prepon- 
derates the  child  is  female  ;  when  the  'fraternal  element  is 
stronger  the  child  is  malfe.  When  both  the  elements  are 
equal,  the  child  is  of  no  sex.'"  In  theory  at  least  Sushruta 
admits  the  possibility  of  the  birth  of  many  children  at  a 
single  conception.  "When  the  seed  is  divided  into  two  by 
its  inherent  force  (Vayu),  twins  are  born  in  the  womb" — a 
statement  which  points  to  the 'irresistible  conclusion  that 
multiplicity  of  birth  is  the  outcome  of  the  multifarious 
fission  of  the  seed  in  the  womb  under  certain  abnormal 
conditions.  Sushruta  gives  a  reason  for  believing  that,  in 
exceptional  circumstances,  and  without  sexual  union,  the 
unfertilised  ovum  may  give  rise  to  perfect  oflTspring,  thus 
giving  a  prevision  of  the  modern  theory  of  parthenogenesis. 
Pathological  parthenogenesis  has  occasionally  been  noticed 
in  higher  animals.  Oellacher  has  noted  this  in  respect 
of  hen's  eggs,  and  Janosik  has  observed  it  in  the  ovarian  ova 
of  many  mammals  such  as  the  guinea-pig,  etc. (2)  Sushruta 
extends  the  probability  to  the  human  ova  under  certain 
conditions.  He  admits  the  possibility  of  conception 
without  the  admixture  of  the  male  germinal  element, 
though  he  observes  that  like  all  asexual  genesis"  the 
development  dots  not  proceed  far  in  the  case."  From 
such  a  hypothesis  it  is  but  one  step  to  the  theory  which 
enunciates  the  possibility  of  conception  withou?  proper 
sexual  union. 

But  to  understand    his  theory  of  sexual  diamorphism,  it 

(1)  Vide  ihe  chari  of  menstrual  wave    prepared  by    V*n   Ou    given    in 
ilan  and  Woman '(Havelock  and  Ellis)  Chap.  XL 

(2)  The  Evolution  of  Sc.k  Ch.  XIII.  P.  1S5.  , 

rn>/.  p.  r,eihlclfn,(}  J.  A,   Thnmps.m. 

XXxii  «-      INI^RODUCTION. 

t  • 

is  necessary  thai  on^shouFd  fully  compreliend  the  meaning 
of  such  Ayuryedic  terms  on  the  subject  as  Ichchha  Shakli 
(will-force).  Shukra-Vahulyam  (\)  (preponderance  of  the 
male  reproductive  element)  and  Shonita-Vahulyam  (prepon- 
derance of  the  female  reproductive  element)  etc.  Sushruta, 
in  common  with  'the  Brahmanic  philosophers  of  Ind, 
believed  that  distinction  of  sex  h'as  evolved  from  a  pri- 
mordial hermaijhroditism.  Manu  in  his  Institutes  has 
emphasised  the  fact  (2),  though  in  a  highly  poetic  style. 
He  observes  that  "the  Purusha  (Logos),  by  a  stroke  of  Will, 
divided  its  body  (animated  cosmic  matter)  into  two,  one 
of  which  was  male,  and  the  other  female."  The  Tantra 
says  that,  ''the  male  part  was  endued  with  an  energy 
(force)  of  its  own,  which  is  called  Pitrika  Shaktl  ;  and  the 
corresponding  female  part,  with  the  one,  which  is  called 
Matrika  Shakti.  Pitrika  Shakti  is  a  disruptive  force  ; 
•Matrika  Shakti  is  a  constructive  energy.  Though  the 
conception  of  force  in  Sanskrit  sciences  is  but  partially 
physical,  the  nearest  approach  to  the  connotations  of  the 
Pitrika  and  Matrika  Shakti  is  made  by  the  terms  Ana- 
bolism  and  KatabolisiU  of  the  Western  physiologists. 
Sanskrit  physiology  recognises  the  two  opposite  poles  of 
vital  force  in  a  living  organism,  and  has  not  taken 
inconsiderate  pains  to  determine  their  exact  locations  in  mau 
and  woman.  Matrika  Shakti,  it  observes,  predominates  in 
the  left  half  of  a  woman's  organism,  which  is  negative  as 
regards  vital  magnetism.  {3)  Now,  Sushruta  says  that,  in 
cases  where  female  offspring  is  desired,  the  enceinte    should 

(l)     Shdiiia-sth^iiani  Ch.  II. 

(2)    f^ifi^n«r*^  ^^»TiT  3«i«iT5«^fT 
'^i^  sfrff  r\f^i  ^  f^?;T5w^5TrT  nij-  11 

Manu  .Samhili  Ch.    I.    J2. 
(■2.)      ^f^^irtar;  *JI  fi:  ijt^  sfmwnflf^S'T'RT;  1 

SfiradS  Tilak  Tanlrani. 


snufF  through  her  left  nostril  (thq  expressed  juice  Qf  certain 
herbals),  while  the  same  should  be  administered  through 
her  right  nostril  where  njale*  issue  would  be  the  object.  In 
other  words,  the  anabolic  (Mairika)  or  katabolic  (Piti;}ka) 
forces  of  a  mother's  organism  can  be  so  adjusted  with  the 
help  of  drug-dynamics,  as  to  determine, the  sex  of  the  child 
in  the  womb.  The  b',rth  of  a  male  child  is  usually  pre- 
saged by  the  appearance  of  the  milk  (which  according  to 
Sushruta  is  metamorphised  menstraal  blood)  in  the  right 
breast  of  the  enceinte  ;  and  where  that  has  been  effected 
with  the  help  of  suitable  medicines,  it  must  be  presumed 
that  the  Katabolic  pole  of  her  glife-force  has  been  acted 
upon,  as  desired. 

The  original  hermaphroditism,  which  forms  the  anterior 
condition  of  all  subsequent  sex  distinctions,  and  the  character 
of  the  two  opposite  poles  of  vital  energy,  have  been  very 
clearly  set  forth  in  the  Pauranik  allegory  of  Ardha- 
Narishvara(i).  The  figure,  observes  the  Pauranik  rhapsodist, 
is  half  male,  half  female  ;  half  life,  half  death  (since,  death, 
in  fact,  is  the  father  of  Hfe)  (2) ;  half  anabolism,  half 
katabolism  ;  with  the  crescent  moon,  the  premise,  the 
s3'mbol  of  progressive  evolution  on  its  brow,  is  made  to  sit 
on  the  eternal  bull,  the  representative  of  the  inmiutable 
law  of  the  universe  (lit  : — the  four-footed  order).  The  Rishis 
and  Rasasiddhas  of  ancient  India  were  fully  aware  of 
the  fact  that,  conception  is  effected  only  at  an  enormous 
sacrifice  on  the  part  of  the  mother  ;  that  the  Matrika 
Shakti  is  the  real  manufacturer  of  life,  and  that  the  Pitrika 
Shakti  (paternal  element)  evokes,  or  calls  it  into  play  only 
through  its  disintegrating  or  disruptive  effect  by  separating 
the  two  opposite  life-poles,  that  lie  neutralised  through 
contact.  It  is  love  that  governs  these  two  complementary 
(i)     Vishnu  PurSnam  Ch.  7.  Vs.  lo-ii.  * 

(2)    mm:  F?^n  ^^^^^  ^t^  «TTJrfff  ^^v.  1 



forces  of  .life  and  death  (i),  (though  in'  fact  they  represent 
the  two  different  aspects  of  the  same  energy)  and  controls 
its  evolutionary  rhythms  through  the  desire  of  seeing 
itself  many  though  one  in  reality.  Does  not  modern  biology 
endorse  the  same  view  when  it  says  that  the  reproductive 
cells,  as  protozoons,.are  immortal,  and  that  bodies  are  the 
natural  appendages  which  blossom.forth  and  fall  off  round 
these  cells  for  the  fructification  of  their  innate  purposes 
of  being  (2)? 

A  little  more  investigation  into  the  biological  thesis 
of  the  Rishis  would  be  necessary  for  the  clear  comprehen- 
sion of  "Shukra-Vahulyani"  and  '"Shonita-Vahulyam"  '  of 
Sushruta  and  other  Tantras  (3).  iMan  is  both  animal  and 
spirit  ;  and  the  Ayurvedic  physiology  recognises  two  distinct 
sets  of  apparatus  in  his  organism  answering  to  the  different 
phases  of  his  existence.  The  one  helps  him  in  performing 
the  organic  functions,  which  are  so  essential  to  his  animal 
existence,  and  keeps  intact  the  co-ordination  of  those  inter- 
nal functions  with  the  incidents  of  his  environments.  The 
other  is  attuned  to  the  finer  forces  of  nature,  and    responds 

(I)  The  Evolution  of  Sex.  Ch.  XVIII. 

Prof.  P.  Gedde/i  and  J,  A.  Thomson. 
(2)  "The  body  or  soma'\  Weismann  says,  "thus  appears  to  a  certain 
extent  as  a  subsidiary  appendage  of  the  true  bearers  of  the  life,— the  repro- 
ductive cells".  Ray  Lankester  has  again  well  expressed  this  :— "Among  the 
multicellular  animals,  certain  cells  are  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  consti- 
tuent units  of  the  body,  as  egg-cells  and  sperm-cells  ;  these  conjugate  and 
continue  to  live,  whilst  the  remaining  cells,  the  mere  carriers  as  it  were  of 
the  immortal  reproductive  cells,  die  and  disintegrate.  The  bodies  of  the 
higher  aniivals  which  die,  may  from  this  point  of  view  be  regarded  as 
something  temporary  and  non-essential,  destined  merely  to  carry  for  a  time, 
to  nurse,  and  to  nourish  the  mure  important  and  deathless  fission -products 
of  the  unicellular  egg."— Quoted  in  the  Evelution  of  Sex  (P.  Geddes 
and  J,  A.  Thompton)  1901.  Chap.  XVIII. 

(3)  (a)  ^liTf^^T  wtwrf^  ^f<f^ry^:  HiTi^  1 

Sarada  Tilak  Tantram. 
(15)         Sushrula  SamhilA  (ShSrira  Sthdnam   Ch.  Ill    ) 


to  the  call  of  his  higher  or  psychiq  self.  Tli'e  one  is 
organic,  the  other  is  psyC^ic  The  one  chains  him  down 
to  the  phenomenal,  and  is"  governed  by  the  laws  of  growth 
and  decay  ;  the  other  opens  on  the  region  of  absolute 
realities  where  growth  and  decay  have  no  room  to  be. 
Growth  is  not  the  only  condition  of  life.  Man  may  exist 
without  food  (i)or  respiration,  only  if  he  can  manage  to  dive 
deep  into  the  realities  within  himself.  Between  these  two  sets 
of  apparatus  there  is  the  Jivatma,  which,  by  its  own  peculiar 
energy  (the  will-force),  can  operate  in  phenomenal  or  organic 
pl?,in,  or  recede  from  thence  into  the  psychic  one,  thus 
being  in  contact  with  the  world  of  the  senses'  and  the  one 
that  is  beyond  the  darkness  of  death.  Death,  in  fact,  is 
the  grand  usherer  to  life,  which  is  only  the  rise  of  the 
curtain  over  the  life's  drama,  all  equipments  for  which  are 
made  in  the  green  room  of  death. 

A  man  can  not  propagate  at  will.  No  amount  of  willing 
on  the  part  of  the  parent-animal  can  help  him  in  creating 
progeny.  The  self  of  the  child,  who  is  about  to  come  into 
life,  chooses  its  own  parents,  according  to  the  dynamics  of 
its  own  acts  or  Karma,  from  the  region  of  the  lunar  Pitris 
or  quiescent  life,  if  it  be  warrantable  to  use  such  an  expres- 
sion (2).  The  self  of  the  would-be  child  mixes  with  the  self 
of  its  human  father,  and  hovers  over  the  reproductive  cells 
of  the  latter's  organism,  and  regulates  the  intensity  of  its 
father's  sexual  desire,  according  to  the  nature  of  the  sex, 
determined  necessary  for  the  fruition  of  the  purposes  of 
its  advent  into  the  world.  A  greater  intensity  of  its 
father's  desires  ensures  the  preponderance  of  tile  Pitrika 
Shakti   (katabolism)    in     the     impregnated     ovum,     which 

Skanda    PurSnam   quoted   by   Shridhara   SvSmi   in   his   commentaries 
on  the  Vishnu  Purdnam.     Ch.  VI.  V.  i6.  , 

(2)  ^^^m  ^7m\^m  1 



determiiies  the  male^sex  of  the  child,  while  such  a  thing, 
on  the  part  of  the  mother  at  the  time,  is  followed  by  the 
relative  preponderance  of  the  Afatrika  Shakti  (anabolism) 
which  accounts  for  the  femininity  of  the  issue.  Equal  in- 
tensity of  sexual  desires  in  both  the  parents,  creating  an 
absence  of  the  relative  preponderance  of  the  Pitrika  and 
Matrika  Shaktis  in  the  impregnated  ovum,  leaves  the  sex 
of  the  child  practically  undetermined.  The  relative  prepon- 
derance of  the  Pitrikd  or  Matrika  Shakti,  as  evidenced  by 
the  greater  or  less  intensity  of  the  sexual  desire  of  either 
of  the  parents,  which  results  in  the  speedier  emission  of  the 
paternal  or  maternal  element  (sperm  or  ovum)  during  an  act 
of  successful  fecundation,  is  contemplated  by  the  term 
''Shukra-Vahulyam,"  or  "Shonita-Vahulyam,"  by  the  framer 
of  the  Samhita,  as  ma}-  be  fully  substantiated  by  a  couplet 
by  the  venerable  Daruvahi  (i). 

So  far  Sushruta  is  at  one  with  the  modern  Western 
theory  of  preponderant  katabolism  or  anabolism  in  the 
ovum  as  the  determining  factor  of  the  sexual  diamorphism 
to  the  extent  that  seeds  or  reproductive  cells  are  the  bearers 
and  not  the  manufacturers  of  life,  only  containing  those 
categories  which  foster  life,  and  help  its  evolution  into  an 
organic  being.  To  deny  this  would  be  to  admit  the  chemi- 
cal, or  physiological  basis  of  life,  which,  as  a  theory,  was 
never  acceptable  to  the  biologists  of  ancient  India. 
The  number  of  reproductive  cells  may  be  increased  bv 
suitable  dietary,  and  to  say  that  the  immortal  reproductive 
cells,  as  the  creators  of  life,  come  out  of  the  mortal,  organic 
food  stufll*  is  to  say  that  darkness  is  the  father  of  light.  The 
question    of  the  immortality   of   the  seed  (germ  plasm)  has 

(I)    ^a«g^:  q^q^ft  qgr?^  Uw^r[  ^^T^_^  \ 

fl^^qif^flT  ^'qi'Sn?!^  l^fl^cTT  II 
D5rub5hi  (Quoted  by  Arunadatla  in  his  commentaries  on  Viigbhat). 


been  elaborately  discussed  in  the  Gommentaries  on  the 
Sankhya  Darshanam(i).  The, Pjah  Vindus (germ  cells)  pulsate 
with  the  vibrations  (rhythmic  movements),  which  are^the 
relics  of  the  primordial  ethereal  vibrations,  which  ,ushered 
in  the  birth-throes  of  the  universe.  ^  As  such,  they  are 
essential  to  the  evolution  of  life  ;  and  man,  as  an  offspring 
of  the  universe,  still  retains  them  in  his  reproductive  cells 
as  the  best  condition  for  calling  out  the  life  in  his  offspring, 
when  its  seK  enters  into  the  impregnated  ovum  in  the 
mother's  womb.  Life  is  the  essence  of  self,  and  not  the 
prjoduct  of  any  chemical  or  physiological  process.  It  is  an 
influx  ;  and  microscopes  and  spectroscopes  mav  not 
expose  to  view  the  hinterlands  of  birth  and  genesis. 
Perhaps  it  was  this  theorv  of  will-force  and  intensity  of 
parental  desire  as  determining  the  sex  in  the  child,  together 
with  the  facts  of  parthenogenesis  observed  in  lower  animals, 
from  which  Sushruta  was  disposed  to  extend  the  analogy 
to  the  human  species,  and  believed  that  conception  without 
sexual  union  is  possible  in  women. 

^j.  The  conception  of  the  nature  of  these  Matrika  and 
J '.rika  Shaktis  is  more  clearly  set  forth  in  the  Pauranika 
n  jth  regarding  the  origin  (etiology)  of  fever  ;  Sushruta 
relates  the  story  as  follows  : — Daksha,  the  father  of  the 
universal  mother,  (or  constructive  metabolism  in  man) 
insulted  the  divine  father,  her  consort  (destructive  meta- 
bolism), by  witholding  his  quota  of  sacrificial  oblations. 
The  wrath  of  the  insulted  deity  broke  out  in  the  shape  of 
a  morbific  heat  (hyperpyrexia)  which  is  fever.  The  process 
of   digestion    in    man    has  been    often    compared  'to  an  act 

(l)  (a)  qRHTSTtftS'C^I^T  ^"Wl,^^  I 

Sankhya  Sutra  Ch.  I.    122. 

(b)  fT^5TT<T  ^^fh  ' 

Ibid.  Ch.  III.  3. 

(c)    *r%  f%  ^^^^^m^^mfn^]^'^^wf^^Tff    x?m^i   ^^i* 

Sankhya  Prabachana  Vashya  (Vijn^n  Bhikshu)  Ch.  I.  S.  I. 


<  f 

•  < 

of  Homa  sacrifice  (i)  in  the  Ayurveda.  Stripped  of  its 
allegory  the  myth  may  be  exp^iined  quite  in  a  pathological 
lin^  It  means  that  when  the  t*itrika  Shakti,  the  process 
of  destructive  metabolism  (Pita,  father  or  Shiva  in  Hindu 
mythology  being  the  god  of  destruction  or  disintegration)  of 
the  body  is  not  properly  served  by  the  factors,  which 
noun'sh  its  constructive  metabolism  (Father  of  the  Matrika 
Shakti),  the  excrements  and  excretory  process  of  the  body 
are  arrested  (b^r  the  wrathful  deity),  and  the  heat  generated 
in  consequence  is  fever.  Fever,  then,  is  a  disease  of  defective 
digestion  and  excretion.  Whenever  this  Pit rika  Shakti,.  is 
disturbed  or  not  properly  served  there  is  fever,  and  heat 
is  one  of  its  essential  effects. 

With  a  precision  and  love  of  details,  which  mark  the 
best  days  of  Brahmanic  literature,  Sushruta  lays  down  rules 
of  diet  and  conduct  to  be  observed  by  the  enceinte,  from 
month  to  month,  during  the  whole  period  of  gestation, 
and  gives  medicinal  recipes  for  the  development  of  a 
partiall}^  atrophied  child  in  the  womb. 

A  perusal  of  the  Chapter  on  Marma  Shiriram  world 
leave  no  doubt  for  the  conclusion  that  anatomical  kt\psP/, 
ledge  was  cultivated  by  surgeons  and  soldiers  alike,  la  jr.. 
knowledge  about  the  locations  of  the  vulnerable  joints,  iir 
nerves,  or  vein  anastomoses  where  a  blow  or  a  little 
pressure  may  enable  him  to  make  short  work  of  his  man 
could  not  but  be  dearly  prized  by  the  soldiery  at  a 
time  when  the  fate  of  a  war  was  often  decided  by 
the  success  of  a  single  champion,  and  we  have  reasons 
to  belieVe  that  a  scientific  system  of  wrestling  was 
formulated  in  the  light  of  the  Sushruta  Samhita,  and 
practised     by   the     gentry   of    ancient     India     much    like 


( I)    ^ffcTTTT  «?r  q'5fi'q=?T^^flfcT  ^:  I 

Charaka  SamhitS. 


•  > 

the  Jiujitsu  (Skr.  Yuyutsu,  t,he  intending  fighter)  of 
modern  Japan,  (i).  ' 

Sushnita's  Physiolo^ ."— But  if  Sushruta  is  ad- 
mired so  much  for  his  practical  and  scientific  jt!ast 
of  mind,  it  is  his  writings  on  Physiologv,  ''which  is 
practicalh-  the  same  as  the  one  adopted  by  all  schools  of 
the  Ayurveda)  which  ,  have  appeared  as  a  stumbling 
block  to  the  intelligence  of  many  a  Western  and 
and  Eastern  scholar.  European  Sanskritists  have  thought 
fit  to  translate  "Vayu,"  "Pittam''  and  "Kapham"  (the  three 
main  physiological  functions)  as  air,  bile  and  phlegm. 
B\l\  nothing  could  be  more  misleading,  or  erroneous  than 
that.  A  right  understanding  of  the  science  of  the  Ayur- 
vedic medicine,  in  all  its  branches,  hinges  on  a  right  concep- 
tion of  the  Vayu.  Pittam  and  Kapham,  so  we  should  like 
to  clear  up  the  nature  of  these  three  physiological  factors 
before  proceeding  farther  in  our  enquiry. 

Antiquity     of    the    division:— A    reference   to    these 

three  physiological  factors  of  Vayu,   Pittam    and    Kapham, 

under   the   name    of   Tridhatu.     is   first   met    with    in    the 

Rikveda,  (3).     Sayana  explains  the  term  as   a    synonvm    for 

Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham.    The  Vedic  physicians  possessed 

at  least  a  considerable  knowledge    of   the  process   of  diges- 

tionf4),  the  circulation  of  gas  in  the  human  organism,  and  of 

(i)  It  is  anions  that  the  phonetic  and  etymological  resemblance 
between  Sanskrit  "Juyutsu"  and  Japanese  ''Jiujitsu"  (would  be  fighter) 
should  be  so  close.  Perhaps  it  was  the  Buddhist  missionaries  (and  they 
were  not  always  peaceful  hermits)  who  had  carried  with  them  a  system 
of  scientific  wrestling  from  India,  which  was  subsequently  developed  in 
Japan.  Compare  with  the  complete  Kano,  Jiu-jitsu  (Jeudo)  by  H.  Irving 
Hancock  and  Katsukuma  Higashi.  Chart  I  and  III. 

(3)    *  *  *  f^^rg  vm  w^ct'  :crw^^  11 

Rik.  Samhita.  I.  3,  6. 
Sayana  explains  it  as 

(4)  ^rm:  if!?n^^T  f^^  1  tmrr  w.  wf^^v^r^'^j^  w^Ict. 
5|1»ni5^  'fiWtf^fT,  ^sfT^:   ^:   unu:  1    ^^sc.  ^^  !   w^^'.-^m  ^sf^Ti 

Chhandagya  Brihmana. 

Xl  ^      INTCiODUCTlON. 

the  properties  and  functioiv>  of  flesh,  fat,  muscles,  tendons, 
ligaments  and  cartilages.  But  to  the  Acharyas  of  the 
Ayurveda  belongs  the  glor\'  of  "nrs^.  formulating  a  systematic 
physiological  science,  to  which  end  Sushruta  as  a  surgeon 
did  con<;ribute  no  mean  a  quo'.a.  In  the  light  of  Western 
science  the  actionsr  of  living  matter,  varied  as  they  are, 
may  be  reduced  to  three  categorief,  viz.  (a)  Sustentative, 
{d)  Generative,  and  (c)  Correlative  functions.  The  second 
is  not  co-extensive  with  the  entire  existence  of  a  living 
organism,  Sushruta  observes  some  such  distinction  among 
the  functions  of  a  living  organism  when  he  denominates 
the  living  body  as  the  "three  supported  one"  (Tristhunam), 
and  describes  the  normal  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham  as 
its  three  supports.  We  wonder  how  the  term  Vayu, 
meaning  nerve  force,  can  be  confounded  with  the  same 
term  meaning  air,  since  Sushruta  derives  the  former 
from  the  root  "Va,"  to  move,  to  spread.  Vayu,  according 
to  Sushruta,  is  so  called  from  the  fact  of  its  sensory  and 
motor  functions  such  as,  smelling,  &c.  But  the  Vayu  in 
the  Ayurveda  is  not  wholly  a  physical  or  organic  force,  it 
has  its  spiritual  aspect  as  well  which  does  not  legitimately 
fall  within  the  scope  of  our  enquiry.  It  is  safe  to  aver 
however,  that  the  Ayurvedic  physiology,  like  its 
sister  science  in  modern  Europe,  is  concerned  more 
with  the  invisible  molecular  components  of  the  human 
organism,  than  with  the  workings  of  its  gross  members. 
The  holy  Agnivesha  warns  the  students  of  physiology 
against  the  danger  of  regarding  the  human  system  as  some- 
thing other  than  the  aggregate  of  molecules  (i). 

*  Charaka  Saniliit^  ShArirasthAnam,  Chap.  VII. 


The  three  fundamental  principles  of  Vayu,,Pittam 
and    Kaphah:  — The  actions   of   living    matter    vary    and 
so     may    be    reduced     to^    three     categories.     They     are 
either— (i),  functions  which  affect  the  material  conipositJDn 
of  the  body  and  determine  its  mass,  which  is  the  baUnce  of 
the  processes  of  waste  on  one  hand  and  t^hose  of  assimilation 
on  the  other.  Or  (2),  they  are   functions  which  subserve  the 
process    of   reproduction    which    is  essentially  the   detach- 
ment of  a    part    endowed    with    the    powers    of  developing 
into   an    independent    whole,    or  (3),    they    are  functions  in 
virtues  of  which    one    part    of  the    body  is  able  to   exert  a 
direct  influence   on   another,    and^  the    body,  by  its  parts  as 
a    whole,    becomes  a    source    of   molar    motion.     The    first 
may  be  termed  Sustentative,  the  second  Generative,   and 
the  third  Correlative  functions.    The  above  is  the  sum  and 
substance  of  the  works  which  a  living  matter  has  to  perform. 
But    setting    apart   the     processes    of    reproduction    as     a 
subject     for     future     discussion,     we     shall     now     try    to 
examine  what  the  other  two   functions   are   as    understood 
by    Oriental    thinkers.     In    the    Mahfibhiratam  the  Prdna 
vayu    is  described  as  a  force,  akin  to  electricity.     It  is  some- 
what like  a  flash  of   lightning  (1).     This    fact  aHonce  shows 
the  errors  of  confounding  Prana  vdyzi  with  an  effete  material 
—  with  gases  generated  during   the    processes   of   digestion. 
Shushruta    describes    it  as  a  force,  (2)  which  sets   the  whole 
organism  into   motion.    Self-evolved,  it  acts  as  the  principal 

(i)      HTOSIT^^^  JJcTRt  Mm  ?sifvf^?j^  I 

MahSbMratam.  ShAnti  Pa^va  S.  39. 

(2)  Fo'ce  may  be  defined  as  ihat  which  tends  to  produce  motion  in 
a  body  at  lesi,  or  to  produce  change  of  motion  in  a  body  which  is  movjng. 
— Daschanel, 



factor  that  deLerinines  the  genesis,  continuance  and  disin- 
tegration of  the  livir-g  body.  It  is  the  primary  cause — an 
all-in-all  that  governs  our  organic  as  well  as  our  cognitive 
faQulties.  Its  special  feature  is  that  the  vibration,  that  is 
produqed  in  it,  instead  of  travelling  like  light  in  a  transverse 
direction,  takes  a  course  as  the  controller  of  the  correlative 
functions  of  the  system.  It  maintains  an  equilibrium  between 
the  Pittam  and  Shleshma  which  are  said  to  be  inert,  (i)  But 
for  this  adjustment  the  living  body  would  stand  in  imminent 
danger  of  being  consumed  like  fuel  by  its  internal  heat 
or  fire.  Taking  into  consideration  the  various  functions  the 
living  body  has  to  perform,  Sushruta  attempts  a 

tion  of  Vdyu  into  Prana,  Udana,  Samana,  Vyana  and 

Apana,  which,  in  detail,  correspond  to  the  divisions  of 
functions  performed  by  the  Cerebro-spinal  and  Sympathe- 
tic nerves  of  the  Western  physiology.  Tintric  literature 
abounds  in  the  descriptions  of  the  Nadichakras  (nerve 
plexuses)  and  contains  a  more  detailed  account  of  the  motor, 
sensory,  and  mixed  nerves  according  to  their  differences  in 
their  functions  and  relations.  In  short,  the  term  Vayu  may 
not  only  be  rightly  interpreted  to  mean  the  nerve  force,  but 
is  often  extended  to  include  any  kind  of  electro-motor  or 
molecular  force  (as  when  we  speak  of  the  V^yu  of  the  soil), 
though  the  term  is  loosely  applied  now  to  signify  gas  or 
air.  The  Rishis  of  yore  gave  the  name  of  V;iyu  to  the 
bodily  force  in  the  absence  of  any  suitable  nomenclature, 
little  suspecting  that  it  might  be  confounded  with  the 
atmospheric  air  by  the  foreign  translators  of  their  works. 

Charaka,  Sutraslh4nam.  Chap.  XII. 

Inert  i.s  Pittam,  inert  is  Kaphah,  inert   are   the  Malas   &    'Jh^lus    Like 
clouds,  they  go  wherever  they  arc!-  carried  by  the  V5yu, 


Pittam  : — The  function  of  the  »Pittam  consists  in 
metamorphosing  the  chyle,  .through  a  graduated  series 
of  organic  principles,  to  a  protoplasmic  substance  like 
sperm  in  men,  and  the  ovum  in  women.  Thus  we  see  that 
the  Pittam  of  the  Ayurveda  corresponds  to  metabolism 
of  Western  physiology.  But  b}?  a  confounding  carelessness 
of  terms  the  excreted  portion  of  Rasa  and  blood  though 
ultimately  connected  with  those  normal  physiological 
processes  has  been  respectively  styled  as  the  Doshas  or 
defiling  principles  of  Kaphah  and  Pittam.  Again,  as  in  the 
case,  of  soil,  the  terms  V^yu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  are  extend- 
ed to  denote  magnetism,  kinetic  energy  and  humidity  of  its 
molecules.  The  circulation  of  blood  is  connected  with  the 
Pittam,  while  the  circulation  of  lymph  chyle  fRasa)  is 
related  to  Shleshmi  the  two  combinedly  forming  what 
is  called  the  sustentative  function  of  the  Western 

The  term  Pittam,  which,  by  its  etymology,  signifies 
the  agent  of  metabolism,  has  been  loosely  used  by  our 
Ayurvedic  physiolgists  to  denote  two  different  organic 
principles  from  an  observed  similarity  in  their  nature  and 
functions.  Pittam  in  Sanskrit  means  both  bile  and  meta- 
bolism of  tissues  as  well  as  the  bodily  heat  which  is  the 
product  of  the  latter. 

Hence  a  few  commentators  lean  towards  the  view 
that  Pittam  is  the  heat  incarcerated  in  the  bile,  and 
the  principal  agent  in  performing  digestion  (i).  The 
real  import  of  the  term  may  be  gathered  from  the 
five  sub-divisions  of  the  Pittam,  made  by  our  '  Rishis 
according    to    their    functions  and   locations,  and  which  are 

called  the  Pachaka,  Ranjaka,  Sadhaka,  A'lochaka  and 

(l)     5^^:  ^g^Rim^^lfq  fqfl^  ^^WT^Sf'af?;f?I '* 


Xliv  '         INTRODUCTION. 

Bhr^jaka.  All  metabolic  processes  in  the  organism, 
whether  constructive  or  dj^structive,  are  called  Pittam, 
wljich  is  said  to  be  in  the  products  of  those  processes 
whether  serum,  bile,  blood,  albumen,  etc.,  which  are  either 
essential  to  the  substance  of  the  body,  or  to  the  proper 
performance  of  any  organic  function.  Hence  we  learn  that 
Pittam  is  latent  in  Lasika  (Serum),  blood,  lymph  chyle, 
albumen  etc.,  and  in  the  organs  of  touch  and  sight.  In 
other  words,  metabolism  goes  on  in  those  principles  and 
regions  of  the  human  organism  (i)  either  as  a  sustentative 
or  as  a  cognetic  physiological  process.  First,  we  have  ,,the 
Pachakagni  or  the  heat  of  digestion,  which  is  situated  in 
the  region  between  the  stomach  and  the  intestines  ;  (2)  and 
being  a  liquid  fire  or  fluid  heat  incarcerated  in  the  secre- 
tions of  the  liver  (bile),  it  is  primarily  concerned  in  digesting 
the  four  kinds  of  food  (as  they  meet  it  in  the  abdomen). 
Thus  we  see  that  the  Pachakagni  of  our  Ayurveda  is  the 
same  as  the  bile  of  Western  physiology,  its  other  function 
being  to  differentiate  (precipitate)  the  nutritive  essence  of 
the  food  from  its  unutilisable  portion,  and  to  act  as  an 
excrementitious  matter.  It  is  this  Pittam,  which  makes 
metabolism  in  other  parts  of  the  bodv  possible,  (3)  b)' 
helping  the  organism  in  acquiring  fresh  energy. 

(1)    iTfv(?:i9f?j:  ^^ft^^t^T^'PfT'  Tw.  I 

l^rsjafil"  ^  fqtrw  TlfHT^  f^^r\  II 

Bdgbhat  (Sutra  Sihinam  ch.  XII.) 
(2)  The  bile  assists  in  emulsifying  the  fats  of  the  foods,  and  thus 
rendering  them  capable  of  passing  into  the  lacteals  by  absorption  *.  The 
bile  has  b*een  considered  as  a  natural  purgative  *  *  *  The  bile  appears 
to  have  the  power  of  precipitating  the  gastric  proteoses  and  peptones, 
together  with  the  pepsin,  which  is  mixed  up  with  them.  *  *  *  As  an 
excrementitious  substance,  the  bile  may  serve  as  a  medicine  for  the  separa- 
tion of  certain  highly  carbonaceous  substances  from  the  blood. 

Kirk's  Physiology  Ch.  XIII.  pp    377-378. 

^   (3)    tT«f^iR^fqrTrr^t  ^EfjiiTfitgg^T^'T  1 

^i'lfh  ^sT?T%ii  ^\'^'^  siTfl  rTfTnr.fTfl;  11 

Bagbhat  Sutra  ch.  XII. 

INTRODUCTION.      '  xlv 


The  second  kind  of  Pittam  i^'called  RanjakaoV  pigment 
Pittam  from  the  circumstance  of  its  imparting  the 
characteristic  colour  to  th'e  lymph  chyle  as  it  is  transformed 
into  blood  by  coursing  through  the  liver  and  spleen,  u^here 
it  is  located  (i). 

The  third  kind  r.f  Pittair.  (Sadhak'a)  is  situated  in  the 
heart,  and  indirectly  a5s*\sts  in  the  performance  of  cognitive 
functions  in  man  by  keeping  up  the  rhythmic  cardiac 
contractions  (2).  Perhaps  it  is  this  view  of  the  heart's 
contraction  that  predisposed  many  of    our    ancient    physio- 

*  (l)  A.  The  colouring  matter  of  the  Ijilc  is  derived  from  and  is  closely 
related  to  that  of  blood,  since  the  qualities  of  the  bile  pigment  secreted 
are  markedly  increased  by  the  injection  of  substances  into  the  veins  which 
are  capable  of  setting  free  haemoglobin 

Kirk's  Physiology — (Metabolism  in  the  liver.)  Ch.  XII.  p.  505. 

B.  There  seems  to  be  a  close  relationship  between  the  colouring 
matters  of  the  blood  and  of  the  bile,  and  '  '  between  these  and  that  of 
urine  (urobilin)  and  of  the  feces— Ibid    Ch.  \  III.  p.  376. 

c.  It  seems  probable  that  the  spleen,  like  the  lymphatic  glands,  is 
engaged  in  the  formation  of  blood  corpuscles.  For  it  is  quite  certain, 
tl  at  the  blood  of  the  splenic  vein  contains  an  unusually  large  number  of 
white  corpuscles,  t  t  i"  In  Kottikor's  opinion,  the  development  of  colour- 
less and  .also  coloured  corpuscles  of  the  l)lood,  is  one  of  the  essential 
functions  of  the  spleen,  into  the  veins  of  which  the  new  formed  corpuscles 
pass,  and  are  conveved  into  the  general  current  of  the  circulations. 

Ibid.     Ch.  XII. 

(2)  A.  The  contraction  (of  the  heart)  can  not  be  long  maintained 
without  a  due  supply  of  blood  or  of  a  similar  nutritive  fluid.  *  *  *  The 
view  that  is  at  present  taken  of  the  action  of  the  heart  is  *  *  that  in  heart 
muscle,  as  in  protoplasm  generally,  the  metabolic  processes  are  those  of 
anabolism  or  building  up.  which  takes  place  during  diastole  of  the  heart 
*  *  *  and  the  katabolism  or  discharge  which  is  manifested  in  the  contrac- 
tion of  the  heart.     Kirk's  Physiology  (metabolism  of  the  heart).  Ch.  VI. 

*1T^  f  ??t"  ffTffl  II  ,  •» 

BSgbhat  Sutra.     Ch.  XII.  13. 

xlvi  '    INTRODUCTION. 

logists  to  hold  it  ^  as  iWe  seat  of  cognition  ( Viiddhi 
Sthanam).  (l) 

The-  fourth,  which  is  the  Albchaka  or  the  Pittam  of 
sight;  indicates  the  metabolic  process  in  the  substance  of 
the  retina  (Drishti)  which  gives    rise    to  visual  sensation.  (2; 

The  fifth  is  the  Bhrajakagni  or  the  Pittam  in  the  skin 
which  produces  perspiration  or  hefps  exudations  from  the 
skin  by  evaporation.  In  short  it  is  the  Pittam  which  keeps 
active,  under  certain  circumstances,  the  secretions  from  the 
sweat  and  sebaceous  glands  of  the  human  skin. 

Kaphah  :— Sushruta  is  oie  in  holding  with  Foster  thgj 
"the  animal  body  dies  daily,  in  the  sense  that  at  every 
moment  some  part  of  its  substance  is  suffering  decay, 
is  undergoing  combustion."'  The  etymological  significance 
of  the  term  Shariam  vSkr.  Shri,  to  wither  up)  testifies  to 
his  knowledge  of  the  combustion  that  goes  on  within  the 
human  system.  Three  kinds  of  fire  are  detected  in  the  bod}', 
which  are  sure  to  feed  upon  its  constituent  principles  in 
the  absence  of  proper  fuel  in  the  shape  of  food  and  air. 
It  is  food  and  the  fundamental  brdily  principle  of  Shleshma, 
which  is  cooling  or  watery  in  its  essence,  that  fly  to  the 
rescue  of  the  organism,  the  latter  (Sleshma)  surcharging  ii 
with  its  own  essential  humidity  and  keeping  intact  the 
integration  of  its  component  molecules. 

The  Rasa,  or  lymph  chyle  which  is  formed  out  of  the 
ingested    food,     prevents    the     internal     bodily     fire-     from 

(i)  The  seat  of  the  moon  is  at  the  root  of  the  palate  ami  thai  of  the 
sun  is  at  the  root  of  the  navel ;  the  place  of  the  air  (or  breath)  is  above 
the  sun,  and  mind  dwells  above  the  moon,  Chittam  (or  the  passage 
between  the  mind  and  the  spiritual  soul)  dwells  above  the  sun.  and  life 
dwells  above  the  moon. 

Jn4na  Sankallni  Tantrani,   International  Journal  of 
Tdntrik  order  (New  York)  Vol.  V'.  No.  5  p.  109. 

(2)  It  is  supposed  that  the  change  effected  by  the  light,  which  falls 
upon  the  retina,  is  in  fact  a  chemical  alteration  in  the  protoplasm,  and  that 
this  stimulates  the  optic  nerve-endings.     Kirk's  Physiology  Ch,  XVII, 


preying  upon  the  vitals  by  coursing  freely  th;'Ough  the 
whole  organism.  The  Rasa,  thus  g^enerated,  undergoes 
a  sort  of  purification,  the  » purified  portion  being  called 
Prasddabhuta,  and  the  excreted  portion  Malabhttta,  suc^>9  as 
are  found  as  effete  products  deposited  in  certain  pores  of 
the  body.  Kaphah  or  Sleshmd  is  that  pprtion  of  Rasa  which 
fills  all  the  intercellular^  spaces  of  the  body,  thus  holding 
them  together  in  a  kind  of  cooling  embrace  (Skr.  Slish  to 
embrace)  and  prevents  (il  the  dreadful  combustion  which 
would  otherwise  have  been  caused  by  organic  heat. 
Our  Acharjas  have  classified  the  Kaphah  into  five  diflFerent 
kinds  such  as  the  Kledaka,  Avalanwaka,  Vodhaka  and 
Shlcsmaka  according  to  their  different  functions  and 
locations  in  the  economy. 

Dosha  : — The  lymph  chyle,  born  of  the  digested  food, 
and  which  courses  through  the  body,  potentially  contains 
the  elements  which  build  the  diflferent  tissues  of  the 
human  organism.  Under  the  influence  of  metabolic  heat 
it  is  progressively  transformed  into  blood,  flesh,  fat,  bone, 
marrow,  semen  and  OJah.  In  other  words,  under  the 
process  of  physiological  metamorphosis,  the  lymph  chyle 
sets  free  that  part  of  its  constituents  (2)  which  possess  blood- 

(i)     A     ^wftl*lK*!: — Bagbhat. 

Charaka  Chikitshasth,<.nam.   Chap.  15. 
(2)    A.    %^Ttg  ?}^Tli^T:  TJ^f^rf  f^f^«(*ft;  I 

fi^^^n:  ^Tg^^  ^f^T*i  ^t^^  K^:  II 

Bh^va  Mishra. 

Chakra  Datta's  commentary  on  the  Charaka  Samhit^.  SutrasthSrjani. 
Cr.    XXVIIl. 

xlviii  int;roduction. 

making  properties,  and  are  ultimately  transformed  into 
blood — (its  unuiilised^or  excreted  portion  being  eliminated 
through  the  natural  apertures  of  the  body),  and  so  on, 
thrqugh  the  progressive  series  of  metabolism  to  Oj'a/i 
Dhd.iu.>  Thus  with  ihc  derangement  f)f  the  bodily  Vayu 
which  causes  the  fr^e  coursing  oi  the  lymph  ch3'le  through 
its  vessels,  the  Pittam  imetabolismj,of  tissues),  in  any  parti- 
cular part  of  the  body,  is  also  affected  by  reason  of  its 
incarceration,  and  thus  causes  an  increase  or  diminu- 
tion in  the  excreted  portion  of  the  Rasa,  which  is  another 
name  for  Kapham  during  the  progressive  metabolism.  Thus 
we  see  that  Vayu,  Pitta^i,  and  Kaphah,  which,  in  their 
normal  state,  are  the  three  supporting  principles  of  the  body 
are  transformed  into  morbific  diathesis  by  increasing  or 
diminishing  the  bodily  heat,  secretions,  or  excretions. t 

Thus  congestion  and  inanition  (atony)  are  the  two 
main  forms  of  disease  recognised  by  the  Ayurvedic  Patholo- 
gists, the  former  being  held  amenable  to  resolution  or 
elimination,  and  the  latter  to  local  feeding  or  nourishment. 

Agni  and  Dh^tvagnis  : — We  can  not  better  conclude 
this  portion  of  our  dissertation  than  by  speaking  a  word  or 
two  about  Agni.  Sushruta  raises  the  question  whether  there 
is  any  kind  of  fire  in  the  human  organism  other  than  the 
Pittam  ;  or  are  they  identical  ?  Sushruta  holds  that  the  Pittam 
is  the  only  fire  present  in  the  system,  in  as  much  as  all  acts 
from  the  digestion  of  food  to  the  disintegration  of  tissues  are 
performed  with  the  help  of  the  Pittam,  which  includes 
within  its  signification  what  is  connoted  by  Anabolism  and 
Katabolism  of  Western  Physiologists.  But  Agnivesha  and 
certain  sections  of  the  Ayurvedic  Acharyayas  hold  that  there 

^fTf^=5WWri^  «?^  ftqi  5f?T  «I,?TI:  II 

Bh^vaprakeisha  Part  I. 

Charaka  Sutrasthinam  Chap.  I. 



rxTRODrcTfoN.     ,  xlix 

are  five  Anjali-fuls  of  Agni  (i)'  in  the  human  t)rganism. 
This  discrepancy  is  best  explained  away  by  including  one 
Yava  measure  of  Agni  -  (enzymes,  ferment)  in  the  five 
Anjali-measures  of  Pittam.  •' 

The  A'yurvedic  Physiology  recognises  the  exist'ence  of 
another  kind  of  Agni,  which  is  called  Dhatvagni  (proto- 
plasm) and  which  it  cL\ssifies  into  seven  different  kinds, 
Arunadatta,  the  celebrated  commentator  of  the  Ashtanga- 
hridayam,  holds  that  there  are  as  many  Dhatvagnis  as  the 
constituents  of  the  body.  (2) 

'(i)  q'g  fiiTT^— Charaka  Samhita. 
(2)  A    q^  qT^vftffi^i '5Bra?f:— v^  ^^^ift?:.    ^'^tt^^^I  ^rg<fl[inr 

flfq  qigi?rfcT^(9rn  fT(?Tfq  qTf?f^T3I^r«Io|:  1  ^g  qif^^Till'flirw  3»r: 
qi^:  I     Arundatta. 

q^g  ?Tt€q3?^  5I?Tq  -^  q'^rfusrcrr^ffT  II      Ibid. 

r.    ^  T^TTf  ■^^^^\  ^ig^TTit  'g^=^%  1 

fqrnWl!;  ^  \W^  '^m  T^R^^^f^^ffT  II 
fm'^'e^  HM  *Tf«  ^TfT  ^"^^1  q^^^fl?T  II 

l^a  T?^f|c5J^  5fT?r^Sf^  f^^t?^T*T  I 
^frf?T  fT^  ^Tf^^T^j  TW  ^kli:  II 

ii^ffTOifir  1^55^  #^  f\-n\  riff:  w,?t:  i 
cHJiTri  f{'^m,  f\\  #f  5[r^'  fr5iTg?T  fT?f:  11 

^iaT^T9?lf^fvwiq  :  9^fq^'  ^qHsf^g  I 

Charaka  SamhiiS,  ChikitsSsthSnam^  Chapter  X\'. 

I).      ^f«f¥  mJTTft  >^?Tfr  f^f^^  ^:  I 

q^T»^*Tf^f«:  qi^  gif'Tf  ff  ?  q^l^rf:  I!  " 

Vid  lljid  Chap.   XX. 

1  intr6duction. 

The  tommeniator  of  the  Chhandagya  Bhasyani  has 
emphasised  the  identity  of  the  Pittani  and  the  solar  heat. 
In  fact  it  was  a  doctrine  of  faith  among  the  Rishis  that 
the  solar  heat  pent  up  in  the  solids  is  transformed  into 
organic  heat  (Bhutagni)  which,  becoming  liberated  in  the 
stomach,  produces  the  heat  of  digestion,  (i)  All  these 
are  but  different  forms  of  solar  "^  heat.  The  Dhatvagni 
and  Udaragni  lie  inert  in  the  organism.  It  is  the  Vayu 
that  sets  them  free  and  makes  them  operative. 

The  Dhatvagnis  (protoplasm)  of  the    muscle    are    not  of 

the  same  kind  as  that    of  the   arteries.     We  cannot    resist' 


the    temptation    of     quoting   a     few    lines      from    Foster's 
physiology  on  the  subject.* 

(I)  A.     flra:  ^«<  ^^\  M^m-^^  ^%^^\  «  ^f ^*  ^q?")^r?T  ^.^ 

ChhAndogya  Upanisliad. 

Chh^ndogya  Bh^syam. 

"  These  facts  and  other  considenitions,  which  might  be  brought 
forward,  lead  to  tl\e  tentative  conception  of  protoplasm  as  being  a 
substance  (if  we  may  use  the  word  in  somewhat  loose  sense)  not  only 
unstable  in  nature  but  subject  to  incessant  change,  existing  indeed  as 
the  expression  of  incessant  molecular,  i.  i.  chemical  and  physical 
cliange,  ver3'  much  as  a  fountain  is  the  expression  of  incessant 
replacement  of  water.  We  may  picture  to  ourselves  the  total 
<:'hange.  which  we  denote  by  the  term  "metabolism,"  as  consisting 
on  the  one  hand,  of  a  downward  series  of  i,Katabolic  changes)  a  stair 
of  many  steps  in  which  the  more  complex  bodies  are  broken  down 
with  the  setting  free  of  energy  into  simpler  waste  bodies,  and, 
on  the  other  hand,  of  an  upward  series  of  changes  (anabolic  changes) 
also  a  stair  of  _  many  steps,  by  which  ihe  dead  food  of  varying 
simplicity  or  complexity  is  with  further  assumption  of  energ}- 
built  up  into  more  and  more  complex  bodies.  The  summit  of  the 
do'uble  stair  we  call  ''protoplosm"  whether  we  have  right  to  speak 
of  it  as  a  single  hodv  .'in  the   chemical    sense    of  that    word    or   as  a 

INTRODUCTION.     ,  ll 

From  whal  has  now  been  sUted  regarding  ihe  func- 
tions and  significations  of  the  Vayu,  l*ittam  and  Kaphah, 
it  will  appear  that  the  Achai*yayas  of  the  Ayurveda  contem- 
plated three  different  sets  of  principles  in  the  domains  of 
Biology  and  Pathology.     Vayu,    Pittam,    and    Kaphah    are 

mixture  in  some  way  of  several  bodies.  Whether  we  should  regard 
it  as  tlie  very  summit  of  the  double  stair,  or  as  embracing  as  well 
as  the  topmost  steps  in  either  side,  we  can  not  at  present  tell. 
Even  if  this  be  a  simple  substance  forming  the  topmost  summit, 
its  existence  is  absolutely  temporary,  at  one  instance  it  is  made,  at 
the  next  it  is  unmade  matter,  which  is  passing  through  the  phase 
of  life,  rolls  up  the  ascending  step  t«5  the  top  and  forthwith  rolls 
down  on  the  other  side  *       o      o 

Further  the  dead  food  itself  fairly,  but  far  from  being  wholly 
stable  in  character,  becomes  more  and  more  complex  living  material. 
It  becomes  more  and  more  explosive  and  when  it  reaches  the  sum- 
mit its  equilibrium  is  over-thrown  and  it  actually  explodes.  The  whole 
downward  stair  of  events  seems  in  fact  to  be  a  series  of  explosives 
by  means  of  which  the  energy  latent  in  the  dead  food  and  augmented 
by  the  touches  through  which  the  dead  food  becomes  living 
protoplasm,  is  set  free.  Some  of  those  freed  energy  is  used  up 
again  by  the  material  itself,  in  order  to  carry  on  tliis  same  vivification 
of  dead  food,  the  rest  leaves  the  body  as  heat  or  motion. 

If  this  be  admitted  it  almost  inevitably  follows,  that  what  we 
have  called  protoplasm,  can  not  be  alwnys  the  sumo  thing  :  that 
tliere  must  be  many  varieties  of  protoplasm  witli  dilVcrcnt  qualities 
and  with  corresponding  different  molecular strncturL'  and  composition. 
Using  the  word  '"protoplasm''  in  this  sense,  it  is  oi'vious  that  the 
varieties  of  protoplasm  are  numerous  indeed,  almost  innumerable. 
The  molecular  protoplasm,  whicli  brings  forth  a  contractile  kata- 
state  must  difEer  in  nature,  in  composition,  that  is  in  construction 
from  glandular  protoplasm  wliere  kata-state  is  a  mother  of 
ferment.  Fur*  her  the  protoplaspi  of  a  swiftly  contracting  striped 
muscular  fibre  must  differ  from  that  of  the  torpid,  smooth,  unstriatcd 
fibre,  the  protoplasm  of  a  human  muscle  must  differ  from  that  of 
a  sheep  or  a  frog,  the  protoplasm  of  one  muscle  must  differ  from 
that  of  another  muscle,  in  the  aaine  kind  of  animal,  and  the  pro- 
toplasm of  Smith's  biceps  must  differ  from  that  of  Jone's— Foster. 

Hi  ,,      INTRODUCTION. 

Called   D/iaius    or    fundaraental    principles  of  the  economy, 
when  in  virtue  of  their   correlative   and    sustentative   func- 
tions,  or    with   the   help   of  their  subservient  processes  of 
metabolism  and  lymphatic  circulation,  they  ensure  an  equi- 
poise  among  the    diflferent  vital  and  physiological  processes 
in  the    u'hole    economy    which    is    essential    to    its    perfect 
health.     Biologically  considered  they  are    but    the    primary 
subtle   djniamics    of   organic    life,  or  as  Sayana  expresses  it, 
the  three  fundamental  principles  of  the   body.*     But  when 
this    healthy    equilibrium    is    disturbed  either    through  the 
agency   of  any  extrinsic  or  idiopathic  factor,  when  any  one 
of  them   is   abnormally    augmented  or  dominates  the  other 
two,  thus  altering  their   mutual    relation    in    the    economy, 
naturally  certain  pathological  conditions    arise    which    form 
the  esse  of  a  disease  ;  t  or  in  the  parlance  of  the  Ayurveda 
they   are   said    to    have    been    transformed  into  Doshas  or 
morbific  diathesis.     Even   blood,    which,  according    to   our 
Acharyayas,  forms  one  of  the  fundamental  principles  (Dhatu) 
of  the  organism,  may  be  designated    as    a    Dosha    (morbific 
diathesis),    when    owing    to   its  congestion  in  any  particular 
organ  or  member  of  the  body,  it  brings  about  a  disturbance 
in   its   general    vascular    system    and  produces  pathological 
conditions    which    are    offshoots    of     its   own     deficient    or 
disturbed  circulation.     They  are    denominated  as    MalaS,  \ 
when  observed  still    in  grosser    or    superficial    principles   of 
the     organism     producing    those    excretions,     or     organic 
lesions  which  appertain  to  the  sphere    of  morbid    Anatomy. 
Thus  we  see  that  the  Ayurvedic  principles  of  Vayu,    Pittam 
and  Kaphah    embrace  both     the    biological    and    pathologi- 

.Sayanas  Commentary  Rig  ^^  1  A. 

INTRODUCTION.         .  Hli 


cal  principles  of  the  organism  ;»  or  in  other  wOrds,  the 
Ayurvedic  physiology  elucidates  and  investigates  the 
causes  through  which  the  'same  principles,  which  sustain 
life  and  the  organism,  are  transformed  into  the  dynari\*ics 
of  disease,  lastly  pointing  out  the  grosser  excretory  changes 
and  organic  lesions  in  the  external  or  "superficial  plane  of 
existence,  which  form  thi  subject  of  morbid  anatomy  and 
are  sometimes  confounded  with  the  disease  itself.  In  the 
Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  of  the  Acharyayas  we  have  at 
once  a  complete  picture  of  the  finer  sustentative  forces  of 
the  human  economy  as  well  as  their  antithesis,  the  construc- 
tive as  well  as  the  expulsive  forces*  of  the  inner  man,  to- 
gether with  an  exhaustive  analysis  of  their  grosser  products 
which  legitimately  fall  within  the  sphere  of  morbid  ana- 
tomy. A  real  knowledge  of  the  nature  and  functions  of 
the  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  may  be  useful  in  giving  a 
deeper  and  clearer  insight  into  the  principles  of  true  biology 
or  pathology.  It  is  incorrect  to  translate  Vayu,  Pittam  and 
Kaphah  as  air,  bile  and  phlegm,  except  under  certain  cir- 
cumstances. Viyu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  are  air,  bile  and 
phlegm  only  when  they  are  transformed  into  Malas  or 
grosser  organic  excretions  which  are  supposed  to  be 
so  very  intimately  connected  with  factors,  pathogenetic 
or  pathological,  but  they  are  not  air,  bile  and  phlegm  in 
those  planes  of  their  functions  which  determine  the  genesis, 
growth  and  continuance  of  the  organism,  as  w-ell  as  its 
death,  decay  and  disinteg  ation.  -The  knowledge  of  a 
region  without  that  of  its  antipodes  is  but  a  half  knowledge, 
and  the  principle  of  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  is  the  only 
one  of  its  kind  that  tries  to  embrace  the  whole  sphere  of 
organic  existence. 

Ojah-Dh^tU  : — From  what  has  been  stated  before 
it  will  appear  that  during  the  process  of  tissu'e-formation, 
the  Ivmph  or  chyle,  under  the  influence  of  Pittam,  or 
metabolic  heat,  is  transformed  in^o  the  same,  the  refuse 
or  un-utilisable  portion  of  it  being    passed    off  through  the 

liv  .         IN*rRODUCTION. 


apertures  of  ihe  body,  is  excretions.  The  Ojah-Dhatu  is 
present  in  the  reproductive  energy  that  lies  latent  in  every 
organic  principle,  viz.  lymph,  blood,  muscles,  bone  (synovia), 
ma"Vro\v,  and  in  the  *male  &  female  reproductive  elements. 
Hence  it  is  not  a  matter  of  si.irprise  when  we  find  in  Ayur- 
vedic works  this  Sbma,  or  Ojah-Dhatu  mentioned  as  lying 
diffused  in  the  human  organism  aiVd  described  as  the  essence 
of  the  lymph  chyle,  blood,  &c.  (i).  The  terms  Rasagata 
Ojah,  Raktagata  Ojah  are  therefore  used  perhaps  in  the 
sense  of  modern  serum-albumen,  blood-albumen,  &c.  The 
male  &  female  reproductive  elements,  according  to  this 
view,  form  the  essence  of 'the  body  as  a  whole,  and  the  Ojah, 
which  is  abundantly  found  in  these  protoplasmic  cells,  is 
the  quintessence  of  a  quintessence.  The  muscle  of  the 
heart  alone,  according  to  Charaka,  is  chiefly  associated  with 
this  energetic  substance,  which  is  of  a  bloody  yellowish 
colour  &.  possesses  both  cooling  &  heat-making  virtues.  (2) 

In  diseases  caused  by  defective  assimilation  it  is  said  to 
be  ejected  through  the  kidne\'s  and  to  pass  off  with  the  urine 
(as  in  certain  types  of  Prameha)  (3),  whereby  the  patient 
gradually  loses  strength,  flesh,  and  healthy  glow  of  complex- 
ion inasmuch    as  these  are    but  the  accompaniments   of   its 

(l)     ^T\^  ^Wt^Tfprt  ^^JflTlt  RT'^^fW  I 

Vagbhal . 

=^3f:  aift?  ^wm'  tT^mrar  ftfjpfw  n 

Charaka  (Sutra  StMnam)  Ch.  XVII. 
(3)      A.    ^?:mfJ?ll7T^ft^  ^I^T?I  JI^ff?f  I 

^]  -^fm'  tT^  §f^  ^^^%:  ffWn  II 
•^  Charaka  (Sutra  Sthinam)  Ch,  XVII. 

Charaka  (ShSrira  SthSnam)  Ch.  IV. 

INTRODUCTieN.        ,  Iv 

healthy  continuance  in  the  humi^n  organism.  "Health  and 
strength,"  observes  our  Rishi,"  reside  latent  in  the  Ojah- 
dhatu,  as  butter  (Ghritam)4ies  latent  in  milk,  (i) 

Dallana  Mishra,  the  celebrated  commentator  of  the 
Sushruta  Samhita,  has  defined  Ojah  as  a  fatty  su6stance 
completely  combustible  in  its  character.  Thus  in  the 
course  of  tissue  combustion  its  excess  quantity  is  deposited 
especially  in  the  female  body  as  which  produces  that 
peculiar  softness  and  elegance.  (2)  The  presence  of  Ojah 
in  urine  is  said  to  induce  Madhumeha  (3).  Taking  this  fact 
alone  into  consideration  one  is  inclined  to  the  belief 
that  Ojah  must  be  something  "of  the  nature  of  sugar. 
As  a  consequence  of  these  diflFerent  interpretations  of 
Ojah  the  question  arises  whether  there  is  present  in  the 
human  organism  any  such  common  element  that  produces 
either  of  these  two  important  oxidising  materials,  viz.  fat 
and  sugar. 

It  is  a  demonstrated  fact  in  modern  Physiology  that 
glycogen  is  found  in  other  tissues  and  organs  besides 
in  the  liver.  Tissues  of  embryos  and  of  young  animals 
as  well  as  newly  formed  pathological  growths  may  be  said 
to  contain  glycogen.  The  activity  of  the  heart,  as  well  as 
the  development  of  the    fetal  body  (4)  is  largely  dependent 

(i)     A.  '^]w.  'FT^at^T'??'  %^  aftct*  f^T  f^ciH  I 

Bh^VaprakSsha.    Part  I. 

Dallana  Mishra. 
(3)  See  Note  3  (B)  Page  iiv.  » 

(4)    ^r\  ^TTmfl  "wsf  ^Tr^'Tff^m?^:  1 

^TFr^TT-ffT'T'  ^?^'  ?1HlTr^^rrf  m  ^X\  II 

Charaka  SutrasthSnam,  Chap.  XXX. 


upon  this  Ojah-dhatu  which  may  be  best  translated  as 
glycogen  in-  the  parlance  of  Western  physiology.  In  fact, 
our  Acharyayas  have  used  tke  term  ''ojah"  to  denote  that 
xitzl  principle  in  the  organism  which  is  essential  to  the 
maintenance  of  a  healthy  combustion  in  its  tissues  and  to  the 
due  performance  of  their  normal  functions  and  activities,  no 
matter  whether  that  principle  is  patent  in  the  form  of  proto- 
plasm, protoplasmic  albumen,  glycogen  or  mucosin  (Prakrita 
shleshma)*  in  accordance  with  the  difference  of  their  func- 
tions, geneses,  and  conditions  of  protoplasmic  metabolism. 
In  short,  the}-  were  cognisant  of  the  fact  that  fat  and  sugar 
are  evolved  out  of  a  common  basic  principle  in  the  organism 
as  has  been  very  eruditely  demonstrated  by  Dr.  S.  N. 
Goswami,  B.  A.,  L.  M.  S.  in  his  treatise  on  Pumsavanam  t 
It  is  far  from  our  intention  to  thrust  this  opinion  on  an^' 
one  ;  we  have  simply  stated  our  conclusion  in  the  matter 
and  will  welcome  the  result  of  fresh  enquiries  on  this  subject. 

Charaka  SamhitS  Sutrasth^nain,  Chap.  XVII. 

Chakiadattas  Commentary  S.  Samhit^,  Sutrasthanam  Chap.  XV. 

1^  "From  these  extracts  ii  appears  to  us  still  more  vividly  that  our 
countrymen  did  also  discover,  like  Dr.  Pavy,  the  importance  of 
fat  and  sugar  in  the  animal  economy,  as  well  as  the  mode  in  which  they 
can  be  elaborated  from  one  common  principle.  (76-78).  A  comparative 
study  of  the  two  systems  of  medical  science,  Indian  and  European, 
has  led  us  to  arrive  at  this  conclusion  ;  if  we,  therefore  are  not  inclined 
to  identify  Ojah  with  albumen,  as  it  has  been  done  by  some  modern 
Indian  commentators,  we  have  reasons  to  believe  that  the  aforesaid 
extracts  have  not  as  yet  received  sufficient  consideration  from  them,  as 
forming  the  nutri'ive  basis  of  the  procreative  elements  ;  in  short  the  subject 
has  hitherto  been  neglected  or,  at  least,  been  placed  in  the  back-ground, 
rom  want  of  attention  on  the  part  of  those  whose  business  it  was  to  investi- 
gate into  the  truths  of  Science.  To  hold  that  Ojah  is  kept  in  deposit  in 
the  heart,  as  a  reserved  food  material,  for  the  maintenance  of  its   own   work 

INTRODUCTld^'.  »  Ivii 

Space  does  not  permit  us  to  giVe  here  even  something 
like  a  satisfactory  synopsis  of  the  physiology  of  Sushruta. 
It  is  enough  for  our  purpose  if  we  can  create  for  our  readers 
an  interest  in  the  various  physiological  problems  discuss'ed 
by  our  author  in  this  part  of  his  work,  or  in  his  description 
of  the  various  physiological  processes,  which  are  essential 
to  the  healthy  continuance  of  human  economy.  But  if 
Hindu  physiology  is  startling   in  its    demonstration  of  the 

as  well  as  for  the  production  of  germinal  seed,  is  to  admit  that  efficiency  of 
reproduction  depends  entirely  upon  the  efficiency  of  this  important  sub- 
stantt  in  the  body."J 

(76)  ^?5%7>JT^SigTUT'?rf?T*TT^'  Tfl^tTmj 

(77)  ?fT'  21^  fifW€tT#^: 

(78)  ^??tSt2IT^?l'  '^^W.  q^TRTTRTW 


76.  Those  who  partake  of  heavy  and  cooling  food  abounding  in  acids  and 
salts,  of  new  rice,  and  beverages,  or  constantly  enjoy  sleep  and  luxuries,  or 
neglect  the  exercise  of  body  and  mind,  or  who  hal)itually  abstain  from  the 
use  of  corrective  medicines,  help  to  accumulate  in  their  bodiej  phlegm, 
bile,  fat  and  flesh  ;  and  these  interfere  with  the  functions  of  the  \'Ay\i, 
which  causes  the  Ojah  to  be  displaced  from  its  proper  place  down  in  the 
bladder   and  produces  glycosuria, 

77.  As  Ghee  pervades  the  whole  of  milk,  so  Teja  (f^yah)  permeates 
all  the  tissues  of  the  body. 

78.  Teja  (Ojah)  too  is  combustible  :  in  course  of  tissue-combustion,  the 
excess  quantity  of  it  gets  deposited  especially  in  the  female  body  as  fat 
which  produces  softness  and  elegance. 

Iviii  ifiTRonucTioN. 


fact  tha'L  growth  is  not  the  only  condition  of  Ufe,  that  vitali- 
ty is  somewhat  independent  of  the  physiological  processes, 
that  the  inner  man,  with  the  he4p  of  Yoga,  can  long  survive 
even  without  food  and  respiration,*  and  that  death  and 
decay" may  be  arrested  to  a  considerable  degree  by  com- 
pletely stopping  nfany  of  those  physiological  processes  in 
the  body,t  which  are  considered  ^j  very  essential  to  living 
by  the  savants  of  the  West,  then  Hindu  pathology  is  unique 
in  its  conception  of  the  nature  of  disease. 

Sushruta's  Pathology  : — What  is  it  in  a  man,  asks  Sush- 
ruta,  that  falls  sick  ?  What  is  that  that  we  treat  medicinally  ? 
The  body  or  the  mind  ?  'Sushruta  says  that,  "anything  that 
afflicts  the  nmer  man  (self  or  Purusha)  is  disease!  and 
that  disease  has  its  primary  seat  in  the  inner  spring  of 
vitality  from  which  it  flows  out  to  the  surface,  the  external 
body".  In  man,  as  in  everything  else  in  the  universe, 
the  direction  of  the  inherent  force  is  from  the  centre  to 
the  circumference.  The  shock  is  felt  first  at  the  centre  of 
vitality,  whence  it  is  transmitted  outwards  and  thus  affects 
the  energy  which  holds  the  molecules  together,  Dvyanuks  and 
Tryanuks  (Binary  and  teriiary  atoms)  of  which  the  gross 
body  is  composed,  and  further  opposes  the  dissolution  of 
those  molecules  into  their  elemental  constituents  in  the  living 
organism.  Even  in  cases  of  external  injuries  such  as  snake- 
bite, etc.  the  potency  of  the  virus  is  carried  at  once  to  that 
centre  from  whence  it  is  almost  instantaneously  transmitted 
through  the  external  channels  of   the    body    to    its    surface, 

ff^TTUr  *^^«  1 

Palanjala  Uarshanani  X^ibhudpAda  29 — 30  A. 

Pcitanjala  Daishanam.     Vibhutipada.  21.  A. 

Sushruta  samhitA.     Sulra.     Chap.  1. 

INTRODUCTION.         ,  lix' 


Otherwise  what  purpose  does  the  \iyu  (nerve  force),5erve  in 
the  human  economy  ?  What  do  those  myriads  of  Chaitanya- 
vahini  Nadis  (sensory  ne,ivt^s)  exist  for  in  the  human 
system  ?  In  all  diseases  the  subjective  sensations  are  I'he 
first  to  be  experienced.  "I  am  ill,"  "I  feel  hot,"  etc.  are  the 
voices  of  sensations,  which  form  the  "esse"  of  the  disease. 
Disease  then  is  a  force  ar^d  not  matter.* 

Pathology  of  Tridosha  :— Sushmta,  though  adopting 
the  Vedic  pathological  dictum  of  Tridhatu,  has  expressed 
a  very  clear  opinion  on  the  subject.  He  observes  that  the 
relation  between  a  disease  and  the  deranged  Vayu  (nerve 
force),  Pittam  (metabolism)  and  Kapham  (unutilised  product 
of  the  system),  and  the  pathogenic  factors  which  lie  at  the 
root  of  that  disease,  is  not  real  but  contingent.  These 
morbific  principles  may  permeate  the  whole  organism 
without  creating  any  discomfort,  and  it  is  only  when  they 
find  a  distinct  lodgment,  and  are  centred  in  some  distinct 
part  or  tissue  of  the  body,  that  they  become  the  exciting 
factors  of  disease. 

Drug  Potency  :— The  next  question  which  naturally 
arises  in  connection  with  such  a  theory  of  pathogeny,  is 
what  is  medicine,  or  in  other  words,  what  is  it  in  the  drug 
that  cures  !  Sushruta,  after  closely  investigating  all  the 
theories  on  the  subject,  inclines  towards  the  opinion  that  it 
is  the  potency  of  the  drug  that  is  curative,  though  he  observes 
that  inasmuch  as  potency  cannot  exist  independently  of  a 
drug,  a  drug  is  of  primary  interest  for  p11  practical  purposes 
in  therapy. 

Drug-Dynamisation  :-"It  is  the  potency  of  a  drug 
that  cures  a   disease".     The    potency    is    administered    best 

*  That  Hahnemann's  theory  of  was  long  before  fore- 
.shadowed  by  Sushruta,  will  appear  from  the  above  extracts  from  his 
works.  Hahnemann  observes  that,  when  a  person  falls  ill,  it  is  only 
this  spiritual  self-acting  vital  force,  everywhere  present  in  the  organism, 
that  is  primarily  deranged  by  the  dynamic  influence  of  a  morbific 
agent  inimical  to  life — Orgenon. 



when  the  physical  or  chqjmical  properties  of  a  drug  are 
annihilated.  This  "is  best  performed  by  subjecting  it  to 
heat  or  pressure.  In  the  n^edicated  Ghritas  or  oils  of 
ouv.pharmacopoea,  which  are  prepared  by  successively  boiling 
or  cocking  them  with  drug-decoctions,  we  cannot  even 
detect  the  trace  of  /Miy  of  its  component  drugs,  but  still 
we  know  how  potent  and  efficacious  they  prove  in  the 
hands  of  our  Vaidyas.  When  Sushruta  formulated  the 
process  of  preparing  mediciual  oils  and  Ghritas,  and  laid 
down  the  use  of  Shatadhautam  Ghritam  (clarified  butter, 
a  hundred  times  washed  with  water  in  succession), 
Sahasrapak  Tailam  (medicinal  oil,  successively  codked  a 
thousand  times),  or  Kumbha-Ghritam  (clarified  butter, 
a  hundred  years  old)  it  may  be  fairly  said  that  he  was  in 
sight  of  the  principle  of  drug-dynamisation. 

Principles  of  A  yurvedic  Treatment:— Ayurvedic  phy- 
sicians piacticallv  recognise  two  dififerent  sets  of  principles 
in  the  domain  of  practical  therapeutics,  which  may  be  stated 
in  the  terms  of  ::heir  western  colleagues  as  Laws  of  Similars 
and  Contraries.*  This  apparent  contradiction  has  been 
fully  accounted  for  and  explained  in  the  writings  of 
the  latter  day  commentators,  but  it  does  not  fall  within 
our  province  to  enter  into  these  disquisitions.  In  addition 
to  those,  Sushruta,  in  common  with  the  Acharyayas  of  his 
time,    never    fails    to    emphasise  the  value  of  psycopathy  in 

*  Similar  in  ch.iracter  to  the  exciting  factors  of  a  disease — Similar  in 
character  to  the  £sse  of  a  disease — Similar  in  character  both  to  the  exciting 
actors  and  £i>\se  of  a  disease. 

Contrary  in  character  to  the  exciting  factors  of  a  disease. 

Contrary  in  character  to  the  £sse  of  a  disease. 

Contrary  in  character  both  to  the  exciting  factors  and  Esse  of  a  disease. 

M^dhava  NidSnam  Ch  I.  V,  8. 

INTRODUCTION.       ^  1X1 

those  forms  of  mental  or  nerv;ous  distempers  fgr  which 
Mesmer  rightly  now  receives  so  n\uch  honor.  Since 
the  creation  of  man,  the  tput'h  of  the  "Saintly"  has  been 
credited  with  the  virtue  of  curing  the  sick  ;  and  Av^feha 
(auto-hypnotism)  and  Samadhi  (higher  phases  of  ciairvoy- 
ance)  have  achieved  many  miracles  in .  the  art  of  healing 
in  India,  which  was  the,  first  country  where  it  was  first 
successfully  practised  for  the  welfare  of  man. 

Samshodhanam  and  Samshamanam  :— All  kinds  of 
treatment  may  be  grouped  under  two  heads  such  as  Sam- 
shodhanam and  Samshamanam,  i.e.  either  the  body  should 
be  cleansed  (Samshodhitam)  of  the  morbific  diathesis  with 
the  help  of  emetics  or  purgatives,  or  steps  should  be  taken 
to  restore  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham  to  their 
normal  condition  with  the  help  of  proper  medicinal  drugs 
without  resorting  to  any  eliminating  process.  But  in  cases 
of  inflammation,  Sushruta  enjoins  that,  instead  of  any  Sam- 
shamanam remedies,  diaphoresis  should  be  first  resorted  to. 
In  cases  where  counter-irritants  are  indicated  and  in  parts 
which  are  directly  accessible,  leeching  and  cauterisation 
should  be  practised  with  a  due  regard  to  the  season  of  the 
year  and  the  requirements  of  the  case.  We  find  in  his 
Samhita  a  detailed  account  of  the  several  species  of  leeches 
with  their  habits  and  habitats. 

Forms  of  medicine:  — Powders,  lambatives,  decoctions 
as  well  as  medicated  oils,  Ghritas,  confection  and  wines  are 
the  forms  in  "-hich,  according  to  Sushruta,  medicines 
should  be  given.  The  different  di  ugs  such  as  roots,  leaves, 
etc.  should  be  culled  in  the  seasons  proper  to  each. 
Reclassified  the  soil  into  five  different  kinds  for  the  purpose 
of  growing  drugs  of  different  therapeutic  properties. 
Even  the  virtues  of  different  flavours  and  colours  were 
ascertained  with  regard  to  their  respective  actions  on  the 
deranged  morbific  principles  of  the  body. 

Rasayanam  : — The  Ayurveda  being  the  science  of  life 
and  health,  the  holy  Agnivesha,  at  the  very  commencement 

Ixii  ,     INTRODUCTION. 

ot  the  th-erapeutical  porticMi  of  his  work,  *  has  described 
several  medicinal  compounds,  which  improve  general  health 
and  arrest  the  ravages  of  time.  '  Theoretically  speaking  the 
sciehrce  of  the  A3'urveda  recognises  no  preordained  limit  to 
human  fexistence.  Life  can  be  prolonged  with  the  help 
of  suitable  medicines.  By  dint  of  observation  and  patient 
researches  our  Rishis  devised  maay  such  adjuncts  which 
can  rejuvenate  an  old  man,  and  supply  those  vital  elements 
to  an  old  and  exhausted  human  body,  which  ebb  away 
with  the  progress  of  years.  Hence,  we  find  many 
rejuvenating  medicines  to  have  been  prescribed  for  men  in 
health  which  would  arrest  decay  and  guard  against  the 
approach  of  senility  b}'  increasing  the  fundamental  vital 
principles  of  the  body  and  preventing  Vayu,  Pittam  and 
Kapham  from  being  transformed  into  morbific  diatheses. 

Diet  — "A  good  and  proper  diet  in  disease  is  worth 
a  hundred  medicines  and  no  amount  of  medication  can  do 
good  to  a  patient  who  does  not  observe  a  strict  regimen  of 
diet.''  Our  A'jairveda,  instead  of  being  content  with  specify- 
ing the  nature  of  diet  in  diseases  in  general,  mentions  the 
names  of  articles,  which  should,  or  should  not  be  taken  in 
■^J  any  specific  malady,  judged  by  the  light  of  their  properties 
of  aggravating  Vayu,  Pittam  or  Kapham.  The  dietic  or 
therapeutic  properties  of  a  large  number  of  articles  of 
human  consumption,  as  well  as  the  chemical  changes  they 
undergo  in  the  digestive  apparatus  of  diflferent  mammals, 
have  been  studied  and  analysed,  and  so  we  find  in  our 
physique,  medical  Samhitas,  such  injunctions  that  barley- 
corns    passed     undigested     with  _  the    fceces    of    a    cow    or 

flwi^ii'  J?^t[z^^^'  ^^^n  ^^'  ^x  w 

Chaiaka  Sanihit^t  Chikitsrt  Slli4nam  Ch     I, 

)NTKuDUC'?ioN.    >  Ixiii 


horse,  should  foiiu  the  diet  of  'a  Prameha  patielit  *  that 
the  milk  of  a  she-camel  should  be  given  to  a  patient 
suffering  from  a  cutaneous  aflFection,  and  that  the  flesh 
of  any  carnivorous  beast  or  bird  should  be  given  to 'one 
suffering  from  pulmonary  consumption  and  so  '  on.  It 
was  a  cardinal  doctrine  with  Ayurvedic  dietisls  that  the 
longing  of  a  patieni  for  any  particular  kind  of  food 
in  a  certain  disease,  emphatically  shows  that  his  organism 
is  in  want  of  those  elements  which  enter  into  the 
composition  of  the  article  offered.  Hence  elaborate 
dietetics  were  formulated,  which  cannot  but  be  acceptable 
to  the  most  fastidious  patient.      ' 

Therapeutics:— The  exclusiont  of  salt  and  water  from 
the  food  of  an  ascites  or  anasarca  patient  as  laid  down  in 
our  Samhitas  shows  that  our  Rishi  possessed  a  higher 
chemical  knowledge  regarding  the  effects  of  organic  matter 
on  the  human  system  than  many  of  us  are  ready  to 
accord  to  these  pioneers  in  medical  science. 

Medical  Botany;— After  therapeutics  comes  the  subject 
of  Medical  Botany.     Sushruta  divides   the  whole  vegetable 

Charaka  Samhiti,  Chikiisa  Sthanam,  Ch.  \'I.  23. 
t    The  efficacy  of  such    exclusion    has   been  lately  demonsU-ated  by  the 
researches   of  Dr.  Benjamin    Horniman    (Lectures,    Sanitarium,    Park    si. 

Charaka  Chikitsha  Sthanam  Ch,  XIIL 
^bid    Chap.  13. 

Charaka  Chikitsha  Sthanam  Chap,  1 2. 

Ixiv  ■  f      INTRODUCTION. 

kingdom  into  Vriksha,  Gultlia,  Vanaspati  and  Virudha.  This 
classification  has  been  minutely  worked  out  in  works  on 
Hindu  Botany  where  we  find  si!ich  nice  subdivisions  as 
r  Agravija  (whose  toplings  are  only  planted),  Mulaja  (whose 
roots  only  are  planted),  Parnayoni,  Skandaja,  Vijaruha  (ger- 
minated from  seeds)  ^nd  Sannurudhaja.  But  the  botany  of 
/    Sushrnta  is  more  of  the  nature    of  a"  Materia    Medica    than 

/  a  work  on  Botany  proper,  though  sometimes  he  mentions 
the  habitat  and  describes  the  foliage  of  certain  plants  so 
that  they  may  be  distinguished  from  others  of  a  cognate 
,  ^  The  uses  of  metals  and  'minerals  for  therapeutical  pur- 
poses in  India  are  as  old  as  the  Rigveda  *  itself.  Sush- 
ruta  describes  the  methods  of  preparing  oxides,  sulphates 
or  chlorides  of  the  six  metals  as  the  case  may  be.  Mercury 
has  been  only  once  mentioned  in  the  Samhita  and  then  very 
vaguely  too.  Processes  for  the  preparation  of  alkalis  and 
the  lixiviation  of  ashes  are  very  elaborately  described. 
Beyond  these  the  chemical  knowledge  of  Sushruta  scarcely 

Hygiene  and  Public  Health:— A?  a  writer  of  Hygiene 
and  public  health,  Sushruta  emphasises  the  importance 
of  cleanliness  of  both  sririt  and  body.  Water  whose 
disinfecting  virtues  have  so  often  been  hymnised  in  the 
Vedas  t  forms  the  subject  of  discussion  of  an  entire 
chapter  of  the  Samhita.  Outbreaks  of  epidemic  have  been 
attributed  to  contrary   seasons,    to    the   floating   of  minute 

^/\  particles  of  poisonous  flower  pollen  in  the  air,  and  to  the 
sin  or  unrighteous  conduct  of  the  community.  Earthquakes, 
famines,  and  physical  phenomena,  which  are  at  present  attri- 
buted to  magnetic   disturbances   of  the   earth,   have    been 

*    Lead  crystal  (including  diamond)  gold  and  mineral  poisons  arc  men- 
tioned in  the  I.  i6.  I.  29.  I  55.  and  IV  10.  of  the  Atharva  SamhitA. 

Rik  Samhiti  I.  23  s.  19, 


described  by  Sushi ut a  as  the  usual  precursors  of  devastating 
epidemics  sucli  as  jilague  etc.  Mortality  among  birds  and  an 
unusual  death  among  rats  and  other  burrowing  rodents  hav^ 
been  iricluded  aiuo.ig  other  presaging  indications  of  a  visi- 
tation by  Providence.  Interrogated  as  to  the  cause  of  such 
outbreaks,  Dhanvautari  observes  that,  the  Viyu  (molecular 
energy)  of  the  soi'  is  disturoed  or  affected  by  earthquakes, 
and  seasons  of  unnatural  drought  or  deluge,  deranging  their 
Pittam  (kinetic  energy)  and  Shleshma  (humidity)  which 
produce  morbific  factors  that  affect  a  whole  community. 
Sushyuta,  as  a  true  physician,  has  elaborately  dealt  with  the 
regimen  of  diet  and  conduct  during  the  different  seasons 
of  the  year  (Ch.  24  -U.  T.  64)  which,  strictly  followed,  should 
act  as  a  good  prophylaxis  against  attacks  of  many  epidemic 
diseases,  being  framed  with  a  most  careful  regard  to  the 
conditions  of  life  which  obtain  in  it,  and  ward  off  those  sad 
breakdowns  in  health,  which  are,  in  many  instances,  the 
result  of  an  unsuitable  mode  of  living  in  this  country. 

Twofold  division  of  Time  &C  :— It  is  a  fundamental 
dictum  of  Sushruta  that  in  a  case  of  medical  treatment  the 
then  prevailing  season  of  the  year  should  be  taken  into 
account.  In  his  Samhita  we  find  two  distinct  classifications 
of  seasons,  one  based  on  the  peculiar  physical  pheno- 
mena which  distinguish  the  different  seasons  of  the  year,  a  fact 
which  emphaticall}' proves  that  Sushruta  was  an  inhabitant 
of  the  sub-Himalayan  Gangetic  Doab,  the  other  is  for  the 
purpose  of  showing  the  respective  accumulation,  aggrava- 
tion and  subsidence  of  morbific  diatheses  (Doshas).  In 
the  same  manner  the  different  quarters  of  the  day  and 
night  have  been  minutely  charted  or  set  down  to  show  the 
spontaneous  aggravation  and  subsidence  of  the  deranged 
Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kaphah  during  the  24  l^ours.  The!  , 
influence  of  planets  as  to  the  production  of  certain  diseases 
such  as  small-pox,  measles,  scarlet  fever,  &c.  is  almost  a 
proved  fact.  As  it  governs  the'  prevalence  and  non- 
prevalence     of    certain     maladies,   the     aggravation     and 



non-aggravation  of  certain  existing  disorders  as  well  owe 
much  of  tb.eir  origin  to  this  potent  factor.  The  vegetable 
kingdom  from  which  we  glean  our  daily  food  is  also  subject 
to  thi?  influence,  and  hence  the  discrimination  we  exercise 
in  selecting  our  food  on  certain  davs  of  the  lunar  month. 

Countries  have  been  divided  into  Jangala  or  A'  ac- 
cording as  their  physical  features  partake  of  the  character 
of  a  dry  plateau  or  of  a  swamp  or  marsh,  a  Sadharana 
one  possessing  features,  which  are  common  to  both.  Diseases, 
which  are  natural  or  are  spontaneously  relieved  in  each  of 
these  kinds  of  countr}-  have  been  treated  with  that  scienti- 
fic insight  which  marks  modern  medical  works  on  sea-side 
or  spring  sanitariums.  The  virtues  of  the  waters  of  different 
rivers  of  India  were  ascertained  for  the  purposes  of  practical 
therapeutics.  The  therapeutic  properties  of  the  milk  of 
a  she-goat,  she-buflFalo,  mare,  cow-elephant,  or  woman,  as 
well  as  of  any  of  their  modifications  such  as  curd,  whey  &c. 
together  with  the  properties  of  the  flesh  and  urine  of  the 
several  groups  of  she-animals,  which  are  indigenous  to 
the  land,  were  studied  and  analysed,  thus  placing  at  the 
disposal  of  a  practical  physician  a  list  of  dietarv  in 
different  diseases  to  soothe  the  taste  of  the  most 
fastidious  patient,  and  which  is  at  the  same  time  potent 
enough  to  cure  the  distemper  he  is  suffering  from  without 
the  help  of  anj?^  special  medicine.  Thus  it  is  that  we  find  our 
Vaid\'as  prescribing"  the  flesh  of  many  carnivorous  animals 
as  a  diet  in  consumption,  goat's  meat  in  phthisis,  goat's 
milk  in  colitis  and  Tittira's  flesh  in  fever  &c. 

Diseases  of  the  Kidneys  and  Bladder:  — In  treating 
of  the  diseases  of  the  kidneys,  blatlder  and  the  urethra, 
Sushruta  has  described  the  symptoms  and  the  colour  of 
the  urine  irii  each  specific  variety  without  laying  down  any 
mode  of  testing  the  urine.  But  we  know  that  Sn^hruta  has 
enjoined  his  readers  at  the  ver}-  outset  of  his  work  to  refer 
to  other  allied  branches  of  the  science  for  information 
which  is  not    contained    in   his  book.     In  the  same  manrier 


we  can  account  for  the  absence  of.^  any  instiuctions  as 
regards  the  feeling  of  the  p'j'>se  as  an  important  auxiliary 
in  making  a  correct  diagnosis.  We  need  but  repeat  -.the 
statement  that  the  readers  of  this  Samhita  must  look  for 
this  information  in  the  Kanada's  Nadi  Vijnanam,  which  has 
made  our  Vaidyas  such  expert  sphygmologists. 

Kalpa:  — In  the  Kalpasth:inam  of  his  Samhita,  Sushruta 
has  described  the  symptoms  of  hydrophobia  and  snake  bites, 
etc  as  well  as  those  developed  in  cases  of  vegetable  poisoning, 
together  with  their  therapeutical  treatment  and  remedies, 
wkich,  if  rightly  studied  and  investigated,  may  yet  throw  a 
new  liglit  upon  the  subject. 

Sushruta  as  an  Observer  :— It  has  been  lately  dis- 
covered by  a  German  physiologist  that  tubercular  bacilli  do 
not  thrive  in  goat's  blood.  The  importance  of  goat's  milk 
in  colitis  as  an  efficient  agent  in  checking  ferment  in  the 
intestines,  or  of  the  close  contact  of  a  goat  as  a  powerful 
auxiliary  in  curing  tuberculous  phthisis  was  first  demonstrated 
by  Sushruta.  Not  onl}'  this — but  the  inhalation  of  the 
air  of  a  cattle-shed  and  especially  the  fact  that  exhalations 
of  goats,  bodies  tend  to  destroy  the  phthisis  germs  did 
not  fail  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  Indian  Rishis  ;  the 
fumigation  of  tlie  sick-room  with  antiseptic  preparations 
such  as  isT^T^wq  (Asthanga  dhupas)  is  purely  Indian 
in  its  origin  and  in  no  way  inferior  to  the  modern  introduction 
of  Cogghill's  respirators.  The  microscopic  germs  that  are  said 
to  propagate  septic  fever  otherwise  called  ^^^crrfvf  q^'lsj  f^^^j^ 
are  found  very  often  to  disappear  under  this  Indian 
device  where  no  medicines  produce  any  impression.  Thus 
many  a  wonderful  discovery  like  the  above  hails  from  the 
dimness  of  a  bygone  age.  Manj'  truths  lie  embedded 
in  the  vast  medical  literature  of  the  Brajimanas  which 
claimed  close  attention  and  devout  study,  even  by  the 
western  savants.  We  have  not  laboured  in  vain  if  these 
pages  can  help  a  little  to  reviVe  the  old  genius  of  the 
Ayurveda,  or  help  the  progress  of  human  Science  one  step 
onward  towards  the  attainment  of  its  goal. 

PLATE  No.  I, 

1.  An^uli  yantra. 

i '^     3 .  Ashmaryaharna  yantra 

S-Bhrin^amuklia  yantra. 

Z.Arsho  yantra. 


4.  Basti  yantra. 

6 .  Darvyakritislialaka. 

7.  Garbhashanlcu  yantra. 

8.  Jalodar  yantra. 

9 .  Kakamuklia  yantra. 

10 .  Kankamukha  yantra. 

ILMuclititi  yantra. 


12.  Nadi  yantra. 

13 .  Riksliaraukha-  yantra. 

14-.  Sadansha  yantra. 


PLATE  No.  II. 

15 .  Shamipatra  yautra. 

16.  Shalaka  vanira. 

17.  Sliarapunka  ixmkha. 

19.  Shvanaraukha  y antra. 

18.  Sinliainiiklia  yantra. 

20.  Shanku  yantra. 

21.  Snuhi  yantra. 

22.  Tila  yantra. 

23  .Tarakshumukha. 

24.Vrikaiimkha  yantra. 

25 .  Vrinapraksii.alana  yantra,  26 .  Yya^hramukha  yantra 

27. Yugmaslianku yantra.  -  %k  ,,^M  Yofljaveksliana  yantra. 



l.Ardhadhara  shastra. 

S.Ara  sliastra. 

Z.Atimukha    shastra. 
4.  Badisha.  shastra. 


S.Dantaslianku  shastra. 

7.  Karapatra  shastra. 

^     ' 


6.  Eshani  shastra. 

8.  Antarmukha  kartarika. 




PLATE  No.  IV. 

9.Kritharika  sTiastra. 


lO.Kushapatra   shastra.^ra  shastra.     ♦ 

12.Mudrika  shastra. 

13.Na.kiia  shastra. 

.  <5' -^ 

14.  Sliaianmuklia  shastra. 

15.  Suchi    shastra. 

'^— J= 

iS.Trikurchaka  shastra. 

17.  Utpalapatra  shastra.    J'j| 

18.  Vetaspatra  shastra. 

19 . Yrihimukha  shastra. 

ZO.Vndhipatra  shaslra. 




Origin  of  the  Ayurveda  : — The  eight  divisions  of  the  Ayurveda 
and  the  characteristic  features  of  each  of  them — History  of  Surgery 
and  its  primary  importance — Gradual  exteiisi(jn  of  the  Ayurveda — 
Definition  of  Purusha — Classification  of  the  mobile  and  the  im- 
mobile— Definition  and  classification  of  disease — Classification  of 
Oshadhis — ^The  four  factors  to  be  employed  in  successfully  coping 
with 'a  disease — The  four  stages  of  a  disease       ...  ...     1 — 15 


Initiation  of  a  student  of  the  Ayurveda  :— Qualifications  of  a 
student  of  medicine — ]\Iode  of  Initiation — Compact  between  the 
preceptor  and  his  disciple — Proliibited  periods  of  the  study  of  the 
Ayurveda     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     16 — 20 


Classification  of  the  Ayurveda  &c.  :— The  distribution  of  its 
hundred  and  twenty  chapters  among  the  five  subdivisions  of  .this 
Samhita — A  synopsis  of  the  contents  of  the  cliapters  allotted  to 
each  of  its  subdivisions — Skilful  and  unskilful  phj^sicians — The 
mode  of  studying  the  Ayurveda — Duties  of  a  pupil  after  having 
finished  the  study  of  the  Ayurveda  ...  ...     21 — .^2 


General  explanations  : — Necessity  of  a  clear  exposition  of  tlie 
Ayurveda — Defects  which  flow  from  nonexposition  of  the  same — 
Duties  of  a  student  of  the  Ayurveda  ...  ...     33 — 35 

ii  '  (  ONTRNTS. 


Preliminary  surgical  measures  : — Classification  of  surgical 
ope^-ations — Accessories  which  are  to  be  collected  at  the  outset 
— Qualifications  of  a  surgeon — Modes  of  incision,  etc.  at  the  different 
parts  of  the  body — Measures  to  be  adopted  after  surgical  operations 
— The  prophylactic  Mantra — Directions  for  dressing  wounds  and 
removing  bandages  according  to  tlie  nature  of  the  prevailing  season 
of  the  year — Acts  and  articles  proliibited  to  a  patient  with  a 
granuliiting  wound — Measures  for  removing  the  pain  in  a  surgical 
wound  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     30 — 44 


Characteristic  features  of  the  different  seasons  of  the  year 
and  their  influence  on  health  and  drugs  : — Time  and  its  traits- 
Etymology  of  the  term  Kala  (time) — Divisions  of  time  and  classifica- 
tion of  the  seasons  of  the  year,  witli  Iheir  respective  features. 
Classification  of  the  seasons  of  the  year  for  the  purposes  of  the 
Ayurveda — Inception,  aggravation  or  subsidence  of  the  deranged 
Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham  according  to  the  nature  of  the  prevailing 
season  of  the  year — Aggravation  or  subsidence  of  the  same  in  the 
dilferent  qiuirters  of  the  day  and  night — Causes  of  epidemics — Pro- 
phylactic measures — Features  of  natural  or  unnatural  seasons     45 — 55 


Surgical  appliances,  their  use  and  construction  : — Number 
of  surgical  instruments — Names,  dimensions^  use  and  functions  of 
surgical  appliances  with  points  of  their  respective  excellence  or  defect 
— Minor  siu'S'ical  accessories — Excellence  of  Kankaraukha  ...     56 — 03 


Surgical  instruments,  and  their  names,  use  and  construc- 
tion : — Mode  of  handling  th^  different  surgical  instruments. — Their 
commendable  features — Sharpening,  edging  and  tempering,    etc..    of 

CONTENTS.  '  111 

surgical  instruments  and  enumeration  of  cases  where  they  »should  be 
employed     ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     64 — 70 


Practice  of    surgery  : — Ti'iichiiig   oi'   siir^^ery    on    (iiiiniiiies    ami 
suitable  fruits,  etc.         ...     ,  ...  ...  ...     71—73 


Essential  qualifications  of  a  physician  before  he  formally 
cntirs  his  profession: — Means  of  diagnosis — Things  to  be  observed 
in  making  a  diagnosis — Cure,  palliation  and  incurability  of  diseases — 
Prohibited  conduct  of  a  physician  ...  ...     74 — 77 


Mode  of  preparing  alkalis,  and  their  comparative  excellence 
as  incising,  excising  or  scraping  agents  :— Alkalis  for  external 
application  or  internal  use — Cases  where  alkalis  prove  injurious — The 
three  potencies  of  alkalis  for  external  application — Commendable 
or  defective  features  in  an  alkali  — IMode  of  its  application,  and  after- 
measures— Symptoms  of  satisfactory  cauterisation— Persons  who 
should  not  be  treated  with  alkalis — Dangers  which  attend  its 
abuse  ...  ...  ...  ...  ■••     78—87 


Actual  cauteries  : — Accessories  to  an  act  of  cauterisation — Pre- 
liminary measures— Symptoms  which  manifest  themselves  as  the 
skin,  or  flesh,  or  a  vein,  or  joint  is  cauterised — Seats  of  caifterisation 
in  different  diseases— Different  modes  of  cauterisation— Characteristic 
symptoms  of  burns  and  scalds,  etc.— Rationale  of  treating  a  burn  or 
a  scald  with  heat— Medical  treatment  of  burns  and  scalds,  etc.— 
Symptoms  which  appear  when  the  nostrils,  etc.  of  a  person  is  choked 
with  smoke— Its  treatment— Medical  treatment  of  sun  strikes,  and 
scorchings  by  hot  Avind,  etc.  ...  ...     88 — 97 



Leeches  and  their  use  : — Persons  who  may  be  leeched — Mode 
of  extracting  the  vitiated  blood  in'  such  cases — Mode  of  apply- 
ing the  leeches — Classification,  and  mode  of  collecting  and  keep- 
ing the  leeches — Bad  leeches  and  their  characteristics — After- 
measures    ...  ,,..  ...  ...  ...     98 — 105 


Origin  and  characteristic  features  of  lymph  chyle  .-—Its 
location,  course  and  metamorphosis  into  blood — Menstrual  blood 
and  its  nature — Successive  .metamorphosis  of  the  fundamental 
principles  of  the  body — Etymology  of  the  terra  Dhatu — Blood — 
Swellings  which  should  not  be  bled — Two  kinds  of  blood  letting— 
\'enesectioii,  its  mode  and  different  aspects — ]\Iischief  created  by  the 
vitiated  blood  not  extracted  from  the  system — Causes  of  excessive 
bleeding  and  its  effect  upon  the  system — Symptoms  of  satisfactory 
l)leeding  and  its  benertcial  results — Measures  to  be  adopted  in  cases 
of  excessive  or  scanty  bleeding — Medical  treatment  of  excessive 
bleeding — Various  instructions      ...  ...  ...     106 — 110 


Development  or  non-development  of  the  excrements  and 
constituent  principles  of  thebody:— Nature,  locations  and  functions 
of  the  Normal  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham,  as  well  as  of  the  lymph 
chyle,  blood,  fat,  marrow,  semen,  and  ojah  (albumen),  and  the  symp- 
toms which  mark  their  increase,  decrease,  or  disiodgment  in  the 
human  system — Etiologies  of  obesity  and  thinness  ...     120 — 140 


Piercing  and  bandaging  of  the  lobules  of  ears  t — Evils  wliich 
attend  the  acc\dental  hurting  of  a  local  vein — Medical  unguents  and 
lints — Different  processes  of  bringing  about  the  adhesion  of  a 
bifurcated  ear-lobe — plastic  and  rhinuplastic  operations  ...     141 — 154 



Distinction  between  suppurat\ng  and  non-suppurating  swell- 
ings : — Different  types  of  intiammatory  swellings  produced  by  the 
deranged  Vayu,  Pittani,  etc  ,  and  the  symptoms  which  mark  their 
respective  actions  in  each  type — Characteristic  symptoms  of  a 
suppurating,  suppurated,  or  non-suppurated  !5welling — Hints  on  in 
cising  suppurated  swellings-r-Evils  of  opening  an  abscess  at  its 
inflammatory  stage — Feeding  and  anftsthetising  of  a  patient  before 
lancing  otf  an  abscess — Classification  of  surgical  operations  in 
connection  with  an  abscess  ...  ...  ...     155 — 161 


Dressings  and  bandages  of  ulcers  : — Classification  of  medicinal 
plasters  according  to  their  thickness,  application  and  function — Use 
of  the  different  types  of  plasters — Articles  of  bandaging — Bandages 
and  their  names  and  applications — Tow — Mode  of  introducing  a 
lint — Renewals  of  bandages  according  to  the  nature  of  the  ulcer 
and  the  prevailing  season  of  the  year — Evils  of  non-bandaging — 
Benefits  of  bandaging — Cases  where  bandaging  is  prohibited — Hints 
on  the  proper  lubrication  of  the  lint — Incidental  remarks  on  the 
bandaging  of  fractured  or  dislocated  bones   ...  ...     162 — 175 


Nursing  and  management  of  an  Ulcer-patient  : — Nature  ot  his 
bed  and  chamber— Articles  prohibited  to  an  ulcer  patient — Prophylaxis 
against  monsters  and  demons — Diet  and  conduct  of  an  ulcer- 
patient      ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     176—182 


Salutary  and  Non-salutary  effects  of  regimen,  etc.  : — Classi- 
fication (if  all  articles  of  fare  according  as  they  are  wholesome  or 
unwholeseme  to  the  human  system,  or  are  relatively  wholesome 
or  otherwise — Foodstuff' — Incompatibility  through  combination — 
Injuriousness     through    combination- Incompatibility    through    pre- 


paration,' quantity  or  Havour-rEffect  of  winds  on  the    human  system 
as  they  blow  from  the'ditierent  quarters  of  the  heaven  ...     183—193 


The  deranged  Vaf/u,  Pittam,  etc.,  as  the  exciting  causes  of 
ulcers  : — Seats  of  Vayu,  Pittam,  etc.  in,  the  human  body,  and  their 
functions— Different  kinds  of  Vayii,  Pittam  and  Shleshma,  and  their 
functions  and  locations  in  the  economy  of  nature — Factors  which 
aggravate  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham,  and  their 
periodicity — Symptoms  of  the  deranged  Pittam,  Kapham  and  blood — 
Expansion  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam,  etc..  and  diseases  dye  to 
their  incarceration  in  the  difterent  parts  of  the  body — Disease — its 
development  and  occasions  which  necessitate  the  calling  in  of  medical 
aid — The  nature  of  medical  treatment  in  the  case  where  two  or  all  of 
the  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham  are  involved  ...  ...     194 — 211 


Secretions  from  boils  and  ulcers  : — Shapes  and  seats  of  boils 
etc. — Symptoms  of  bad  ulcers — Secretions  from  ulcers — Presumption 
as  to  the  derangement  of  Vayu,  etc.  from  the  nature  of  the  secretion 
— Different  kinds  of  pain  wliich  mark  the  different  types  of  ulcers — 
Colours  of  Ulcers        ...  ...  ...  ...     212—219 


Prognosis  in  ulcer  cases  -.—Easy  curability  of  an  ulcer— Symp- 
toms of  an  ulcer  which  readily  granulates— Symptoms  of  difficult 
or  incurable  types,  as  well  as  of  those  which  admit  only  of  palliation  — 
Symptoms  of  a  purified,  granulating  or  healed  ulcer — Factors  which 
lead  to  the  reopening  of  a  healed  ulcer  ...  220—227 


Classification  of  diseases  according  as  they  are  medical  or 
surgical  :— Further  classitica'tioii  uf  diseases  according  as  they  arc 
congenital,   etc.— Diseases   due  to    mental,    physical    or    providential 


causes — Diseases  due  to  the  derangeinent  of  lymph  chj-'je,  etc. — 
Relation  between  fever  and  the  deranged  '  Vaj'u,  Pittam  and 
Kapham    ...  ...  ...,  ...  ...     228—237 


Eight  different  forms  of  surgical  operation  : — Cases  where 
incision,  excision,  scarification,  aspiration,  extraction,  etc.,  should  be 
respectively  resorted  to — Mode  and  conditions  of  suturing — Defec- 
tive surgical  operations — Symptoms  wliich  mark  tiie  injudicious 
hurting  of  a  vein,  artery,  lig.'iment,  joint  or  lione,  as  well  as  those 
which  are  manifested  when  any  of  tlie  other  Alarmas  is  accidentally 
hurt  '       ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     238—246 


Exploration  of  splinters,  deep-seated  in  the  organism  : — Defi- 
nition of  a  Shalyam — Clpssification  of  the  shafts  of  arrows — Flights 
of  arrows — Characteristic  symptoms  of  arrow-wounds— Localisation 
of  a  shaft  of  arrow  lying  imbedded  in  the  body — Symptoms  which 
show  that  the  shaft  or  the  splinter  does  not  lie  imbedded  in  the 
wound — Evils  cf  not  extracting  the  shaft  of  an  arrow  from  such 
a  wound    ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     247— 2.o5 


Extraction  of  splinters  : — Fifteen  different  processes  of  extrac- 
'1— Two  recognised  modes  of  extracting  splinters  from  all  types  of 
mds— Measures  to  be  adopted  after  the  extraction — Mode  of 
acting  splinters  from  veins,  etc.—  Dangers  of  not  extracting 
'inter  from  a  wound  ...  ...  ...     2^6 — 265 


vourable  or  unfavourable  prognosis  of  an  julcer: — Fatal 
avourable  symptoms — Advisability  of  abandoning  ihe  patient 
hese  unfavouraole  symptoms  appear  ...  ...     266 — 269 



Favourable  or  unfavourable  prognosis  in  diseases  as  known 
from  messengers,  omens,  birds  of  happy  or  evil  augury  : — The 
same  predicted  from  dreams,  etc. — Remedies  for  inauspicious  dreams 
under  the  circumstance— Description  of  auspicious  dreams    270 — 283 


Prognosis  that  can  be  obtained  from  the  perverted  functions 
of  the  five  sense  organs  : — Arislitas  or  unfavourable  mental  symp- 
toms— Unfavourable  symptoms  in  connection  with  the  faculties  of 
hearing,  touch,  taste,  smell  or. sight  ...  ...     284—287 


Prognosis  to  be  gathered  from  the  altered  condition  of 
features  : — Other  Aristha  symptoms  in  connection  with  Asthma, 
Cough,  and  (Edema.  &c.  ...  ...  ...     288—292 


Prognosis  based  on  the  perversion  of  the  external  appearances 
of  the  body  and  other  Arishta  symptoms  ...  ...     293 — 297 


Incurable  diseases,  and  Incurable  symptoms  developed  in  con- 
nection with  diseases  of  the  nervous  systems,  morbid  urethral 
discharges,  Leprosy,  Haamorrhoids  : — Fistula  in  ano — Urinarj' 
concretions,  DitKcult  labour,  Ascites,  Fever,  Dysentery,  Phthisis, 
abdominal  glands,  Abscess,  Chlorosis,  Ha?moptysis,  Insanity  and 
Epilepsy  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     298—302 


Mode  of  preserving  the  Ii<e  of  a   king  whose   soldiers  are   on 

the  march  : — The  four  factors  of   medical  treatment — Good  which 


lebiiUs  from  a  butitifuolory  coiiibinaliun  oi  all  tlieso  lour  facloib — 
Commendable  features  in  a  physician,  yatient,  medicine  and 
nurse         ...  ...  ...  ...  ...     303 — 307 


Clinical  Observations  :  — Cliracteristic  features  of  a  long  lived 
or  short  lived  man,  or  of  one  with  an  average  duration  of  life — 
Physical  temperaments  and  dimensions  of  the  limbs  and  members 
of  the  body — Curable,  incurable  or  suppressible  diseases — Sym- 
pathetic and  Primary  diseases — Different  kinds  of  digestive 
capacity — Three  stages  of  man — Relative  preponderance  of  Vayu, 
Pittam  and  Kapham  during  different  stages  of  life — Classification 
of  countries  according  to  their  physical  features  ...     308 — 328 


Miscellaneous  remedies  for  swellings  : — Piasters  for  establish- 
ing suppuration  in  swellings — Plasters  for  bursting,  pressing  out  the 
pus  from,  or  asepsising  swellings — Aseptic  pastes — Fumigating  com- 
pounds—Healing pastes — Compounds  which  favour  granulation  in,  or 
destroy  the  supergrowths  around  an  ulcer      ...  ...     329 — 335 


Destructive  traits  of  the  different  kinds  of  soil  commended  for 
the  growth  or  culture  of  medicinal  herbs  : — Examination  of  the 
soil  from  which  medicinal  drugs  are  to  be  gathered — Examination 
of  drugs — IMode  of  collecting  drugs — Commendable  traits  in  a  room 
to  be  used  as  a  drug-store  ...  ...  ...     336 — 341 


A  General  Classification  o^rdf^?'^-  according  to  tl^eir  therapeu- 

umer^^    II  ^    yU'irty  seven  different   groups  of 

"?yametc.-Pix)^"«-  -     ^^^-f^^ 

.ption  of  the  Vel'uoi.  ^  lesh  group 

tical   properties; — Enumerh^^jl^.^^  rhirty  seven  different   groups  of 
medicinal  drugs— Their  US' y^jygj.    Pro^"''  •••  •••     ^^^ — ^^^ 



Drugs  possessed  of  cathartic  or  soothing  effects  : — Emetics- 
Purgatives — Drugs  possessed  of  lirith  emetic  and  purgutive  properties 
— ^.Errliines — Drugs  whicli  respectively  soothe  the  der  inged  Vayu, 
Pittaiu  and  Kaphaui — Mode  of  administering  medicines.,.     358 — 363 


Drugs  and  their  flavours,  virtues,  potencies,  and  chemical 
actions  : — Disquisitions  as  regards  the  primary  importance  of  drugs, 
or  their  flavours,  potency',  or  chemical  reaction  in  respect  of 
curing  diseases — Causes  of  different  kinds  of  digestion — Conclusion 
as  regards  the  primary  importance  of  drugs  in  curing  a 
disease     ...  ...  ...       •        ...  ...     364 — 374 


Specific  properties  of  drugs  : — Classification  of  drugs  according 
to  the  preponderance  of  the  virtues  of  elemental  matter  in  them — 
Characteristic  features  of  drugs  of  dominant  earth  matter,  etc. — 
Periodicity  of  drug  action — Reasons  why  purgative  drugs  move  the 
bowels — Factors  which  lead  to  the  aggravation  or  subsidence  of  the 
deranged  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Kapham— Potency  of  drugs...     375 — 381 


Specific  properties  of  flavours  :— Reasons  for  the  classification 
of  ff a voms— Relation  of  the  elemental  earth  matter  with  the  flavours 
—Reasons  for  the  primary  derangement  of  Vayu,  Pittam,  etc— 
Symptoms  and  aggravating  factors  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam 
and  Kapham— Virtues  of  the  different  kinds  of  ^iavour,  such  as  sweet, 
etc.— Enumeration  of  groups  of  ~  *  drugs,  etc.— Sixty-three 
different  combinations  of  fiavoi^rj?   XXXI  •••  •••     3^2 393 

Moae  >..  ,  life  of  a   king  w.> 

the  march  j — Tnc  .        ^actors  of   medical  treatuicnt — Good  whw 



Mode  of  administering  emetics  : — Compounds  of  Madana  fruits 
Gompounds  of  Jimutaka  ••»  ...  ...     394 — 399 

Choice  of  purgatives  : — Most  efficient  purgatives— Purgative 
compounds — Purgative  soups — Asavas,  wines,  Sauviras,  and  Tusho- 
dakas,  etc. — Instructions  as  to  the  way  of  administering  purgative 
compounds  of  Danti,  etc.,  in  the  manner  of  Trivrit  compounds — 
Trivrit  Ashtakam — Mode  of  using  purgative  fruits  and  milky 
exudations  of  trees— Administration  of  purgative  medicines  through 
the  media  of  wine,  etc.  ...  ...  ...     400—417 


Rules  to  be  observed  in  respect  of  liquid  substances  : — Water 
group — Modes  of  purifying  different  kinds  of  water  and  their  virtues 
etc. — Milk  group — Virtues  of  the  different  kinds  of  milk — Curd 
group — Virtues  of  the  different  kinds  of  curd — Takra  group — Modes 
of  preparing  different  kinds  of  Takra,  and  their  attributes — Properties 
of  butter,  Kilat,  etc. — Different  kinds  of  Ghritas  (clarified  butter),  and 
their  properties — Oil  group  and  the  properties  of  different  kinds  of 
oil— Properties  of  the  fat  obtained  from  aquatic  or  domestic  animals 
— Honey  group — Classification  of  the  different  kinds  of  honey  and 
their  properties — Sugar-cane  group,  and  the  properties  of  the  different 
preparations  of  sugar-cane  juice,  such  as  treacle,  sugar,  etc., — Wine 
group — Properties  of  the  different  kinds  of  animal  urine...     418 — 468 


Different  kinds  of  for  and  drink  :— Descripti^^ns  of  Sliali 
Dlianyam,  Shasht''  "Ah  .  udhanyam,  Vaidal,  Mudga,  Sesamum, 
Barley,  Wheat,  Sp  ,  '  ..nanyametc. — Properties  of  Dlianyas  according 
to  their  jnatui'ity — Description  of  the  Vei'udha  Dhanyas— Flesh  group 

Xll  ■  CONTENTS. 

— Classiticutiou  of  tlesh— The  Vishkira  group — General  properties  of 
the  flesh'  of  Vishkira,  animal^ — Etymology  of  the  term  Pratuda — 
Enumeration  of  the  animals  of  the  Pratuda  group— Cave  dwelling, 
and  hole  dwelling  animals— The  Prasalia  group  of  animals — Beneficial 
use  of  flesh  of  the  Prasaha  group  in, Phthisis — Detailed  classification 
of  animals  with  the  etymology  of  their  generic  names,  and  proper- 
ties of  their  flesh — Frvit  group,  and  the  properties  of  different  fruits 
— Group  of  pot  herbs,  and  their  properties — Flower  groups — The 
group  o£  edible  leaves  of  plants,  and  their  properties — The  group  of 
bulbous  plants — The  group  of  salts — General  properties  of  nitrate  of 
potash,  etc. — Properties  of  gold,  iron,  silver  and  other  metals — Deter- 
mination of  the  properties  of  drugs  other  than  those  herein  mentioned 
— Drinks  and  beverages — Rules  of  diet — Rules  of  serving  out  the 
meal — General  causes  of  indigestion— Symptoms  of  the  different 
types  of  indigestion — Medical  treatment  of  the  same — Symptoms 
which  mark  acts  of  over  or  insufticient  eating,  or  an  act  of  eating 
a  meal  before  a  previous  one  is  digested — Reason  of  one's  feeling 
hungi'y  even  when  suffering  from  indigestion  ...     469 — 571 

^  • 



CHAP  T  E  R     I. 

Well,  we*  shall  now  describe  the  origin  of  the  Science 
of  Medicine,  as  disclosed  by  the  holy  Dhanvantari  to  his 

disciple  Sushruta.    (Vedotpattimadhyaryam). 

Once  upon  a  time,  when  the  holy  Dhanvantari,  the 
greatest  of  the  mighty  celestials,  incarnated  in  the  form 
of  Divodasa,  the  king  of  Kasi,  was  blissfulh^  seated, 
in  his  hermitage,  surrounded  bv  a  concourse  of  holy 
Rishis  ;  Aupadhenava,  Vaitarana,  Aurabhra,  Paush- 
kalavata,  Karavirya,  Gopura-rakshita,  Sushruta  and 
others  addressed  him  as  follows  : — "O  Sire,  it  grieves 
us  much  to  find  men,  though   otherwise  well  befriended 

"  The  present  work  which  originally  formed  the  subject  of  a  discourse 
by  the  holy  sage  Dhanvantari  to  his  disciple  Sushruta,  has  been  compiled 
in  its  present  form  by  the  venerable  Nagarj una,  and  is  accordingly  designated 
as  the  Sushruta  Samhila. 

2  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.  [  Chap  I. 

b)'  the'ir  kin  and  relations,  falling  a  prey  to  diseases, 
mental,  physical,  traumatic,  or  natural,  and  piteously 
wailing  in  agony  like  utterly  friendless  creatures  on 
earth  ;  and  we  supplicate  thee,  O  Lord,  to  illumine  our 
minds  with  the  truths  of  the  Eternal  Ayurveda 
(Medical  Science)  so  that  we  may  faithfully  discharge 
the  duties  allotted  to  us  in  life,  and  alleviate  the 
sufferings  of  humanit)"  at  large.  Bliss  in  this  life 
and  hereafter,  is  in  the  gift  of  this  eternal  Ayurveda, 
and  for  this,  O  Lord,  we  have  made  bold  to  approach 
thee  as  thy  humble  disciples."  To  them,  thus  replied 
the  hoi}'  Dhanvantari : — "Welcome  to  all  of  you 
to  this  blissful  hermitage.  All  of  you  are  worthy 
of  the  honour  of  true  pupilship  or  tutelage." 

The  A'yui'veda  (which  forms  the  subject  of  our 
present  discourse),  originally  formed  one  of  the  sub- 
sections of  the  Athar\'a  A'eda  ;  and  even  before  the 
creation  of  mankind,  the  self-begotten  Brahma  strung 
it  together  into  a  hundred  thousand  couplets  (Shlokas), 
divided  into  a  thousand  chapters.  But  then  he 
thought  of  the  small  duration  of  human  life  on  earth, 
and  the  failing  character  of  human  memory,  and 
found  it  prudent  to  divide  the  whole  of  the  Ayurveda 
into  eight  different  branches  such  as,  the  Salya- 
Tantram,  the  Salakya-Tantram,  the  Kaya-Chikitsa,  the 
Bhuta-Vidy.i,  the  KauniHr-Bhrityci,  the  Agada-Tantram, 
the  Rusa\"ana-Tantram  and   the    \'ajeekarana-Tantram. 

Chap.  I.  ]  SUTRASTHAN'AM.  ^ 

Xow  about  the  characteristi'c  features  of  each  of 
these  branches  of  the  Science  of  the  Ayurveda  : — 

The  Salya-Tantram*— The  scope  of  this 
branch  of  Medical  Science  is  to  remote  from  an  ulcer) 
any  extraneous  substanx:e  such  as,  iTagments  of  hay, 
particles  of  stone,  dust,  iron  or  bone  ;  splinters,  nails, 
hair,  clotted  blood,  or  condensed  pus  (as  the  case 
may  be ,  or  to  draw  out  of  the  uterus  a  dead 
foetus,  or  to  bring  about  safe  parturitions  in  cases  of 
false  presentation,  and  to  deal  with  the  principle  and 
mode  of  using  and  handling  surgical  instruments  in 
general,  and  with  the  application  of  fire  (cautery)  and 
alkaline  (caustic)  substances,  together  with  the  diagno- 
sis and  treatment  of  ulcers. 

The  Sha'Ia'kya-Tantramt— embraces  as  its 

object  the  treatment  of  those  diseases  which  are  restricted 
to  the  upward  (lit: — region  above  the  clavicles)  fissures  or 
cavities  of  the  body,  such  as  the  ears,  the  eyes,  the 
cavity  of  the  mouth,  the  nostrils,  etc. 

The    Ka'ya-Chikitsar  (General    diseases! — 
treats    of    diseases,     which,   instead   of  being     simply 

*  Any  foreign  mailer,  lodged  in  a  human  organism  and  proving  painful 
10  it,  is  called  a  Shalya. 

t  The  name  is  derived  from  the  Sanskrit  term  Slialak^,  a  probe  or  a  rod, 
the  use  and  application  of  the  instrument  being  primarily  jincluded  within 
the  scope  of  this  branch  of  the  Ayurveda. 

J  The  term  K^ya  literally  signifies  the  vital  heat  or  fire  which  runs 
through  the  entire  system,  and  hence  the  II5ya-chikits6  deals  with  diseases 
which  may  gradually  invade  the  root-principles  of  a  living  human  organism. 

4  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAATHITA'  [  Cliap.  I. 

restricted  to  an}^  specific  organ,  or  to  any  particular 
part  of  the  body,  affect  the  entire  system,  as  Fever, 
Dysentery,  Haemoptysis,  Insanity,  Hysteria,  Leprosy, 
unnatural  discharges  from  the  urethra,  etc. 

The  Bhuta-Vidya'  'Demoniacal  diseases) — 
lays  down  incantations  and  modes  of  exorcising 
evil  spirits  and  making  offerings  to  the  gods, 
demons,  Gandharvas,  Yakshas,  Rakshas,  etc.  for 
cures  of  diseases  originating  from  their  malignant 

The  Kauma'ra-Bhritya  Management  of 
children) — deals  with  the  nursing  and  healthy  bringing 
up  of  infants,  with  purification  and  bettering  of 
mothers'  milk,  found  deficient  in  any  of  its 
characteristic  traits,  and  also  with  cures  for  diseases 
peculiar  to  infant  life  and  due  to  the  use  of  vitiated 
mother's  milk  or  to  the  influences  of  malignant  stars 
and  spirits. 

The  Agada-Tantram  ■Toxicology— deals 
with  bites  from  snakes,  spiders  and  venomous 
worms,  and  their  characteristic  symptoms  and  antidotes. 
It  hai  also  for  its  object  the  elimination  of  poison 
whether  animal,  vegetable,  or  chemical  (resulting  from 
incompatible  combinations)  from  the  system  of  a  man, 
overwhelmed  with  its  effects. 

The  Rasa'yana-Tantram  Science  of 
Rejuvenation  , — has     for      its      specific     object      the 

Chap.  I.  ]  SUa^RASTHA'NAM.  5 

prolongation  of  human  life,  and  tl^e  invigoration  of 
memory  and  the  vital  organs  of  man.  It  deals  with 
recipes  which  enable  a  man  to  retain  his  manhood 
or  youthful  vigour  up  to  a  good  old  age,  and  which 
generally  serve  to  make  the  human  system  invuhierable 
to  disease  and  deca}'. 

The  Varjcckarana-Tantram  (Science  of 
Aplarodisiacs, — treats  of  measures  b}'  which  the  semen 
of  a  man  naturally  scanty  or  deficient  in  quality 
becomes  shorn  of  its  defects ;  or  is  purified,  if 
deranged  by  the  ^•itiated  humours  of  the  body  (such  as 
wind,  etc.  ;  or  is  invigorated  and  increased  in  quantit}' 
(if  pure  and  healthy) ;  or  acquires  its  health}'  and  normal 
consistence  '  if  thinned  and  enfeebled  by  indiscretions 
of  youth\  [In  short,  it  deals  with  things  which  increase 
the  pleasures  of  youth  and  make  a  man  doubly  endearing 
to  a  woman]. 

Thus  the  entire  science  of  the  Ayurveda  is  classified 
into  the  eight  preceding  branches.  Xow  tell  me,  which 
of  them  is  to  be  taught  and  to  which  of  you  ?  Said  the 
disciples  : — "Instruct  us  all,  O  Lord,  in  the  science  of 
surgery  (  Shalya  )  and  let  that  be  the  chief  subject 
of  our  study."  To  which  replied  the  holy  Dhan- 
vantari  : — "Be  it  so."  Then  the  disciples  again 
said  : — "We  are  all  of  one  mind  in  the  matter, 
O  Lord,  that  Sushruta  shall  be  our  spokesman  aiid  .ask 

6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'  [  Chap.  I 

you  questions  conformably  to  the  general  trend  of  our 
purpose.  All  of  us  will  attentively  hear  what  you  will 
be  pleased  to  discourse  to  Sushruta,  [and  that  will  save 
you  the  trouble  of  teaching  us  individuall)']".  To  which 
replied  the  venerable  sage — ",Be  it  so.  Now  listen, 
Sushruta,  m}-  dear  child.  The  object  or  utility  of  the 
science  which  forms  the  subject  of  our  present  discus- 
sion, ma}'  be  gi^ouped  under  two  distinct  sub-heads  such 
as  (i)  the  cure  of  diseased  persons,  and  (2)  the  presetva- 
tion  of  health  in  those  who  are  not  afflicted  with  any 
sort  of  bodily  distempers." 

The  etymological  meaning  of  the  term  "Ayur- 
veda" may  be  interpreted  to  denote  either  a  science  in 
the  knowledge  of  which  life  exists,  or  which  helps  a 
man  to  enjoy  a  longer  duration  of  life. 

The  primary  position  of  surgery:— 

[As  regards  time  and  importance  among  the  other  allied 
branches  of  the  Science  of  Medicine].  Hear  me  discourse 
on  the  Science  of  Surgery  { Shalya-Tantram)  which  is 
the  oldest  of  all  the  other  branches  of  the  Science  of 
Medicme  (Ayurveda)  and  is  fuither  corroborated  by  the 
four  classes  of  testimonies,  viz.,  Perception,  Inference, 
Analogv  and  Scriptural  Truths  (Agamas).  The 
primary  position  of  this  branch  of  the  Ayurveda, 
(as  regards  its  time  or  origin),  may  be  inferred  from  the 
fact  that    Surgerv  lends  her  aid  materiallv  towards  the 

Chap.  I.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  7 


healing     up       of     traumatic     mlcers.*      The    'second 

reason     for     such     an     intWence     may    be    deduced 

from  the  replacement  of  the   severed   head   of  Yajna. 

It   is   told   that   the   god    Rudra,  severed   the   head  of 

the     God  of  Sacrifice    (Yajna).     Whereupon   the  gods 

approached    the     celestial     Ashvins,      and    addressed 

them   as    follows  : — "You     twins,    O   lords,    who   are 

to   be   the   greatest     of  us   all,   connect  the     head  of 

\''aj?ia  with  his   decapitated   trunk."     To  them,   replied 

the   divine   Ashvins  : — "  We  shall   do,  O  lords,  as  you 

command   us   to   do."    Then  the   celestials  propitiated 

the  god  Indra   in  order  that  a   portion  of  the  oblations 

offered  in   the   course   of  a  sacrifice,  might  be  allotted 

to   those   heavenly  twins.     The  Ashvins   reunited   the 

severed   head    of  Yajna  to   his    body   as  prayed   for. 

[Hence  this  branch  of  the  Ayurveda  (Shalyanga)  is  the 

oldest  of  all  its  subdivisions]. 

The    primary     importance     of    the 

Shalyam  : — All    hold   this     Tantram    to     be     the 

most    imnortant    of    all     the    other     branches   of  the 
Mi^o  See/'  'f    '  "^^^  ^^  suc^w 

^^  ^receptacle  ofheauff   iustantaueous   actious   can  be 

r/VPQ  '  ^     ^^      ^^^^^^    appliances     as, 

^   3  Jb|*/£^getable  world  belongs   t 
Ve|*Op  ,       T    o^  locomotion,  belong  to 

^Jnav  be  areued  here,  since  nd    sword-cuts   had    to    be  dressed   and 

^      ^^^     tllQ  to  iuindamental  material    the   gods  and  the   denwns,    long   before 

ff  dQ^f]^     'ippearance  Oir)  ],  it  is    not    ct' idiopathic   maladies  such-^  as,  fever,  etc.  ; 

ad  Smgery  contruvofold    attril/ was  demanded  of  her  towards  the   healint; 

"-•        up  of  those  u'cers.     li>.     But  s' branch  of  the    Ayurveda   is  the  oldest  of  all 

IP  the  allied  brawhes  of  thu-se  art. 

8  THE   SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA  [  Chap.  I. 

surgical  operatioi|s,  external  applications  of  alkalis, 
cauterisation,  etc.,  and  -.secondly  inasmuch  as  it 
contains  all  that  can  be  found  in  the  other  branches 
of  the  science  of  medicine  as  well,  with  the  superior 
advantage  of  producing  instantaneous  effects  by  means 
of  surgical  instruments  and  appliances.  Hence  it  is 
the  highest  in  value  of  all  the  medical  Tantras.  It  is 
eternal  and  a  source  of  infinite  piety,  imparts  fame 
and  opens  the  gates  of  Heaven  to  its  votavies, 
prolongs  the  duration  of  human  existence  on  earth, 
and  helps  men  in  successfully  fulfilling  their  missions, 
and  earning  a  decent  competence,  in  life. 

Gradual  extension  of  the  Ayur- 
vedic Knowledge  :—Bramha  was  the  first  to 
inculcate  the  principles  of  the  holy  Ayurveda.  Prajapati 
learned  the  science  from  him.  The  Ashvins  learned 
it  from  Prajapati  and  imparted  the  knowledge  to 
Indra,  who  has  favoured  me  ( Dhanvantari )  with  an 
entire  knowledge  thereof.  I,  for  the  good  of  mankind, 
am   ready  to   impart   it   to  those ^;-}-i^antram)-M^i^  earth. 

anches  of  the  Sci 

The  King  of  Kar?^,ther  corroborate'^^  ac- 
count Of  himself  i._^  pe,ception,  Inft'^^  '^^ 
supreme  and  original  god  i^^^^j^^  (Agam?'  *^"^^  ^^ 
Dhanvantifri.  It  is  I  who  warde  ,  f  tl  disease  and 
decay  fi-on\  the  celestials,  ^o  -  Kg  j,-,^  was  an  inmate 
of  the  region  of  heaven,  now  I   a    .  ^  .carnated   on  earth 

Chap.  I.]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  9 

with  the  view   to   teach    the  Science   of  SurgeiV  with 
all  its  allied  branches  of  study  to  men. 

In  the  present  science  (Ayurveda),  the  Piirusha  (self- 
conscious  oro:anic  individual)  is  described  as  the  resultant 
of  the  combination  of  the  soul  and  the  five  primar>- 
material  principles.  All  medical  acts  such  as,  surgical 
operations,  administration  of  medicinal  remedies  and 
applications  of  alkaline  substances,  or  cauterisation, 
etc.),  are  restricted  to  the  Piirusha  alone.* 

Why  is  it  so  ?  The  answer  is,  simply  because  the 
created  world  is  composed  of  two  distinct  classes, 
such  as  the  mobile  and  the  immobile. f  These  two 
classes,  in  their  turn,  are  further  sub-divided  for  the 
purposes  of  the  science  of  medicine  into  the  two 
orders,  Agneya  hot  and  Saumya  (cool.  Hence 
the  world  is  composed  of  fi^'e  material  principles, 
though  characterised  by  the  twofold  virtues,  Agneya 
(hot)  and  Saumya  (cool).i 

*  It  may  be  questioned  why  they  should  be  confined  to  the  Puiusha  ? 
Such  a  query  may  be  successfully  met  by  the  statement  that  the  Purusha 
alone  is  the  receptacle  of  health  and  disease  in  contradistinction  to  the 
Self  or  Ego. 

t  The  vegetable  world  belongs  to  the  latter  category,  while  'animals, 
possessed  of  locomotion,  belong  to  the  former. 

X  It  may  be  argued  here,  since  everything  in  the  universe  is  composed 
of  the  five  fundamental  material  principles  [  of  earth,  water,  fire  (heat), 
air  and  sky  (ether)  ],  it  is  not  competent  to  assert  that  the  universe  is 
possessed  of  the  twofold  attributes  Agneya  (heated  or  fiery)  and  Saumya 
(cool  or  watery),  alone.  But  since  fire  (heat)  or  water  (cold)  predominates 
in  all  things  in  the  universe  in  juxtaposition  with  ihe  primary   virtues  of  the 

10  THE  SUSWRUTA  SAMHITA.  [Chap.  I. 

Further  cliassification  of  the  mobile 
and  the  immobile  :-  The  animated  world  may 
be  divided  into  four  subdivisions,  such  as  the  Svedaja 
(born  of  sweat  or  heat  and  moisture  ?'.  e.  abiogenous' , 
the  Andaja  (  egg-born  or  oviparous  ),  the  Udbhijja 
(vegetable)  and  the  Jarayuja  (placental  or  viviparous j. 
The  Purusha  or  the  subjective  personalit}'  (man)  is  the 
greatest  of  them  all,  because  all  other  forms  of  life  are 
made  to  minister  to  his  wants  on  Earth. 

Disease  :     Sts   Definition  :— The  Purusha 

(man)  is  the  receptacle  of  any  particular  disease,  and  that 
which  proves  a  source  of  torment  or  pain  to  him,  is  deno- 
minated as  a  disease.*  There  are  four  different  types 
of  disease  such  as,  Traumatic  or  of  extraneous  origin 
(Agantuka),  Bodily  (Sharira),  jNfenla]  (Manasa)  and 
Natural  (Svabhavika).  A  disease  clue  to  an  extraneous 
blow  or  hurt  is  called  Agantuka.  Diseases  due  to 
irregularities  in  food  or  drink,  or  incidental  to  a 
deranged  state  of  the  blood,  or  of  the  bodily  humours 
acting  either  singh'  or  in  concert,  are  called  Sharira. 
Excessive  anger,  grief,  fear,  joy,  despondency,  envy, 
miser};,    ])ride,    greed,     lust,    desire,     malice,    etc.    are 

other  fundamental  material  principles,  it  is  not  improper  to  classify  all 
under  the  head  of  hot  or  cold,  a  third  factor  being  non-existent.  Hence  the 
world  (^Trf)  is  possessed  of  the  twofold  virtues,  hot  and  cold. 

*  A  disease  may  be  defined  as  something  whicli  affiicts  the  Purusha 
(self-conscious  personality),  or  those  things  or  incidents  which  combine  to 
afflict  the  Purusha  are  usually  interpreted  to  connote  that  meaning. 

Chap.  I.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 1 

included  within  the  category  of^  mental  (Manasa) 
distempers  ;  whereas  hm7.ger,  thirst,  decrepitude, 
imbecility,  death,  sleep,  etc.  are  called  the  natural 
(Svabhavika)  derangements  of  the  body.  The  Mind 
and  the  Bodv  are  the  seats  of  the  abovesaid  distempers 
according  as  they  are  restricted  to  either  of  them,  or 
affect  both  of  them  in  unison.  * 

Samshodhanam  (Cleansing),  and  Samshamanam 
(Pacification  of  the  deranged  or  agitated  bodih'  humours 
giving  rise  to  the  disease^  and  the  regimen  of  diet  and 
conduct  are  the  four  fectors  which  should  be  duly 
emplo3"ed  in  order  to  successfully  cope  with  a  disease.! 

Food  is  the  principal  factor  which  materially  contri- 
butes to  the  strength,  complexion  and  vitality  (Ojah)  of 
animated  beings.    Food  consists   of  six    different  tastes 

*  The  Self  or  Ihe  feevitma  of  a  person  is  above  all  human  concerns  and, 
as  such,  can  never  be  affected  by  any  disease. 

t  Cleansing  (Samshodhanam)  is  of  two  kinds,  viz.  External  and  Internal. 
External  purification  consists  in  employing  such  measures  as  surgical 
operations,  cauterisation  of  the  affected  part  or  organ,  external  use  of 
alkaline  preparations  and  medicated  plasters,  the  internal  one  including 
such  measures  as  exhibition  of  purgatives  and  emetics,  application  of 
intestinal  enemas  (Asthapanam)  and  blood-letting.  Diet  comprises  four 
different  factors  such  as,  food,  drink,  lambative,  etc.,  which,  for  the  purposes 
of  the  Ayurveda,  are  again  grouped  under  three  different  heads,  such  as 
the  pacifier  of  the  deranged  bodily  humours  (Dosha-prashamanam),  thera- 
peutical (VyMhi-prashamanam)  and  health-giving  (Svastha=Vrittikara). 
Achara  (conduct)  appertains  to  three  different  factors,  such  as  the  body, 
the  speech,  and  the  mental  acts.  The  abovesaid  measures,  duly  employed, 
arc  potent  enough  to  combat  all  sorts  of  bodily  distempers,  if  the 
special  exigencies    of  each    case    arc    carefully  taken  into  consideration. 

12  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [Chap.  I. 

(Rasa)  '[which  capnot  exist  independently  of  the  subs- 
tances] in  which  they  are  inherent.  These  substances 
which  are  called  the  (3shadhis  may  be  di^■ided  into  two 
classes  such  as  the  mobile  and  the  immobile.  The 
immobile  Oshadhis  in  their  turn,  admit  of  being  grouped 
under  four  sub-heads  such  as,  the  ^'"anaspatis,  the 
Vrikshas.  the  Virudhas  and  the  Oshadhis  proper. 

Those  trees  which  bear  fruit  without  blossoming 
are  called  the  Vanaspatis  such  as,  the  Plaksha  and  the 
Oudumvura).  Those  that  bear  both  fruits  and  flowers 
are  called  the  \'rikshas.  Shrubs  and  creepers  that  trail 
on  the  ground  are  called  Virudhas,  whereas  those  plants 
which  die  with  the  ripening  of  their  fruits,  are  called 
Oshadhis  proper   such  as  cereals  . 

The  mobile  Oshadhis  or  animals  are  divided  into 
four  classes  such  as  the  viviparous,  the  oviparous,  the 
sweat-begotten,  and  those  that  are  born  of  decomposed 
vegetable  matter.  Man  and  other  mammals  belong  to 
the  first  group  ;  birds,  snakes,  and  reptiles  belong  to  the 
second  ;  ants,  worms,  etc.  belong  to  the  third  ;  while  frogs 
and  Indragopas  belong  to  the  fourth.  For  medicinal  pur- 
poses, bark,  leaves,  flowers,  fruits,  roots,  bulbs,  the  ex- 
pressed juice,  and  milky  or  resinous  secretions  of  plants, 
etc.*    are  .obtained     from    the    vegetable     world.    The 

*  The  use  of  oil  expressed  oui  of  diutjs  and    seeds,  as    well    as  of  iheir 
ashes  or  alkaline  preparations  are  likewise  indicated. 

Chap.  I.]  SUTRASTHAWAM.  I-^ 

skin,    nails,    wool,   blood,    flesh,    fat.,    marrow,    bones, 
are  procured  from  the  animal  world. 

JMetals  and  minerals  such  as  gold,  silver,  gems,  and 
Manahshila  i  Realgar),  as  well  as  pearls,  clay  and 
Kapalas  (bones^,  etc.  should  be  included  in  the  list  of 
the  earthy  substances.  * 

Gale,  windfall,  sunshine,  shade,  moonshine,  dark- 
ness,   heat,    cold,    rain,    day,    night,    fortnight,    month, 

seasons,   and   solstices,   etc.   should   be    deemed  as  the 

works  of  eternal  time,  which,  by  virtue  of  their  natural 

effects,  contribute  to  the    accumulation,    augmentation, 

pacification    or   diminution    of    the     deranged    bodilv 

humours  (such  as,  wind,  etc.  . 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Physicians  should  look  upon  these  four  factors 
of  ffood,  conduct,  earth  and  time  ,  as  the  accumulators, 
aggravators  and  pacifiers  of  the  deranged  bodilv  humours 
and  of  the  diseases  resulting  therefrom  in  man.  Diseases 
due  to  causes  which  are  extraneous  to  the  bodv  ma\' 
affect  the  mind  or  the  body.  When  it  would  affect  the 
body  in  the  shape  of  any  traumatic  disease  (such  as  an 
inflammation  due  to  a  blow  or  a  sword  cut  >,  it  "should 
be  treated  medicinally  like  the  rest  of  the  physical  mala- 
dies, while  the  remedy  should  consist  in  the  enjovmentof 

*  Oxide  of  Iron,  sand,  yellow  sulphurale  of  arsenic  (Orpiment),  sail, 
Gairika  (ferruginous  earth),  Rasdnjana  (antimony)  should  be  regarded  as 
appertaining  to  the  class  of  earthy  substances. 

14  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  hap.  I. 

pleasurable  sound?,  touch,  sights,  taste  or  smell  where  the 
mind  would  be  found  to  be  the  seat  of  the  distemper. 

Thus  I  have  briefly  dealt  with  the  Purusha,  Disease, 
Medicine,  Appliances  and  the  Specific  Time.  The  term 
Purusha  should  be  interpreted  to  include  within  its 
meaning  the  combination  of  its  five  material  com- 
ponents, and  all  things  resulting  therefrom,  such  as  the 
limbs  and  members  of  the  body,  as  well  as  the  skin, 
the  flesh,  the  blood,  the  veins  and  the  nerves,  etc. 
The  term  Disease  signifies  all  distempers  incidental 
to  the  several  or  combined  actions  of  the  three  deranged 
bodily  humours  and  blood.  The  term  Medicine  signifies 
drugs  and  their  virtues,  tastes,  potency,  inherent 
efficacy  Prabhava  and  reactionary  properties  Vipaka  . 
Appliances  (kriya  denotes  such  processes  as,  surgical 
operations,  injections,  emulsive  measures,  lubrications, 
etc.  The  term  Time  signifies  all  opportune  moments  for 
medical  appliances. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :  —The  primary  principle  of  the  Science  of  medicine 
has  thus  been  briefly  stated  and  will  be  fully  dealt  with 
in  the'following  one  hundred  and  twenty  chapters  distri- 
buted among  the  fi-\e  main  sub-divisions  or  Sthanas 
of  the  present  work.  These  hundred  and  twenty 
chapters  will  be  found  to  be  elaborately  discussed 
according  to  the  specific  import  or  significance  of  their 
denominations   under   the   sub-heads   of  Sutra- Sthanam 



(Definitive  Aphorisms  or  Fundamental  principles, 
Nidanam  ^Etiology",  Sharira-Sthanam  (Anatomy  and 
Physiology  ,  Chikitsa-Sthanam  (Therapeutics)  and 
Kalpa-Sthanam  (Toxicology  .  Subjects  other  than  the 
preceding  ones  will  be  discussed  in  the  closing  chapters 
of  the  book  by  wa}-  of  an  Appendix  (Uttara-Tantranv. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — The  man  who  reads  this  Eternal  Science  of 
Medicine  ( Ayurveda-Shastram )  discoursed  by  the  self- 
origined  Brahma  and  propagated  by  the  King  of  Kasi, 
becomes  noted  for  his  piety,  is  honoured  by  the  kings 
on  earth,  and  attains  to  the  region  of  Indra  (the  lord 
of  the  celestials)  after  death. 

Thus   ends  the    first    chapter   of  the   Sutra-SthSnam    in     the    Sushrula 
Samhitd  which  deals  with  the  origin  of  the  Ayurveda. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  deals 
with  the   rites   of  formal    initiation  of  a  pupil  into   the 

science    of    Medicine     (Shishyopanayaniya- 

Such  an  initiation  should  be  imparted  to  a  student, 
belonging  to  one  of  the  three  twice-born  castes  such 
as,  the  Brahmana,  the  Kshatriya,  and  the  Vaishya,  and 
who  should  be  of  tender  years,  born  of  a  good  family, 
possessed  of,  a  desire  to  learn_,  strength^  energy  of  action, 
contentment,  character,  self-control,  a  good  retentive  me- 
mory, intellect,  courage,  purity  of  mind  and  bod)',  and  a 
simple  and  clear  comprehension,  command  a  clear  insight 
into  tlie  things  studied,  and  should  be  found  to  have 
been  further  graced  with  the  necessary  qualifications  of 
thin  lips,  thin  teeth  and  thin  tongue,  and  possessed  of  a 
straight  nose,  large,  honest,  intelligent  eyes,  with  a  benign 
contour  of  the  mouth,  and  a  contented  frame  of  mind, 
being  pleasant  in  his  speech  and  dealings,  and  usually 
painstaking  in  his  efforts.  A  man  possessed  of  contrary 
attributes  should  not  be  admitted  into  the  sacred 
precincts  of)  medicine. 

lYlode  of  Initiation  :— A  Brahmana  preceptor 
sliould  initiate  a  disciple  or  student  in  the  following  way 
— A  square  sand  cushion  or  platform,  measuring  a  cubit 

L"hap.   11.  I  SUTkASTHANAM.  j- 


in  length  and  breadth,  should  be  laid  out  on    a   plot   of 
smooth,  level    and  sacred'  ground  under   the  benign  in- 
fluence of  any  auspicious   phase  of  the  moon  or  astral 
combination  such  as,  the  "Karanam,"  e»tc.  and  in  a  direc- 
tion of  the  compass  whifch  is  held  most  auspicious  to  that 
end.    The  cusliion  or   the  jilatform    should  be  plastered 
over  with  a  solution  of  water  and  cow-dung ;  and  blades  of 
Kusha  grass  should  be  strewn  over  it.  Then  the  gods,  the 
Brahmanas  and  the   ph5''sicians  should    be    worshipped 
with   oblations   of  flowers,  fried  paddy,  gems  and  sun- 
dried   rice.     Then    having  drawn    straight    lines   across 
the   Sthandilara   so   as  to  meet  the  top  of  the    furthest 
side  of  the  square,  and  having  sprinkled  them  over  with 
holy   water,   the   preceptor  should  lay  down  a  blade  of 
Kusha  grass  tied  up  in  the  form  of  a  knot,  known  as  the 
Brahmana,  along  the  side  of  the  sacred  cushion  to  his 
right,  and  kindle  the  sacred  fire  close  to  his  seat.     Then 
having  soaked  the  twigs  of  the    four   sacrificial  trees  of 
Khadira,    Palasha,    Devadaru    and    Vilva,    or   of  Vata, 
Oudumvara,  Ashvattha  and  Madhuka  in  curd,  honey  and 
clarified  butter,  he   should  perform    the  rite  of  Homa 
according  to  the  rules  of  a  Darvi  Homa  ceremony^  Then 
libations  of  clarified  butter  should  be  cast  into  the  sacrifi- 
cial fire  with  a  repetition  of  the  Maha  Vyahriti  Mantras 
preceded  by  the  mystic  Omkara.    After  that,  libations  of 
clarified  butter  should  be  cast  into  the  fire  in  honour  of 
each  of  the  gods  and  Rishis  (celestial  physicians)  invoked 


1 8  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.        1  Chap.  11. 

b}^  repeating  the   Svaha  Mantra,  and  the  disciple  should 
be  made  to  do  the  same.  * 

A  Brahmana  preceptor  is  competent  to  initiate  a 
student  belonging' to  any  of  the  three  twice-born  castes. 
A  Kshatriya  preceptor  can  initiate  a  student  of  the 
Kshatriya  or  the  Vaish3'a  caste,  while  a  Vaishya 
preceptor  can  initiate  a  student  of  his  own  caste 
alone.  A  Shudra  student  of  good  character  T.nd 
parentage  may  be  initiated  into  the  mysteries  of  the 
A5'urveda  by  omitting  the  Mantras  enjoined  to  be 
recited  on  such  an  occasion. 

Then  having  thrice  circumambulated  the  sacrificial 
fire,  and  having  invoked  the  firegod  to  bear  testimony  to 
the  fact,  the  preceptor  should  address  the  initiated  dis- 
ciple as  follows  :— "Thou  shalt  renounce  lust,  anger, 
greed,  ignorance,  vanity,  egotistic  feelings,  envy,  harsh- 
ness, niggardliness,  falsehood,  idleness,  ndij  all  acts  that 
soil  the  good  name  of  a  man.  In  proper  season  thou  shalt 
pair  thy  nails  and  clip  thy  hair  and  put  on  the  sacred 
cloth,  dyed  brownish  yellow,  live  the  life  of  a  truthful, 
self-controlled  anchorite  and  be  obedient  and  respectful 
towards  thy  preceptor.  In  sleep,  in  rest,  or  while  moving 
about— while   at    meals    or   in    studv,    and   in    all  acts 

"^  The  libations  should  he  oftered  as  follows  -Svah^  (obeisance)  to 
P,i-ahm4,  Svah.4  to  Praj^pati  (the  lord  of  the  created  beings),  SvahA  to 
Ashvins,  .Svaha  to  Indra,  Sv.nhA  to  Dhanvantari,  Sv^hA  to  Bharadv^ja, 
and  SvAh^  to  A'treva. 

Chap.  il.  I  SUTRASTHA'NAAl.  19 

thou  shalt  be  guided  by  my  directions.  Thcju  shalt 
do  what  is  pleasant  and  beneficial  to  me,  otherwise 
thou  shalt  incur  sin  and'  all  thy  study  and  knowledge 
shall  fail  to  bear  their  wished  for  fruit,  and  thou  shalt 
gain  no  feme.  If  I,  on  the  other  hand,  treat 
thee  unjustly  even  w'ith  thy  perfect  obedience  and 
in  full  conformity  to  the  terms  agreed  upon,  may  I 
incur  equal  sin  with  thee,  and  may  all  my  know- 
ledge prove  futile,  and  never  have  any  scope  of  work 
or  display.  Thou  shalt  help  with  thy  professional 
skill  and  knowledge,  the  Brahmanas,  thy  elders, 
preceptors  and  friends,  the  indigent,  the  honest,  the 
anchorites,  the  helpless  and  those  who  shall  come 
to  thee  (from  a  distance;,  or  those  who  shall  live  close 
by,  as  well  as  thy  relations  and  kinsmen  [to  the  best 
of  thy  knowledge  and  ability],  and  thou  shalt  give  them 
medicine  [without  charging  for  it  any  remuneration 
whatever],  and  God  will  bless  thee  for  that.  Thou 
shalt  not  treat  medicinally  a  professional  hunter,  a 
fowler,  a  habitual  sinner,  or  him  who  has  been  degrad- 
ed in  life  ;  and  even  by  so  doing  thou  shalt  acquire 
friends,  fame,  piety,  wealth  and  all  wished  for  objects 
in  life  and  thy  knowledge  shall  gain  pubhcity."  , 

Prohibited  periods  of  the  study  of 
the  Ayurveda  : — The  day  of  the  new  moon,  the 
eighth  day  of  the  moon's  wane,  the  fourteenth  day  of  the 
dark  fortnight,   as   well    as   the  corresponding   days  in 

20  tHE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.        I  Chap.  II. 

the  brio^ht  one,  the  day  oi  the  tlill  moon,  and  the  meet- 
ings olday  and  night  such  as  (morning  and  evening)  are 
occasions  when  the  study  of  the  Ayurveda  is  prohibited. 
Similarly,  a  clap  of  thunder  heard  at  an  improper 
season  (months  of  Pousha,  Phalguna  and  Chaitra),  or  a 
Hash  of  lightning  occurring  at  a'  time  when  such  pheno- 
mena are  naturall)'  rare,  or  an  evil  befalling  one's  country, 
relations,  or  king,  should  be  deemed  as  occasions 
jnohibiting  the  study  of  the  Ayurveda.  Moreover, 
one  should  not  read  it  in  a  cremation  ground,  nor  while 
riding  (an  elephant,  horse,  or  any)  conveyance,  nor 
in  a  battle-held,  nor  in  a  place  of  execution.  A  festi- 
^  al  or  the  appearance  of  inauspicious  omens,  and  the 
days  of  the  fortnight  usually  avoided  by  the  Brahmanas 
in  studying  the  Vedas,  as  well  as  an  unclean  state  of 
the  body,  should  be  regarded  as  occasions  prohibiting 
the  studv  of  the  Avurveda. 

riuis  lmhIn  llic    sccijiul    clinitlci'    ul    ihc    .SuLiasLhanaiii    in    llit;   SublmiUi. 
Sanihila  which  Ireals  oflhc  foniuil  inil.i;Ui<jn  of  a  .sUulunl  intM  ihc  Aviiivcda. 

C  H  A  P  T  E  R     in. 

Now  we  shall  discuss  the  chapter  which  deals  with 
the  classification  of  the  Ayurveda  and  the  order  [in 
which  the  venerable  Dhanvantari  discoursed  on  them  to 
his  pupils].    Adhyayana-Samprada'niyam. 

It  has  been  stated  before,  that  a  hundred  and  twenty 
chapters  have  been  distributed  among  the  five  parts 
or  subdivisions  (of  the  present  work,  in  the  following- 
order  :— Forty  six  in  the  part  of  Definitive  Aphorisms 
(Sutra-Sthanam) ;  sixteen  in  the  part  dealing  with  the 
Etiology  of  diseases  (Nidanam)  ;  ten  in  the  part  explain- 
ing the  Anatomy  and  physiology  of  the  human  body 
(Sharira  Sthanam);  forty  in  the  part  of  Therapeutics 
Ciiikitsitam  ;  and  eight  in  the  part  dealing  with  poisons 
and  their  antidotes  (Kalpa-Sthauam).  In  addition  to 
these  the  Uttara-Tantram  consists  of  sixty-six  chapters. 

Metrical  texts  :  The  Sutra-Sthanam  which 
contains  tbrty-six  chapters,  is  so  called  because  it  dis'jusses 
in  the  form  of  hints,  arranges  in  the  form  of  aphorisms 
and  connects  by  links  topics  relating  to  longevitv. 
Chapter  i  Describes  the  origin  of  the  science  of  the 
Ayurveda.  2  Relates  to  the  formal  initiation  of  a  inipil 
into    the   science    of    medicine.  '    ;     Deals     with     the 

22  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         I  Chap.  III. 

classi^cation  and  order  of  the  study  of  the  Ayurveda. 
4  Dwells  on  general  interpretations  and  explanations 
of  subjects  studied,  5  Treats  of  preliminary  preparations 
for  surgical  operations.  6  Deals  with  seasons  and  their 
influence  on  health  and  drugs.  7  Treats  of  surgical 
appliances.  8  Describes  surgi(l:al  instruments.  9  Gives 
practical  instructions  for  surgical  operations.  10  Dwells 
on  the  duties  of  medical  men  preliminary  to  their 
commencing  practice.  1 1  Pharmacy  of  alkalies 
(potential  cauteries).  12  Cauteries  and  the  rules 
to  be  observed  in  their  use.  13  Leeches  how 
and  which  to  use).  14  Blood.  15  Dwells  on 
the  study  of  development  and  non-development  of  the 
humorous   constituents    of   the    body    and    excrements, 

1 6  The  ceremony  of  piercing  the  lobules  of   the    ears. 

17  How  to  distinguish  between  suppurating  and  non- 
suppurating  swellings.  18  Dressings  and  bandages 
of  ulcers.  19  The  management  of  patients  with  ulcers, 
etc.  20  The  salutary  and  non-salutary  effects 
of  regimen,  etc.  ?.i  The  decisive  modes  in  the 
treatment  of  sores,  etc.  22  The  opening  of  abscesses, 
etc.  2S  General  rules  to  be  observed  in  the  treat- 
ment of  curable  and  incurable  (surgical  diseases. 
24  The  nature  of  diseases  in  general.  25  The  (eight 
different)  ways  of  using  surgical  instruments.  26  The 
exploration  of  splinters  lost  (deep  seated;  in  the 
body.  2 J  The  extraction  of  splinters.  28  How 
to     know    favourable'    and   unfavourable    terminations 

Chap.   III.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  o- 

in  surgical  diseases.     29  The  favourable  or  unfavourable 
prognosis    in    diseases     as'   known    from     messengers, 
omens    and    dreams.     30     Prognosis    from     the    per- 
version   of  sense   perception.     31     Prognosis   based   on 
the  altered  condition  of  features,  etc.  32   Prognosis  based 
on   the   perversion    in  the  external  appearances    of  the 
body.     33     Palliative   treatment    of  incurable  diseases. 
34     The   precautions     to   be   taken     (against    dangers, 
such     as    poisoning     of    water,     etc.     by   a    medical 
man   for   the   safety   of    a    king   whose   army     is    on 
the   march.     35     Clinical    observations   made  b}'  phy- 
sicians.    ^6     Miscellaneous     subjects     connected    with 
the      treatment     of    injuries    and     surgical      diseases. 
^y     The    examination     of  the  soil    for    the     selection 
of  vegetable   products   growing    on    it   to  be   used   as 
medicines.     38     Classification    of    drugs    according   to 
their     therapeutical     uses.;     39     The  two     classes     of 
drugs   which  cleanse   the   system  [by   evacuating    bad 
humours]  and  drugs  which  pacify  the  irritated  humours. 

40  Drugs,     their   flavours,    properties     and    maturity. 

41  The     properties     of    drugs     specially     considered. 

42  Flavours.  43  The  choice  of  emetics.  44  The 
choice  of  purgatives.  45  Liquids.  46  Food  and 

From  their  investigatmg  the  (pathological)  causes 
and  symptoms  of  diseases,  they  'are  called  Nidananij 
(etiology)  and  are  sixteen  in  number. 



THP:  SUSHRL'IA  SAiMHlTA.         [Chap.  III. 

Chapter  i  Causes  and  S5''niptoms  of  diseases  caused  b}' 
wind.  2  Hoemorrhoids.  3  Urinaiy  calculi  4  Fistulas. 
5  Skin  diseases  Kushtha),  6  Urethral  discharges. 
7  .Abdominal  tiVmours  and  dropsy.  8  Abortion  and 
unnatural  labours.  g  Abscesses.  10  ErN'sipelas  and 
Carbuncles.  1 1  Tumours  12  Scrotal  tumours.  13  Fractures 
'and  disl(>."ations)  14  Diseases  of  the  male  organ  of 
generation  caused  by  Shuka.  15  Minor  .and  _  mis- 
cellaneous diseases.     16  Diseases  of  the  mouth. 

The  great  sage  has  devoted  ten  chapters  to  the 
subject  of  Anatomy  and  Physiology  (Sharira-Sthanam) 
for  medical  men  and  contemplative  saints  to  learn  the 
component  parts  of  the  human  body.    They  are  :  — 

Chapter  i  Cosmology.  2  Healthy  and  un- 
healthy) condition  of  male  and  female  germs.  3 
Development  of  the  foetus.  4  Analytical  descrip- 
tion of  the  fetus.  5  Component  parts  of  the  body.  6 
Investigation  of  each  vital  part.  7  Description  of  the 
veins.  8  \'enesection.  g  Arteries.  10  Pregnancy 
(child-birth  and  management  of  womt.-n  in  child-birtli 
and  of  children). 

The  division  of  Therapeutics,  (Chikitsitam)  includes 
(amongst  others;  the  modes  of  treating  diseases  by 
medicines,  expiatory  ceremonies,  propitiatory  rites,  and 
tranquillizing  efforts.  Torty  chapters  have  been  devoted 
to  this  division.  Chapter  i    'Prcatment  of  two  varieties 

Chap.   III.  J  SUTRASTHANAM.  25 

of  ulcers.  2  Treatment  of  instant  wounds  and  ulcers 
resulting  therefrom,  3  Fractures  and  dislocations.  4 
Diseases  of  wind.  5  Grievous  maladies  caused  by  wind. 
6  Haemorrhoids.  7  Urinary  calculi.  8  Fistulas.  9 
Skin  diseases.     10  Grievous   skin  diseases.     11  Urethral 


discharges.  12  Warts,  pustules  and  sores  caused  by 
urethral  discharges,  13  Diabetes.  14  Abdominal  Dropsy. 
15  Abortions  and  unnatural  hibours.  16  Ab- 
scesses. 17  Erysipelas  and  Carbuncles.  18  Tumours. 
19  Scrotal  tumours  and  Syphilis.  20  Minor  diseases. 
21  Diseases  of  the  male  genital  organ  caused  bv 
Shuka.  22  Diseases  of  the  mouth.  2^  Swellings. 
24  Prophylactic  treatment  against  diseases  in  general. 
2=)  Miscellaneous  diseases.  26  Tonics  for  virile  debility. 
27  Tonics  for  general  debility.  2S  Remedies  for  increasing 
mental  powers  and  duration  of  life.  2g  Remedies  for 
innate  maladies.  30  Means  for  removing  wordly  distresses. 
31  Treatment  of  diseases  where  oleaginous  substances 
are  useful.  ^^2  Treatment  by  diaphoretics.  33  Emetics 
and  Purgatives.  J4  Treatment  for  mishaps  from  the 
injudicious  use  of  emetics  and  purgatives.  35  Nozzles 
and  pipes,  and  enema  apparatus.  ^6  Mishaps  from 
injudicious  use  of  enemas.  37  Enemas  and  injections. 
^S  Clysters.  39  Treatment  of  complications  in  general. 
40  Inhalation,  fumigations,  gargarismata,  etc. 

From  their  proposing  remedies  against  poisons,  they 
are  called  Kalpas,  and  are  eight  in  number. 

46  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.        I  Chap.  ill. 

ChUpter  I  Preservation  of  food.  2  A'egetable  and 
inorganic  poisons.  3  Poisons  from  organic  creation. 
4  Snake  poison.  5  Treatment  of  snake-bites.  6  Rat- 
bite  and  its  treatment.  7  Emitting  the  sound  ol 
kettle-drums  (for  the  eh'mination  of  poison).  8  Antidotes 
for  and  treatment  of  venomous  insect-stings. 

Thus  a  synopsis  of  one  hundred  and  twenty  chapters 
has  been  given.  Now  here  follows  the  supplementary 
division  called  after  its  own  name  (Uttara-Tantram). 

The  Chapter  on  Sympathetic  diseases  is  placed  first, 
as  this  division  has  for  its  main  object  the  description 
of  such  diseases  and  their  treatment.  2  Diseases  of  the 
joinings  (margin  of  the  eyelids)  of  the  eyeball.  3  Dis- 
eases of  the  eyelids.  4  The  Sclerotic  of  the  eye.  5  The 
Cornea.  6.  The  eyeball,  as  a  whole.  7  Diseases  of  the 
pupil.  8  Treatment  of  eye  diseases.  9  Prophylac- 
tic and  curative  treatment  of  wind  affections  of  the  eye 
and  ophthalmia.  10  Treatment  of  Bile  affections  of  the 
eye  and  ophthalmia.  1 1  Treatment  of  Phlegm  affec- 
tions of  the  eye  and  ophthalmia.  1 2  Treatment  of  Blood 
affections  of  the  eye.  13  Treatment  of  aftections  in 
which  scarification  is  needed.  14  Treatment  in  which 
paracentesis  is  needed.  15  Treatment  by  incisions. 
16  Entropium  and  ectropium.  17  Treatment  of  the 
diseases  of  the  pupil  and  vision.  18  General  rules 
regarding  ophthalmic  medicine  and  surgery.  19  Treat- 
ment of  traumatic  affections  of  the  eyeballs.    20  General 



signs  and  s3nnptoins  of  ear  diseases.  2 1  Treatment 
ol  ear  diseases.  22  Signs  and  S3'mptoms  of  nose 
affections.  2},  Treatment  of  nose  affections.  34  Treat- 
ment of  nasal  catarrli.  25  Signs  ai^d  sj'mptoms  of 
cranial  diseases.  26  Ti;eatment  of  cranial  affections. 
These  (twenty-six  ciiapters)  form  the  end  of  the 
eight  divisions  of  the  A^'urveda,  called  Shilikyam. 

Chapter  2-]  Signs  of  diseases  caused  by  the  Nava- 
grahas.  28  Prophylactic  treatment  of  diseases  caused 
by  Skandha.  29  Treatment  of  convulsions  caused  by 
Skandha.  30  Treatment  of  Sakuni  affections.  31  Treat- 
ment of  Revati  affections.  },2  Treatment  of  Putana. 
33  Treatment  of  Andha  Putana.  34  Treatment  of 
Slueta-Putana.  35  Treatment  of  Mukhamandika. 
36  Treatment  of  Naigamesha.  i"]  Origin  of  the  nine 
Grahas.  38  Diseases  of  the  Vagina  (and  internal  female 
genital  organs).  These  twelve  chapters  together  Vvith 
what  is  included  in  (the  last  chapter  of  the  division  on ; 
anatomy,  form  the  fifth  division  of  the  A5'urveda) 
called  Kaumara  Tantram. 

Chapter  39  Fevers  and  their  treatment.  40 
Enteric  Catarrh  and  its  treatment.  41  Consumption  and 
its  treatment.  42  Diseases  of  the  abdominal  glands  and 
their  treatment.  43  Diseases  of  the  heart  'Angina 
Pectoris  etc.  44  Anaemia  and  allied  diseases  and 
their  treatment.  45  HfCmorrhag^c  affections  and  their 
treatment.      46  Apoplectic  diseases  and  their  treatment. 

2-8  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.         1  Chap.  ill. 

47  Diseases  from  excessive  drinking  and  their  treatment. 

48  Symptoms,  causes,  and  treatment  of  excessive  thirst.  49 
Causes,  S5'mptoms  and  treatment  of  vomiting.  50  Causes, 
s5^mptoms  and  treatment  of  Hiccough.  5 1  Causes,  symp- 
toms, and  treatment  of  Dyspnoea.  52  Causes,  symp- 
toms and  treatment  of  cough.  53  Aphonia.  54 
Entozoa.  55  Causes,  symptoms  and  treatment  of 
retention  of  excrements.  56  Causes,  symptoms  and 
treatment  of  Dyspeptic  and  Choleric  diarrhoea.'  57 
Anorexia  and  its  treatment.  58  Causes,  symptoms 
and  treatment  of  cystic  and  urethral  affections.  59 
Causes  and  treatment  of  urine  diseases.  These  twenty 
one  chapters  describe  the  remaining  diseases  of 
Kayachikitsa  ;  (which  forms  the  third  division  of  the 
Ayurveda  \ 

Chapter  60  Causes,  symptoms  and  treatment  of 
diseases  caused  by  superhuman  powers.  61  Causes 
svmptoms  and  treatment  of  Epilepsy.  62  Mania. 
These  three  chapters  form  the  Bhuta  Vidya  (the  fourth 
division  of  the  Ayurveda). 

Chapter  63  on  the  different  varieties  of  flavour. 
64  (leneral  rules  for  the  preservation  of  health.  65 
Deductions  and  inunctions  drawn  from  tbe  texts  and 
study  of  the  Ayurveda.  66  On  the  varieties  of  mor- 
bid elements  (h^^mours;.  These  four  chapters  are 
to  be  understood  as  being  supplementary,  and  as  orna- 
ments to  this  division. 

Chap.   III.  j  SUTRASTHANAM.  20 

This  last  division  from  its  superiority  over  the 
others,  the  great  sages  have  called  the  Excellent 
(Uttarani).  From  the  information  it  gives  on  varied 
subjects,  it  is  called  the  best,  the  permanent  and  ihe 

In  this  division  which  is  called  the  last,  there  are 
included  four  divisions  (of  the  Ayiirveda)  viz,  Shalakyam, 
(treatment  of  diseases  of  parts  situated  above  the 
clavicles),  2  Kaumarabhrit^'am  (management  of  children), 
3  Kayachikitsa    general  diseases)    and  4     Bliuta-Vidya. 

The  division  (named)  Vajeekaranam  (on  the  strength- 
ening of  virile  power,  etc.)  and  Rasayanam  remedies 
preserving  vigor,  etc.)  have  been  included  in  the 
(fourth )  division  (of  this  treatise   called  Chikitsa. 

The  doctrine  of  antidotes  comes  under  the  head  of 
Kalpa  of  this  treatise  and  Shah'am  surgery  is  incident- 
ally treated  throughout  the  book.  Thus  these  are  the 
eight  limbs  divisions,  of  tne  Science  of  Medicine 
proclaimed  to  the  world  by  the  original  god.  Those, 
who  stU'ly  them  with  due  care  and  make  use  of  the 
knowledge  with  caution,  shall  preserve  the  li\'es  of 
men  on  this  earth.  It  is  imperatively  necessary  that 
the  book  should  be  read  ;  and  after  having  read  it  one 
should  attend  to  the  practice  (of  the  science  .  The 
physician  who  has  learnt  these  both,  is  lit  to  be  honour- 
ed by  kings, 

30  THE  SUSHKUTA  SAiMHlTA.         f  Chap.  III. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— A  ph^'sician,  well  versed  in  the  principles  of 
the  science  of  medicine  (Ayurveda),  but  unskilful  in  his 
art  through  want  of  practice,  loses  his  wit  at  the 
bedside  of  his  patient,  just  as,  a  coward  is  at  his 
wit's  end  to  determine  what  to  do  when  for  the 
first  time  he  finds  himself  in  the  ranks  of  a  contending 
army.  On  the  other  hand  a  physician,  experienced  in 
his  art  l)ut  deficient  in  the  knowledge  of  the  Ayurveda, 
is  condemned  by  all  good  men  as  a  quack,  and 
deserves  capital  punishment  at  the  hands  of  the 
king.  Both  these  classes  of  ph3^sicians  are  not  to  be 
trusted,  because  th}-  are  inexpert  and  half  educated. 
Such  men  are  incapable  of  discharging  the  duties  of 
their  vocation,  just  as  a  one-winged  bird  is  incapable  of 
taking  flight  in  the  air.  Even  a  panacea  or  a  medicine  of 
ambrosial  virtues  administered  b)'  an  unpractised  or  ig- 
norant ph)^sician,  will  prove  j^ositively  baneful  as  a 
draught  of  poison,  or  a  blow  with  a  weapon,  or  a  thunder- 
bolt. A  physician,  ignorant  of  the  science  and  art  of  sur- 
gery and  emollient  measures  Sneha-karma  ,  etc.  is  but 
a  killer  of  men  out  of  cupidity,  and  who  is  allowed  to 
carry  on  his  nefarious  trade  only  through  the  in- 
advertence of  the  king.  A  physician  well  --ersed  in  the 
principles  of  surger}-,  and  experienced  in  the  prac- 
tice of  medicine,  is  alone  caj^able  of  curing  distempers, 
just  as  only  a  two- wheeled  cart  can  be  of  service  in  a 
field  of  battle. 



Now  hear  me,  O  child,  describe  the  mode  of  st'adying 
the  present  science  of  the  Ayurveda.)  The  pupil  having 
worshipped  and  recited  his  daily  prayers  should 
calmly  sit  near  his  preceptor,  pure  in  body  and 
mind,  who  should  teach  him  a  full  i^hloka  or  couplet 
of  the  Ayurveda),  or  a  half  or  a  quarter  part  thereof, 
adapted  to  his  intellectual  capacity.  Then  he  should 
make  a  full  and  elaborate  paraphrase  of  the 
recited  couplet  or  any  piwi  thereof,  and  ask  his  pupils 
individually  to  do  the  same.  When  the  pupils  have 
paraphrased  the  same  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  precep- 
tor, he  should  again  recite  the  same  stanza  or  couplet. 
The  passages  or  shlokas  should  not  be  recited  too 
hastily,  nor  drawled  out  in  a  timid  or  faltering  voice,  nor 
with  a  nasal  intonation.  The  voice  should  be  neither  too 
loud,  nor  too  weak,  but  each  sound  should  be  clearly 
and  distinctly  uttered,  and  the  lips,  the  eyes,  the  eye- 
brows, and  the  hands,  etc.  should  not  be  lifted  or  moved 
to  keep  time  with  the  recitation.  Xo  one  should  be 
allowed  to  pass  between  the  pupil  and  the  preceptor 
at  the  time  of  study. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject  : — A  pupil  who  is  pure,  obedient  to  his 
preceptor,  applies  himself  steadily  to  his  work,  and 
abandons  laziness  and  excessive  sleep,  will  arrive  at  the 
end  of  the  science  (he  has  been  studying  . 

.\  student  or  a  pupil,  having  'finished   tire   course  ol. 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        L  Chap.  III. 

his  studies,  would  do  well  to  attend  to  the  cultivation  ol" 
fine  speech  and  constant  practice  in  the  art  he  has 
learnt,  and  make  unremitting  efforts  towards  the 
attainment  of  perfection  (in  the  art). 

Thus    ends    the    ihird    Chapter    uf   the    Siilraslhanani    in    the  Sushrul.i 
Sanihila  wliich  deals  with  the  Classification  of  tlie  Ayurveda. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  deals 
with  General  Explanations  (Prabha'Saniya- 

The  endeavours  of  a  man  who  has  studied  the  entire 
Ayurveda  (shastra)  but  fails  to  make  a  clear  exposition 
of  the  same,  are  vain  like  the  efforts  of  an  ass  that 
carries  a  load  of  sandal  wood  (without  ever  being 
able  to  enjoy  its  pleasing  scent). 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  foolish  person  who  has  gone  through  a  large 
number  of  books  without  gaining  any  real  insight  into 
the  knowledge  propounded  therein,  is  like  an  ass  laden 
with  logs  of  sandal-wood,  that  labours  under  the  weight 
which  it  carries  without  being  able  to  appreciate  its 

Hence  the  preceptor  will  clearly  explain  each  shioka 
or  a  half  or  a  quarter  part  thereof  as  contained  in 
the  present  work,  divided  into  a  hundred  and  twenty 
chapters  (as  well  as  in  the  concluding  portion  of  the 
Uttara-Tantram  appended  to  it)  ;  and  the  student  or 
the  disciple  shall  attentively  hear  everything  explained 
or  discoursed  on  by  the  preceptor.  Since  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  classify  drugs,  ta^te,  virtue  (Guna), 
potency   (Virya),   transform  at ory   or  reactionary  effect 

34  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  IV. 

(Vipaka),  fundamental  bodily  principles  i  Dhatu)  bodily 
excrement  (Mala),  hollow  viscera  ( Ashaya),  vital  parts 
cMarma\  veins  (Sira),  nerves  (Snayu),  joints  (Sandhi), 
bones  (Asthi;  and  the  fecundating  principles  of  semen 
and  ovum,  and  to  extricate  any  foreign  matter  lodged  in 
an  ulcer),  or  to  ascertain  the  nature  and  position  of 
ulcers  or  fractures,  or  the  palliative,  curable  or  incur- 
able nature  of  a  disease,  etc.  ;  and  since  these  subjects 
perplex  even  the  profoundest  intellects  though  a 
thousand  times  discussed  and  pondered  over,  not  to 
speak  of  men  of  comparatively  smaller  intellectual 
capacity,  hence  it  is  imperatively  obligatory  on  a  pupil 
or  a  disciple  to  attentively  hear  the  exposition  of  each 
shloka^  or  a  half  or  a  quarter  part  thereof,  made  by  the 
preceptor  (while  studying  the  science  of  medicine). 

For  explanations  of  truths  and  principles  quoted 
from  other  branches  of  (science  or  philosophy)  and 
incidentally  discussed  in  the  present  work,  the  student 
is  referred  to  expositions  made  by  the  masters  fof  those 
sciences  or  philosophies;,  since  it  is  impossible  to  deal 
with  all  branches  of  science,  etc.  in  a  single  book  (and 
within  so  short  a  compassX 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject: — By  the  study  of  a  single  Shastra,  a  man  can 
never  catch  the  true  import  of  this  ( Science  of  Medicine). 
Therefore  a  physician  should  study  as  many  allied 
branches  of  (science  or  philosophy)    as   possible.    The 



physician  who  studies  the  Science  of  Medicine  from  the 
h"ps  of  his  preceptor,  and  practises  medicine  after  having 
acquired  experience  in  his  art  by  constant  practice,  is 
the  true  physician,  while  any  other  map  dabbling  in  tne 
art,  should  be  looked  upon  as  an  impostor. 

The  Shalya-Tantras  (surgical  works)  written  or 
propagated  by  Aupadhenava,  Aurabhra,  Sushruta  and 
Paushkalavata,  are  the  bases  of  the  works  or  Tantras 
written  by  others  {^Karavirya,  Gopura-rakshita,  etc,  i. 

Thus  ends   the   fourth    chapter  of   the   Sutrasthanam   in   the  Sushruta 
Samhit^  which  deals  with  General  Explanations. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
Preliminary  measures  in  connection  with  the  curative 
remedies  of  a  disease).*  (Agropaharaniyam- 

The  entire  course  of  medical  treatment  in  connec- 
tion with  a  disease  ma)?'  be  grouped  under  Ihree 
subheads,  as  the  Preliminary  measures  (Purva-karma)  ; 
the  Principal  therapeutical  or  surgical  appliances 
(Pradhana-karma'>  ;  and  the  After-measures  (Paschat- 
karma).  These  measures  will  be  discussed  under  the 
head  of  each  disease  as  we  shall  have  occasion  to 
deal   with   them.     As  the   present   treatise   principall)'- 

*  Several  authorities  hold  that  acts  such  as  fasting,  administration 
of  purgatives,  etc.  should  be  included  within  the  preliminary  measures  ; 
application  of  absorbent  (Pachana)  or  healing  medicinal  agents,  within  the 
second  or  the  principal  measures  ;  and  the  administration  of  tonics  or 
restoratives  within  the  third  or  the  after-measure  group.  Others,  on  the 
contrary,  lay  down  that  measures  adopted  for  the  absorption,  lubrication 
(pacification  by  the  application  of  oily  substances)  or  elimination  of  the 
deranged  bodily  humours  Ijy  sweating  should  be  grouped  under 
the  first  subhead  ( Purva-karma),  the  administration  of  active  purgatives, 
emeticsr  etc.,  under  the  second  (Pradhana-karma)  and  the  giving  of  rice 
meal,  etc.  to  the  patient  under  the  (Paschat-karma)  last  ;  while  according 
to  others  the  active  medicinal  agents  employed  to  cope  with  the  deranged 
humours  in  the  incubative  stage  of  a  bodily  disease  till  the  appearance  of  its 
first  characteristic  symptoms,  should  be  denominated  as  the  Preliminary 
measure  ;  measures  employed  for  the  subjugation  of  a  disease  in  its  patent  or 
fully  developed  stage  as  the  Pradhana-karma,  and  measures  employed  to 
guard  against  the  recrudescence  of  a  disease  and  for  the  restoration  of 
health  in  a    patient  is  the  sequel  treatment  or  the  Pasch^t-karma. 

Chap.^  V.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  -^7 

treats  of  surgical  acts  or  operations,  we  shall   discourse 
on  them  and  their  accessories  at  the  outset. 

Surgical  acts  or  operations  are  divided  into  eight 
different  kinds  such  as  Incising  (Chhedya),  Excising 
(Bhedya),  Scraping  (Lekhj^as  Puncturing  (Vedhya), 
Searching  or  probing  (Eshya),  Extracting  (Abarj'-a), 
Secreting  fluids  (Visravya)  and  Suturing  (Seevya).  A 
surgeon  (Vaidya)  called  upon  to  perform  any  (of  the  eight 
preceding  kinds)  of  operations,  must  first  equip  himself 
with  such  accessories  as  surgical  appliances  and  instru- 
ments, alkali,  fire,  probe  or  director  (Shalaka),  horns, 
leeches,  gourd  (Alavu),  Jamvavoushtha  (a  kind  of  pencil 
shaped  rod  made  of  slate  with  its  top-end  cut  into  the 
shape  of  a  Jamboline  fruit),  cotton,  lint,  thread,  leaves, 
tow(Patta),  honey,  clarified  butter,  lard,  milk,  oil, 
Tarpanara  (powdered  wheat  soaked  in  water),  decoc- 
tions Kashaya  ,  medicated  plasters,  paste  (Kalka),  fan, 
cold  water,  hot  water,  and  cauldrons,  etc.,  and  moreover 
he  shall  secure  the  services  of  devoted  and  strong- 
nerved  attendants. 

Then  under  the  auspices  of  blissful  astral  coi-Qbina- 
tions,  etc.,  and  having  propitiated  the  Brahmanas  and 
the  physicians,  with  gifts  of  curd,  sun-dried  rice,  cordials 
and  gems,  etc.,  and  having  made  offerings  to  the  gods 
and  uttered  benediction,  etc.,  the  surgeon  should 
commence  his  work.  The  pa'dent  should  be  given 
light    food    (before  the  act),    and    made    to   sit   with 

38  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHTTA'.  [  Chap.  V. 

his  face  turned  towards  the  east.  His  limbs  should  be 
carefully  fastened  (so  as  to  guard  against  their  least 
movement  during  the  continuance  of  the  operation). 
Then  the  surgeon,  sitting  with  his  face  towards  the 
west,  and  carefulh'  avoiding  the  vital  parts  (Marmas), 
Veins,  nerves  (Snayus),  joints,  bones  and  arteries  of  the 
patient,should  insert  the  knife  into  the  affected  part  along 
tlie  proper  direction  till  the  suppurated  part  would 
be  reached  and  swiftly  draw  it  out.  In  case  of  extended 
suppuration,  the  part  opened  (length  of  incision)  should 
be  made  to  measure  two  or  three  finger's  widths  in 
length.  An  incision  (Vrana)  which  is  wide,  extended, 
equally  and  evenly  divided,  should  be  deemed  the  best. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — An  incision  which  is  wide,  extended,  well 
divided,  does  not  involve  any  vital  part,  etc.  of  the 
patient,  and  is  well-matured  as  regards  time,  is  the 
best  of  its  kind*.  Courage,  light  handedness,  non-shak- 
ing, non-sweating,  sharp  instruments,  self  confidence 
and  self  command  are  what  should  be  possessed  by 
a  surgeon  engaged  in  opening  a  boil  or  an  abscess. 

Two  or  three  incisions  should  be  made  if  a  single 
opening  does  not  seem  large  enough  for  the  purpose. 

*  Certain  commentators  interpret  the  couplet  as  follows  :  A  boil 
or  an  abscess  which  is  wide,  extended,  well  defined  in  its  shape,  equally 
suppurated  in  all  its  parts  and  does  not  involve  any  vital  part  of  the  body 
is  the  fittest  thing  for  a  surgeon's  knife — Tr. 

Chap,  v.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  39 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  'sub- 
ject : — The  knife  (lancet)  should  be  freely  used 
wherever  a  fissure,  sinus,  or  a  cavity  would  appear 
in  a  boil,  so  as  to  ensure  a  complete  flowing  out  of 
the  pus  accumulated  in  it. 

Lateral  (tirjak)  incisions  should  be  made  in  regions 
of  the  eye-brows,  temple,  forehead,  cheeks,  eyelids,  lower 
lip,  gums,  armpits,  loins,  belly  and  the  groins. 

An  incision  made  in  the  region  of  the  hand  or  root 
should  be  made  to  resemble  the  disc  of  the  moon,  while 
those  about  the  anus  and  the  penis  should  be  made 
semi-circular  !  half-moon  j  in  shape. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject :  —An  incision  in  any  of  the  abovesaid  regions  not 
made  as  directed,  may  give  rise  to  extreme  pain,  pro- 
longed granulation  (healing)  and  condylomatous  growths 
in  and  about  the  ulcer,  owing  to  an  inadvertent  cutting 
of  the  local  veins,  or  nerves.  In  a  case  of  artificial 
or  instrumental  parturition,  in  ascites,  in  piles,  in 
stone  in  the  bladder,  in  fistula  in  ano,  and  in  diseases 
affecting  the  cavity  of  the  mouth,  the  patient  operated 
on  should  be  kept  on  an  empty  stomach  (before  thS^act). 

Then  sprays  of  cold  water  should  be  dashed  over 
the  face  and  the  eyes  of  the  patient  to  relieve  the  pain 
and  the  sense  of  exhaustion  incidental  to  the  operation. 
The  sides  of  the  incision  should  be  firmly  pressed  fso  as 
to  ensure  a  good  outflow  of  the  accumulated  pus)  and 

40  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  [Chap.  V. 

the  margins  of  the  wound  should  be  rubbed  with 
the  fingers  (so  that  they  may  have  a  level  surface 
and  be  of  uniform  structure  throughout.)  Then  the 
wound  should  be  washed  with  an  astringent  decoction 
(of  Nimba,  Triphala,  etc.)  which  should  be  wiped  and 
made  thoroughly  dry  with  a  piece  of  clean  linen.  Then 
a  lint  plug  'Varti)  plastered  over  with  the  (paste)  Kalka 
of  sesamum,  hone)'  and  clarified  butter,  and  soaked  in 
disinfectant  (lit  : — purifying  medicines  such  as 
Ajagandha,  etc.  i  should  be  inserted  deep  into  the  cavity 
of  the  wound.  After  that,  a  poultice  made  of  offi- 
cinal substances  should  be  applied  over  it  and  the 
whole  should  be  bound  up  with  thick  layers  of  tow 
(Kavalikas— such  as  the  leaves  and  bark  of  the  Indian 
figtree  etc.)  which  are  neither  too  irritant  nor  too 
cooling  in  their  effect  ;  and  finally  scraps  of  clean  linen 
should  be  wound  round  them.  The  limb,  [or  the  affected 
part]  should  be  subsequently  fumigated  with  the  fumes 
of  pain-killing  (anodyne)  substances  and  also  with 
those  of  drugs  which  are  supposed  to  ward  off  all 
malignant  spirits  (from  the  bedside  of  the  patient.)* 

Then  it  should  be  fumigated  with  the  drugs,  known 
as  Guggulu,  Vacha,  white  mustard,  Saindhava 
and  the  leaves  of  the  Ximva  tree,  soaked  in  clarified 
butter.      The   residue   of  the   clarified   butter   [dripped 

*  Even  the  bedsheels,  etc.  of  the  patient  should  be  fumigated  as  above. 
This  foreshadows  the  germ  theory  of  the  modern  days— Tr. 

Chap.  V.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  41 

down  and  collected  from  the  fumigating  corftpound 
described  above],  should  be  rubbed  over  the 
region  of  the  heart  and  other  vital  parts  of  the  patient, 
and  the  floor  of  the  chamber  should  be  washed  and 
sprinkled  over  with  drops  of  water  previousl)^  kept  in 
a  (new)  pitcher  for  the  purpose.  The  rites  of  protection 
from  the  influences  of  baneful  spirits,  should  then  be 
performed  by  reciting  the  Mantra  which  runs  as 
follows  : — "I  am  about  to  practise  the  prophylactic  incan- 
tation for  guarding  thy  person  against  the  malignant 
influences  of  Rakshas  and  conjured  demonesses,  and 
may  the  god  Brahma  be  graciously  pleased  to  approve 
of  its  performance.  May  the  Gods  and  deities  and  mini- 
sters of  grace  disperse  and  confound  the  hosts  of 
wrathful  Nagas  (celestial  serpents),  Pishachas,  Gandhar- 
vas  and  Pitris  that  might  be  maliciously  disposed 
to  strike  thee  in  thy  sickly  confinement.  May  the  spirits, 
which  stir  abroad  in  the  night  and  roam  about  in  the 
sky  and  on  earth,  defend  thy  person  in  recognition  of 
thy  fervent  devotion  to  them.  May  the  concourse  of 
Brahma-begotten  sages  'such  as,  Sanaka,  etc.),  the  saintly 
and  canonised  kings  (Rajarshis)  in  heaven  and  the  sacred 
mounts,  streams  and  oceans  of  the  earth  protect  thee 
from  evil.  May  the  fire-god  guard  thy  tongue  ;  the 
wind-god  protect  thy  breath  ;  and  the  Moon-god, 
Parjanya,  Vidyut  lightning)  and  the  spirit  of  the  clouds 
preserve  the  healthy  coursings  of»  those  vital  winds  in 
th}'  organism  which  are  respectively  known  as  Vy^na, 

42  THE  SUSHRUTA    SAMHITA  [  Chap,  v 

Apana;  Udana  and  Samana.  May  Indra,  the  presiding 
deity  of  all  physical  energies,  keep  thy  bodily  strength 
immaculate.  May  Manu  defend  the  two  side  tendons 
at  the  nape  of  thy  neck,  as  well  as  thy  facult)^  of 
intellect  ;  the  Gandharvas,  thy  faculty  of  desire  ; 
Indra,  thy  fortitude  ;  Varuna,  thy  faculty  of  cogni- 
tion ;  the  Ocean,  thy  region  of  umbilicus  ;  the  Sun- 
god,  thy  eyes  ;  the  Quarters  of  the  Heaven,  thy  ears  ; 
the  Moon-god,  thy  mind  ;  the  Stars,  thy  complexion  ; 
the  Night,  thy  shadow  ;  the  Water,  thy  vigour  ;  the 
Oshadhis,  thy  hair  ;  Infinite  Ether,  the  space  which 
is  imprisoned  in  thy  body  ;  \\isundhara,  thy  body  ; 
Vaishvanara,  thy  head  ;  Vishnu,  thy  moral  courage  ; 
Purushottama  (the  foremost  of  beings),  thy  energy  of 
action  (dynamical  action  of  purposes);  Brahma,  thy  self; 
and  Dhruva  (immutable  being),  thv  eyebrows.  May 
these  divinities,  which  perpetually  reside  in  thy  body, 
ensure  thy  safe  continuance  in  being  and  may  thou 
enjoy  a  long  life  through  their  grace.  May  the  gods 
such  as,  Brahma,  etc.,  confer  blessings  on  thy  head. 
May  the  Sun,  the  Moon,  the  twin  sages  Narada  and 
Parvata,  the  fire-god,  the  wind,  and  the  other  celestial 
helpmates  of  Indra,  bring  thee  good.  May  the  pro- 
phylaxis devised  by  Brahma  keep  thee  from  evil.  Mav 
thou  be  spared  to  witness  the  return  of  many  a  long 
and  happy  year  on  earth.  May  such  abnormal  physi- 
cal phenomena  as,  droyght,  deluge,  excessive  downpour 
of    rain,    and    excessive     germination     (or    wholesale 

Chap,  v.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ., 


extinction  of  such  vermin  as)  rats,  mosquitoes,  flies 
which  invariably  portend  evil  and  mortality  in  a 
community,  as  well  as  bloody  feuds  among  kings, 
abate  and  cease.  May  thou  be  relieved  of  all  pain  and 
misery.  We  close  the  prayer  with  a  "Svaha"  (obeisance\ 
The  present  Vedic  mantra  exercises  an  occult  power 
in  relieving  ailments  which  are  due  to  the  malignant 
influences  of  conjured  up  she-devils.  May  thou  acquire  a 
long  life  through  the  protective  energy  of  the  pro- 
phylactic prayer  (lit :— incantation;  now  read  by  me. 

Then  having  protected  the  body  of  the  patient  with 
the  recitation  of  the  above  Vedic  Mantra,  the  surgeon 
shall  see  his  patient  taken  to  his  own  chamber,  and 
prescribe  the  proper  course  of  medicine  and  diet  accord- 
ing to  the  exigencies  of  each  case.  The  old  bandage 
should  be  loosened  on  the  third  day  of  the  operation, 
when  the  wound  or  the  ulcer  should  be  washed,  and 
a  fresh  bandage  should  be  wound  round  as  before.  The 
bandage  should  not  be  loosened  on  the  day  following 
the  lancing  of  a  boil,  as  such  a  measure  might  give 
rise  to  a  sort  of  excruciating  pain  and  formation  of  knots 
in  the  wound  and  retard  the  process  of  granulation 
(healing).  On  the  third  day,  the  surgeon  (Vaidya)  should 
prescribe  the  proper  medicated  plaster,  diet,  etc.  after 
fully  considering  the  strength  of  the  patient,  the  nature 
of  the  disease,  and  the  then  prevailing  season  of  the  year. 
A  wound  should  not  be  tried  to  be  healed  up,  as  long  as 


THE   SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA         [  Chap.  V. 

the  least  morbid  matter,  or  pus  remains  in  its  inside,  as 
it  would  lead  to  the  formation  of  fresh  cavities  in  the 
surrounding  health}^  tissues,  and  ultimately  to  a 
recrudescence  of  the  disease. 

The  authoritative  verses  on  the 
subject  : — Accordingly  a  wound  or  an  ulcer  should 
be  made  to  heal  up  after  the  perfect  purification  of  both 
of  its  inside  and  exterior  has  been  fully  brought 
about.  Even  after  the  healing  of  the  wound  the 
patient  should  studiously  avoid  all  sexual  connections, 
indigestive  viands,  fatiguing  physical  exercises  and 
indulgence  in  emotions  of  grief  or  fright,  or  in  ecstasies 
of  joy,  until  the  cicatrix  has  acquired  enough  toughness. 
The  dressings  and  bandages  should  be  untied  and 
changed  ever}'  third  day  in  winter,  in  spring  and  in  the 
season  of  Hemanta,  and  on  each  alternate  day  in  summer 
and  in  the  rains.  But  a  physician  (surgeon)  should 
not  be  guided  by  these  rules  in  cases  where  there  would 
be  reasons  to  apprehend  imminent  danger,  and  in  such 
cases  the  wound  or  the  ulcer,  like  a  house  in  flames, 
should  be  checked  as  speedily  as  possible. 

Clarified  butter  boiled  with  Yashtimadhu,  and 
applied  tepid  to  a  wound,  incidental  to  a  surgical 
operation,  is  sure  to  alleviate  the  excruciating  pain  that 
is  usually  experienced  in  such  an  affected  part. 

Thus  ends  llie  fifih  chapter,  of  the  Sutiasthanani  in  ihc  SushnUa  Sanihita 
which  treats  of  Preliminarv  nieasiues. 


Xow  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
the  characteristic  features  of  the  differetit  seasons  of  the 
year  and  their  influence  on  health  and  drugs 

The  Eternal  Time  is  without  origin,  middle,  or  end, 
self-l/egotten,  and  the  lord  of  all  attributes.  Contrariety 
or  non  contrariety  of  the  natural  attributes  of  drugs  or 
substances  endued  with  characteristic  tastes,  such 
as  sweet,  etc.,  are  brought  about  by  time  ;  and  time 
is  the  principal  factor  that  controls  the  births  or  deaths 
of  beings. 

Etymology  of  the  term  Ka'Ia  (t^me):  — 
The  Kala  or  the  Eternal  time  is  so  called  from  the 
fact  of  its  not  suffering  even  one  of  its  own  minutest 
particles  or  subdivisions  (Kala)  to  perish,  though 
perpetually  moving,  and  in  constant  motion  in  itself ;  or 
it  derives  its  epithet  from  the.  fundamental  quality  of 
its  destroying  all  beings  and  laying  their  dead  remains  in 
heaps  in  succession.  Some  assert  that  the  name  is  due 
to  the  fact  that  time  blends  ( kalanam )  all  beings  with 
misery  or  happiness  according  to  their  respective  acts, 
or  to  its  leading  all  beings  to  destruction  ( kala). 

The  Sun-god,  by  his  peculiar  motions,  divides 
eternal  time  which  is  measured  by  years  ( Samvatsaras) 


46  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  VI. 

into  'increasingly  progressive  but  smaller  subdivisions) 
such  as,  Nimeshas  (lit : — time  taken  in  closing  the  eyelids^, 
Kashthas^  Kalas,  Muhurtas,  days  and  nights,  fortnights, 
months,  seasons,  solstices,  years  and  Yugas. 

Time  taken  in  articulating  any  of  the  short  vowels 
(such  as  A.  etc.),  is  called  an  Akshi-Nimesha.  Fifteen 
Akshi-Nimeshas  make  one  Kashtha.  Thirty  Kashthas 
make  one  Muhurta.  Thirty  Muhurtas  make  one  day 
and  night.  Fifteen  days  and  nights  make  one  fort- 
night. A  fortnight  is  either  dark  or  bright.  Two  fort- 
nights make  one  month.  The  twelve  months  such  as, 
Magha,  etc.  are  divided  into  six  seasons  such  as.  Winter, 
Spring,  Summer,  Rains,  Autumn  and  Hemanta,  each 
consisting  of  two  months. 

The  two  months  known  as  Tapas  and  Tapasva 
(Magha  and  Phalgunai  constitute  the  season  of  winter. 
Spring  consists  of  two  months  called  Madhu  and 
Madhava  (Chaitra  and  Vaishaka  .  Summer  is  marked  by 
two  months  known  as  Shuchi  and  Shukra  Jaistha  and 
Ashadha '.  The  rains  or  the  rainy  season  is  marked  by 
two  months  called  Nabhas  and  Xabhasya  (Shravana  and 
Bh^dra\  The  two  months  known  as  Isha  and  Urja 
(Ashvina  and  Kartika)  constitute  what  is  called  the 
season  of  Autumn.  Hemanta  is  marked  by  two  months 
called  Sahas  and  Sahasya  '  Agraha5^ana  and  Pousha). 
These  six  seasons  are  respectiveh^  characterised  by  cold, 
heat,  rains,  etc. 

Chap.  VI.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM. 


The  two  Ayanams  are  ushered  in  by  the  sun  afid  the 
moon  changing  their  respective  courses  in  the  heavens 
(passing  over  the  tropics  of  Cancer  and  Capricorn)  as  the 
measurers  of  time.  The  rains,  autumn  and  Hemanta 
follow  one  another  in  succession  when  the  sun  is 
over  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn  or  is  in  the  Winter 
Solstice  (Dakshinayanami  and  the  moon  gains  in 
strength  in  this  part  of  the  year.  Rasas  (Serum  or 
sap)  possessed  of  acid,  saline  and  sweet  tastes,  grow 
strong  and  become  dominant  when  the  sun  is  over 
the  Tropic  of  Capricorn  ^Dakshinayanam)  and  all  beings 
gain  in  strength  and  energy  more  and  more.  Winter, 
spring  and  summer  mark  the  passing  of  the  sun  over 
the  Summer  Solstice  '  Uttarayanam  .  The  sun  grows 
stronger  in  heat  and  light,  and  saps  rasas  i  of  bitter,  pun- 
gent and  sour  tastes  increase  in  intensity,  and  all  animals 
gradually  begin  to  lose  strength  and  energy. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— The  moon  imparts  the  moisture  and  humi- 
dity to  the  earth  which  is  soaked  up  by  the  sun  in 
his  daily  course,  while  the  wind  in  conjunction 
with  the  sun  and  the  moon,  contributes  towards  the 
preservation  of  animal  life.  The  successive  change  of 
the  two  solstices  marks  a  year. 

Five  such  complete  years  count  as  a  Yuga.  The  sub- 
divisions of  eternal  time  from  the- minutest  Ximesha  to 
a  complete  Yuga,  are  constantly  revolving  like  a  wheel_, 

48  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  VI. 

and  this  constant  or  perpetual  revolution  is  called  the 
wheel  or  C5Tle  of  time  ^,Kala-Chakra  1  by  certain 

The  six  seasons  such  as,  the  Rains,  etc.,  have  been 
again  adverted  to  in  this  chapter  for  the  purpose  of  fully 
describing  the  accumulation,  excitation  aggravation)  and 
pacification  of  the  bodily  humours,  such  as  wind,  etc. 
According  to  some,  the  rainy  season  consists  of  two 
months  known  as  Bhadra  and  Ashvina  ;  Autumn  consists 
of  the  two  months  of  Kartika  and  Margashirshya  ;  He- 
manta  consists  of  the  two  months  of  Poushaand  Magha  ; 
spring  consists  of  the  two  months  of  Phalguna  and 
Chaitra ;  summer,  of  Vaishakha  and  Jaistha  ;  and  Pr^^Tit, 
of  Ashadha  and  Shravana. 

Oshadhis  '  Medical  plants  and  cereals  sprout 
during  the  rains  and  are  enfeebled  in  their  properties. 
Water  becomes  muddy  or  turbid  and  the  earth  is 
covered  over  with  fresh  deposits  of  washed  off  or  silted 
mud.  The  sky  becomes  overcast  with  clouds,  and 
the  wind,  charged  with  an  excess  of  humidity,  dulls 
the  appetite  and  organisms  of  beings.  Hence  the 
food  of  beings  which  principally  consists  of  tender 
and  new-grown  vegetables  of  feeble  potency,  consider- 
ably vitiated  by  the  turbid  water  partaken  of  as  drink 
during  the  season,  proves  acid  in  its  digestive  reaction, 
and  germinates  exce-ssive  bile  in  the  human  system. 
In  autumn  the  skv  becomes  cloudless,  the  mire  is  dried 

Chap.  VI.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  ^g 

up,  and  the  bile  originated  and  accumulated  during  the 
rains,  is  liquefied  by  the  ,  rays  of  the  sun  and  gives 
rise  to  bilious  diseases* 

Plants  and  vegetables  (Oshadhis)  tlmt  grow  or  sprout 
during  the  rainy  season,  are  matured  in  course  of  time 
and  ripen  in  their  virtues  and  potency  in  the  season  of 
Hemanta.  The  water  becomes  clear,  cool  and  heavy 
in  this  season.  The  sun's  rays  become  feeble  and  mild  ; 
and  the  winds  moistened  with  frost  and  snow,  make 
the  human  system  a  little  numb  and  heavy.  Hence 
water  and  vegetables  partaken  of  in  Hemanta  are 
divested  of  their  properties  of  acid  reaction  after  being 
assimilated  in  the  human  system,  but  they  give  rise 
to  an  accumulation  of  phlegm  in  the  body  owing  to 
their  heaviness,  sliminess,  and  cooling  and  oily  character. 
In  spring,  the  phlegm  thus  accumulated  in  the  body  is 
hquefied  and  ushers  in  diseases  due  to  a  deranged  state 
of  that  bodily  humour,  t 

The  said  plants  and  vegetables,  in  their  turn,  lose 
their  sap,  moisture  and  nutritive  element  in  summer, 
and  become  dry  and  extremely  light.  In  the  same 
manner  water  becomes  drought-making  [produces  a 
state  of  parchedness  in  the  organism — Ruksha]  in  its 
virtue,,  and  considerably  loses  its    natural   coolness   and 

*   This  should  be  regarded  as  the  excited,  aggravated    or  agitated   state 
of  bile  (Pitta)  in  the  parlance  of  Ayurveda. 

i    This  is  called  the  excited  or  agitated  state  of  phlegm  (Kafa). 

50  thp:  sushruta  samhita.      [  chap.  vi. 

nutritive  properties.  The  sun's  rays  dry  up  the  natural 
moisture  of  the  human  system,  and  accordingly  water 
and  vegetables  largely  partaken  of  in  summer,  give  rise 
to  an  accumulation  of  wind  in  the  system  owing  to  their 
lightness,  dryness,  or  expansive  and  drought-making 
properties.  Subsequently  wind  thus  accumulated  in  the 
summer,  is  agitated  by  the  rains  and  cold  winds  in  the 
'^Cr^V^rt  of  the  rainy  season  (V^^vrii)  when  the  ground  is 
flooded  witii  water  and  thus  gives  rise  to  diseases  \v^hich 
are  incidental  to  a  deranged  state  of  the  bodily  wind.* 

The  fundamental  bodily  humours  such  as,  wind, 
bile,  etc.  augmented  and  accumulated  during  the  rains, 
Hemanta  and  summer,  should  be  checked  as  soon 
as  they  become  aggravated  (manifest  themselves)  in 
autumn,  spring,  or  in  the  forepart  of  the  rainy  season 

Diseases  which  owe  their  origin  to  a  deranged  state 
of  bile,  phlegm  and  wind,  are  respectivel}'-  amelio- 
rated in  Hemanta,  summer,  and  autumn  by  natural 
causes,  [such  as  the  variations  of  atmospheric  or  earthly 
temperature,  rainfall,  etc.].  Thus  far  we  have  discussed 
the  accumulation,  excitation  and  pacification  or 
alleviation  of  the  deranged  bodily  humours. 

Likewise  the  features,  which  specifically  mark 
the     different   seasons   of    the   year   are   observed    to 

*  This  is  called  the  excited  state  of  wind  (Vayu). 

Chap.  VI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^  i 

characterise  the  different  parts  of  a  complete   day  and 

night,  [or  in  other  words]  .traits   peculiar  to  spring  time 

exhibit  themselves  in  the  morning  ;   the  noon  is  marked 

by  all  the  characteristics  of  summer  r,  the  evening  by 

those  of  the  rainy   season  ;  the  midnight  by  those   of 

autumn  ;   and  the   hours    before    dawn   by  those  of 

Ilpmiinta      And  similarly,  like  the  seasons  of  the  year, 

the  diffeieftypkiLs'of  the  day  and  night  arc   -/x«.rked  b"^ 

variations  of  heat,   cold,   etc.  [or  in   other  words]  the 

deranged  bodily  humours   such   as    wind,    bile,    etc. 

naturally  and  spontaneously  accumulate,  aggravate,  or 

subside  during  the  different  parts  of  the  day  as  they  do 

in   the  different  seasons  of  the   year   [represented  by 

those  parts  of  the  day  and  night  as  stated  above]. 

Water  and  vegetables  retain  their  natural  properties 
when  the  seasons  are  natural,  and  do  not  exhibit  con- 
trary features,  and  they  then  tend  to  increase  the 
appetite,  vitality,  strength,  and  power  of  the  human 
system.  Contrary  or  unnatural  seasons  are  but  the 
consequences  of  sin  committed  by  a  whole  community 
and  portend  the  workings  of  a  malign  destiny. 
A  season,  exhibiting  unnatural  or  contrary  features, 
affects  or  reverses  the  natural  properties  of  water  and 
vegetables  peculiar  to  it,  which,  drunk  or  partaken  of, 
cause  dreadful  epidemics  in  the  country.  The  best  safe- 
guard lies  in  not  using  such  defiled  water  and  vegetables 
when  an  epidemic  breaks  out  in  the  country. 

52  THESUSHRUTA  SAMHITA,         [  Chap.  vi. 

Sometimes  a  town  or  a  city  is  depopulated  by  a 
curse,  anger,  sin,  or  by  a  monster  or  a  demoness  conjured 
up  by  a  spell  or  incantation.  Sometimes  the  pollens  of 
poisonous  flowers  or  grasses,  etc.,  wafted  by  the 
winds,  invade  a  town  or  a  village,  and  produce  a 
sort  of  epidemic  cough,  asthma,  catarrh,  or 
fever,  irrespective  of  all  constitutional  n^^nii-vit^^c 
kDr'^dei'Un^::!  bodily  humours  agitateS'l^/Lkll^^,  fTowns 
and  villages  are  known  to  have  been  depopulated 
through  malignant  astral  influences,  or  through 
houses^  wives*,  beds,  seats,  carriages,  riding  animals, 
gems  and  precious  stones  assuming  inauspicious  features. 

Prophylactic  measures:— In  such  cases 
migration  to  a  healthy  or  unaffected  locality,  perfor- 
mances of  rites  of  pacification  and  atonement,  (wearing 
of  prophylactic  gems  and  drugs),  recitations  of  mantras, 
libations  of  clarified  butter  cast  into  the  sacrificial  fire, 
offerings  to  the  gods,  celebration  of  sacrificial  cere- 
monies, obeisance  with  clasped  palms  to  the  gods, 
practice  of  penances,  sell-control  and  charity,  kindness, 
spiritual  initiation;  obedience  to  one's  elders  and 
preceptors,  and  devotion  to  the  gods  and  the  Bramhanas, 
and  observance  of  such  like  rules  of  conduct  may  prove 
beneficial  to  the  affected  community. 

*  Marriages  with  girls  of  prohibited  description  have  been  known 
as  well  to  have  ushered  in  an  epidemic  which  devastated  a  whole  town  or 
a  country. 

Chap.  VI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  53 

The  characteristic  features  of  the 
seasons  Avhich  c|o  not  exhibit  un- 
natural traits  (Metrical  texts)  -Cold 
winds  from  the  north  blow  in  the  season  of 
Hemanta.  The  quarters  of  the  sky  are  enveloped  in 
smoke  and  assume  a  dusky  aspect.  The  sun  is  hid 
in  the  frost,  and  lakes  and  pools  are  frozen  or  lie 
covered  over  with  flakes,  or  thin  layers  of  ice. 
Cro\^'s,  rhinoceroses,  buffaloes,  lambs  and  elephants 
become  excited  and  sprightly  in  this  part  of  the  year  ; 
and  the  Lodhra,  Priyangu,  and  Punnaga  trees  begin  to 

Winter  exhibits  the  same  features  as  above,  only 
in  a  greater  degree  of  intensity  ;  and  the  quarters  of 
the  sky  are  agitated  by  strong  gales  of  wind  and 
showers  of  rain. 

In  spring,  when  the  summits  of  the  mount  Malaya 
are  besmeared  red  with  the  moist  foot-prints  of  the 
brides  of  the  Siddhas  and  the  Vidyadharas,  and  are 
perfumed  in  contact  with  the  sweet-scented  sandal 
forests,  the  lively  south- wind  is  roused  up  from  his  lair 
and  winnows  gladness  to  damsels  burning  with  desires, 
and  kindles  up  the  flame  of  love  and  appeases  the 
amorous  anger  of  the  beloved  pairs  by  turning  their 
fancies  to  themes  of  love.  The  quarters  of  the  sky  are 
cleared  up  and  look  joyful.  The  woods  are  decked 
with   the   full-blown   flowers   of   the   Kinshuka,   lotus, 


Vakula,  mango  and  Ashoka  trees.  The  bee  hums  and 
the  notes  of  the  Cuckoo  are  heard  to  reverberate 
through  the  skies.  The  south  wind  fans  this  king  of 
the  seasons,  and  the  forests  are  hung  with  the  festoons 
of  tender  and  sprouting  leaves  in  his  honour. 

The  sun's  rays  become  stronger  and  more  intense  in 
summer.  Unhealthy  winds  blow  from  the  south-east. 
The  earth  is  heated  ;  the  rivers  run  narrow  and  shallow 
in  their  beds  ;  the  quarters  of  the  sky  glare  with  a 
blazing  light,  the  birds  Chakravakas  with  their  mates 
roam  about  in  quest  of  cool  ponds  and  reservoirs  of 
water  ;  herds  of  deer  are  tormented  and  overwhelmed 
with  thirst  ;  trees,  plants  and  creepers  are  scorched  by 
the  intense  heat,  and  withered  leaves  drop  off  from 
the  trees  which  alone  serve  to  make  the  identification 
of  their  parents  possible. 

In  the  forepart  of  the  rainy  season  (Pravrit',  packs 
of  detached  clouds,  spangled  with  lightning  and  driven 
before  the  gales  of  the  west-wind,  come  thundering  over 
and  envelop  the  skies.  The  Earth  is  robed  in  green 
with  luxurious  growth  of  corn,  enlivened  here  and 
there  by  the  dark  crimson  of  the  cochineal  insects 
(Indragopa),  and  Kadamva,  Nipa,  Kutaja,  and  the 
Ketaki  trees  begin  to  flower. 

During  the  rainy  season,  the  rivers  overflow  their 
banks,  tumbling  down  the  trees  which  grow  on  them. 
Ponds  and  lakes  are  decked  with  the  full-blown  Kumud 



and  Nilotpala  flowers.  The  earth  is  covered  with  firofuse 
vegetation.  All  distinction  between  dry  lands  and 
resers^oirs  of  water  becomes  impossible,  and  the  sun 
and  the  planets  are  enveloped  in  dark  clouds  that 
shower  torrents  of  rain  but  do  not  roar. 

In  autumn  the  sun's  rays  assume  a  mellow  golden 
tint.  Masses  of  white  clouds  are  seen  to  sail  the  dark  deep 
blue  of  heaven.  Ponds  are  decked  with  the  full  blown 
lotus  flowers,  agitated  by  the  wings  of  the  diving 
swans  The  high  grounds  become  dry,  while  the  low- 
lands still  retain  their  muddy  character.  The  level 
plains  are  covered  with  shrubs  and  undergrowths, 
and  plants  and  trees  such  as,  Vana,  Saptahva, 
Vandhuka,  Kasha  and  Asana,  flower  in  abundance. 

The  bodily  humours  such  as  wind,  etc.  aie  disturbed 
and  aggravated  by  the  contrariety,  excess  or  vari- 
ations in  the  characteristic  features  of  the  seasons. 
Hence  it  is  prudent  to  check  the  deranged  phlegm 
in  spring,  to  conquer  the  deranged  bile  in  autumn,  and 
to  subdue  the  deranged  bodily  wind  in  the  rains,  before 
they  develop  themselves  in  any  patent  or  manifest 
bodily  ailment. 

Thus  ends  the  sixth  chapter  of  the  Sutrasthanam  in  the  Sushruta 
Sanihit^  which  treats  of  the  characteristic  features  of  the  seasons  and  their 
influence  on  health  and  drugs. 

C  H  A  P  T  E  R     V  I  I . 

Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
Surgical  Appliances,  their  Uses  and  Construction. 

Surgical  instruments  number  one  hundred  and  one  * 
in  all,  of  which  the  hand  is  the  most  important,  inas- 
much as  (all  of  them  depend  on  the  hand  for  •  their 
principal  auxiliary)  and  as  none  of  them  can  be 
handled  without  it  ;  and  further  because  all  sur- 
gical operations  pre-eminentlj^  require  its  co-operation. 
Any  foreign  or  extraneous  substance,  which  finds  a 
lodgment  in  the  Inunan  system  and  becomes  painful  to 
the  body  and  the  mind  alike,  is  called  a  Shalyam  ;  and 
surgical  instruments  are  the  means  of  extracting  it 
(from  its  seat  or  place  where  it  is  embedded \ 

(Surgical  Appliances  may  be  divided  into  six  different 
groups  or  types,  such  as  the  Svastika,  the  Sandansha, 
the  Tala,  the  Nadi  Yantras,  and  the  Shalakas,  besides 
those  that  are  called  the  minor  or  accessory  appliances 

The  Svastika  instruments  (forceps)  in  their  turn,  are 
divided  into  twenty-four  sub-classes  ;  the  Sandansha 
instruments     (tongsi   into    two  ;    the    Tala    Yantras 

*  According  to  certain  authorities  hundred  is  here   indefinitely  used   for 
a  large  number. 

Chap.  VII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  5- 

into  two  ;  the   Nadi  Yantras    tubular)   into  twent)^  ; 

and  the  Shalakas  (bougies;  into  twenty-eight  ;  while 
the  Upa-yantras  admit  of  being  divided  into  twenty- 
five  different  types.  These  instrumeijts  are  all  made 
of  iron  which  ma}"  be  substituted  for  any  other 
similar  or  suitable  substance  where  iron  would  be 

The  mouths  of  these  appliances  are  usuall}'  made  to 
resemble  those  of  birds  and  beasts,  and  hence  they  should 
be  made  to  resemble  the  mouths  of  some  particular 
animal  in  shape,  or  otherwise,  according  to  the  advice 
of  old  and  experienced  ph3"sicians  -  surgeons;,  or  accord- 
ing to  the  directions  as  laid  down  in  the  Shastras 
(Medical  books  of  recognised  authority,  or  according 
to  the  exigencies  of  the  case,  or  after  the  shape  and 
structure  of  other  appliances  used  on  similar  occasions. 

Metrical  texts:  — Appliances  should  be  made 
neither  too  large  nor  too  small,  and  their  mouths 
or  edges  should  be  made  sharp  and  keen.  They 
should  be  made  with  a  special  eye  as  to  strength 
and  steadiness,  and  they  should  be  provided  with 
convenient  handles. 

Appliances  of  the  Svastika  class  should  be  made 
to  measure  eighteen  fingers  in  length  ;  and  their 
mouths  should  be  made  to  resemble  those  of  lions, 
tigers,  wolves,  hyenas,  bears,  cats,  jackals,  deer, 
Erv^rukas    ;a    species    of    deer,    crows,    cormorants, 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.       [  Chap.  Vll. 

Kururas  la  species  of  birdi,  Hasas  (a  species  of  sparrow 
vultures,  falcons,  owls,  kites,  herons,  Bhringarajas 
(a  species  of  bird ,  Anjalikamas,  Avabhanjanas, 
Nandimukhas,  and  such  like  beasts  and  birds.  The 
two  blades  or  halves  of  a  Svastika  should  be  welded 
together  b}-  means  of  a  bolt  resembling  a  Masura 
pulse  1  lentil;  in  size,  and  the  handles  should  be  turned 
inward  in  the  shape  of  a  mace,  or  an  Ankusha.  Apph- 
ances  of  this  type  should  be  used  in  extracting 
an}'  thorn  or  foreign  matter  which  may  have  entered 
into  the  bones. 

Sandanshas  tongs  are  divided  into  two  classes  as 
thev  are  soldered  together  with  or  without  a  bolt. 
They  should  he  made  to  measure  sixteen  fingers  in 
length,  and  should  be  used  to  withdraw  any  thorn- 
like substance  from  below  the  skin,  tlesh_,  veins  or 

The  Tala  Yautras  which  measure  twelve  fingers 
in  length,  mav  be  divided  into  two  classes  as  the 
siiigle  Tala  and  the  double  Tala.  The  former 
resemble  the  scales  of  fish  in  shape,  while  the  latter, 
according  to  certain  authorities,  are  made  to  resemble 
the  entire  mouth  of  a  fish  of  the  Bhetuli  species.  These 
Yantras  are  used  in  extracting  splinters  from  inside 
the  nose,  ears  and  other  external  channels  or  passages 
ot  the  body. 

The  Nadi  Yantras  tubular  instruments  like  syringe,s 

Chap.  VII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^o 

enemas,  etc,  with  a  passage  or  aperture  running 
through  their  entire  .length^  are  constructed  in 
a  variet}'  of  shapes  and  for  various  purposes. 
Some  of  them  are  open  at  one  end,  while  others 
are  open  at  both.  These  instruments  are  used  for  the 
purpose  of  extracting  any  shalyam  that  has  pricked 
into  the  external  canals  or  passages  of  the  body,  or  for 
inspecting  the  seat  of  affection  as  in  piles,  etc.,  or  for 
sucking  (blood,  etc.  from  any  affected  part ,  or  simply  as 
accessories  to  other  surgical  appliances.  The  length  and 
circumference  of  a  Nadi  Yantra  should  be  made  to 
commensurate  with  those  of  the  passage  'Srota'i  or  outlet 
of  the  human  system  into  which  it  is  intended  to  be 
introduced.  We  shall  describe,  later  on,  the  types  of 
Nadi  Yantras  which  are  to  be  used  in  connection 
with  such  diseases  as  fistula  in  ano,  piles,  etc.  or 
in  tumours  and  ulcers,  in  Mutradvriddhi  (Hydrocele) 
in  Niruddha  Prakasha  (  Phimosis  ),  in  Niruddha 
Guda  'Stricture  of  the  rectum)  and  in  ascites, 
as  well  as  those  to  be  used  for  the  purpose  of 
injecting  anything  into  the  urethra,  the  bowels,  the 
vagina  and  the  uterus,  or  are  used  in  connection  with 
medicated  inhalation,  or  with  those  that  are  known 
as  the  Alavu  Yantras  (gourd  used  for  cupping). 

The  Shalaka- Yantras  bougies  are  of  various 
shapes  and  serve  a  variety  of  purposes.  The  lengths 
and  girths  of  these   instruments   should  be  determined 

6o  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       :  Chap.  vil. 

according   to   the     necessity    of    each   individual  case. 
Four    probes   or   directors    shalaka    in  two   pairs,   are 
used   for    the     purposes     of    searching      Eshana     pus 
in  a  suppurated     part   or   limb,   or  in   connection    with 
uplifting,   cutting   and   thereby  withdrawing  a  shalyam 
from  the  part   it    has   pricked   into,  or   with  a  view  to 
transfer   such    a    body    from     one   place    to    another 
Chalanam ,     or    for     the     purpose     of    extracting    it 
i  Shalyam   from  the  affected  part.     The  mouths    of  the 
two  types  of  these  directors  respectively  resemble  those 
of  a    Gandupada    earthworm     and  of  a   Sharapunkha 
Tephrosia   Purpurea,    Pers    while   the    other   two   are 
respectively  headed  like  the  hood   of  a   serpent  and   a 
fish  hook.     A  couple  of  directors  are  used  for  the  pur- 
pose   of    withdrawing    a    foreign     matter     'Shalyam; 
imbedded  in  any  outer  canal  of  the  body  (Srotas ).      The 
top-ends  of  these  directors  are  bent  down   a  little,  and 
they  resemble  a  lentil  seed  in  size.   Six  types  of  directors 
or  probes  are  used  in  cleansing  the  pus  from  an  affected 
part  of  the  human  organism ;  and  their  top-ends  are  fitted 
with  caps  of  loose  cotton.     The  three  sorts  of  directors 
used  in   applying   alkaline  medicines,    are   shaped   like 
ladles,  and  their  mouths  resemble  the   cavities   of  little 
stone  mortars  (Khala.)    Of  the  six  sorts  of  directors  used 
in  connection   with  the  process  of    cauterisation   (Agni- 
Karma)  three   are    mouthed   like  the  Jamboline  fruit, 
while  the  other  three  are  faced  like  a  mace    or   a    spear 
(^Ankusha. .     A  kind  of  director  used  in  removing   nasal 

Chap.  VII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  6l 

tumours,  is  mouthed  like  the  half  of  the  kernel  'found 
in  the  inside  of  a  Jujube-stpne,  with  a  little  dip  in  the 
middle,  its  lip  or  end  having  a  keen  or  sharp  edge. 
The  ends  of  the  type  of  probe  used  in  applying 
Anjanams  medicated  collyria  to  the  eyelids  are 
wrought  into  two  small  round  lobes  like  the  Matara 
pulse  and  are  blunted,  while  the  sort  of  probe 
used  in  cleansing  the  urethra,  is  made  round  like  the  end 
of  tht;  stem  of  a  Mdlati  flower. 

The  Upa-yantras  or  minor  surgical 
accessories — include  such  substances  as  rope, 
the  Venika  (braided  hair;,  silk  thread,  the  bark  and  the 
inner-skin  of  trees,  creepers,  linen,  Ashthila  'stones  , large 
oval  shaped  pebbles,  a  hammer,  the  palms  of  the  hands, 
the  soles  of  feet,  fingers^  tongue,  the  teeth,  the  nails,  hair, 
the  mane  of  horses,  branches  of  trees,  a  magnet,  alkali, 
fire,  and  medicine,  and  such  acts  as  spitting,  straining 
(kunthanam;,  exhilaration  and  intimidation. 

IVIetrical  texts  : —These  accessories  should  be 
applied  to  the  entire  body  of  a  patient,  or  to  any  part 
thereof  such  as,  the  arteries,  the  ^'iscera,  or  the  joints, 
according  to  the  necessities  of  each  case  to  be 
determined  by  the  surgeon. 

The  Functions  of  Surgical  Instru- 
ments : — are  striking  out  Nirghatanam-lit  : — with- 
drawing a  Shalyam  by  moving  it  to  and  fro), 
mjection   or   filling,    binding,    up-lifting,     cutting     and 

62  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  vii. 

thereby  withdrawing  a  Shalyam,  resetting  by  means 
of  a  twirling  motion,  removing  of  a  Shalyam  from 
one  place  to  another,  twisting,  expanding,  pressing, 
purifying  of  a  passage,  drawing  off,  attracting,  bringing 
to  the  surface,  uplifting,  lowering  down,  applying 
pressure  all  round  a  part,  or  an  organ,  agitating,  sucking, 
searching,  cutting  or  cleaving,  straightening,  washing  or 
flushing,  stuffing  the  nose  and  cleansing.  They  number 
twenty-four  in  all. 

IVIctrical  texts  :— The  intelligent  surgeon  shall 
exercise  his  judgment  and  determine  the  nature  of  the 
surgical  operation  required  in  each  individual  case,  for 
surely  the  shalj^as  requiring  a  surgeon's  aid  are  infinitely 
varied  in  their  character. 

An  appliance  A^antraUvhich  is  too  thick,  or. made  of 
inferior  metal  and  hence)  not  substantially  made,  or  too 
short  or  too  long,  or  does  not  admit  of  being  easily 
handled  and  is  incapable  of  taking  in  the  entire 
Shalyam,  or  is  curved,  loosely  fitted,  or  soft-bolted,  or 
loosely  tied  up  with  cords,  'should  not  be  used  in 
surgical  operations).  These  are  the  twelve  defects  of  a 
surgical  instrument. 

Metrical  texts  : — The   use   of  an    instrument 

devoid  of  the  abovesaid  defects  and  measuring  eighteen 

fingers  in  length,  is  commended   in  surgical   operations, 

Shalyas   which   are   manifest   and   visible  to  the  naked 

eye,  should  be   extracted   with  the  instruments   of  the 

Chap.  VII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM,  6^ 

Sinha-mukha  (lion-mouthed)  type,  while  those  that  can 
not  be  seen,  should  be  removed  with  the  help  of  the 
Kanka-mukhas  (  heron-mouthed  )  instruments,  etc., 
according  to  the  directions  laid  down  in  the  Shastras 
medical  or  surgical  works  of  recognised  authority). 
The  Kanka-mukhas  are  the  best  of  all  other  types  of 
instruments,  inasmuch  as  the}'-  can  be  inserted  and  taken 
out  without  the  least  difficulty,  are  capable  of  drawing 
out  a'Shalyam  with  the  greatest  ease,  and  are  applicable 
to  all  parts  of  the  human  body  'be  they  an  artery  or  a 
bone- joint.) 

Thus  end.s  the  sevenih  chapter  "(  ihc  SiUiasthSnam  of  the  Sushruta 
SamhitS  which  treats  of  the  shape,  construction  and  dimensions  of  surgical 

C  H  A  P  T  E  R    V  I  I  I. 

Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
instruments  used  in  connection  with  a  surgical  operation. 

These  instruments  are  twenty  in  number  such  as, 
the  Mandalagram,  the  Karapatram,  the  Vriddhipatram, 
the  Nakhashastram,  the  Mudrik^,  the  Utpalapatram, 
the  Arddhadh^ram,  the  Suchi,  the  Kushapatram,  the 
Atemukham,  the  Shardrimukham,  the  Antarmukhanij 
the  Trikurchakam,  the  Kuth^rika,  the  Vrihimukham,  the 
Ar^i,  the  Vetasapatrakam,  the  Vadisha,the  Dantashanku, 
and  the  Eshani.* 

■  The  MandaMgram  measures  six  fingers  in  length  and  is 
provided  with  a  round  or  circular  face.  The  Karapatram  is  the  same  as 
the  modern  saw.  The  term  Vriddhipatram  signifies  a  razor.  A  Vriddhi- 
patram measures  seven  fingers  in  length,  the  handle  alone  measuring 
five  fingers.  The  Nakhasastram  is  the  same  as  the  modern  nail-clipper, 
the  blade  of  the  instrument  measuring  a  finger  in  breadth.  The  Utpala- 
patram resembles  a  lotus  leaf  in  shape.  The  Arddhadhfiram  (lancet) 
measures  eight  fingers'  breadth' in  length,  being  one  finger  broad  at  the 
middle,  and  two  fingers  at  the  blade.  The  Suchi.  is  the  same  as  the 
modern  needle.  The  Kushapatram  is  so  called  from  its  resemblance  to  the 
blade  of  a  Kusha-grass.  An  Atemukham  resembles  the  bill  of  a  bird  of  the 
Ate  species.  The  blade  of  an  Atemukham  measures  two  fingers  in 
length,  the  handle  measuring  five  fingers  and  thus  giving  an  entire 
length  of  seven  fingers.  The  SharSrimukham  (scissors)  is  so-called  from  the 
resemblance  of  its  blades  to  the  bills  of  a  Shariri  bird  and  looks  somewhat 
like  a  modern  black-smith's  clipper,  the  measure  of  its  entire  length  being 
twelve  fingers.  The  Antarmukham  is  semicircular  in  shape  and  is  provid- 
ed with  a  toothed  edge  like  that  of  a  hand-saw.  The  Trikurchakam  (trocar) 
is  provided  with  three  separate  blades.  The  intervening  space  between 
the  couple  of  blades  attached  to  a  handle  measuring  five  fingers  in  length, 
is  equal  to  ihe  width  of  a  Vrihiseed,  its  entire  length  being  eight  fingeis. 

Chap.  VIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  65 

Of  the  abovesaid  instruments  the  Mandalagram  and 
the  Karapatram  should  be 'used  in  incising  and  scraping. 
The  Vriddhipatram,  the  Nakhasastram,  the  Mudrik^, 
the  Utpalapatram,  and  the  Arddhadharam,  should  be 
employed  in  incising  f  Chhedanam  )  and  excising 
(Bhedanani)  ;  and  the  Kushapatram,  the  Shuchi,  the 
Atemukham,  the  Shararimukham,  the  Trikurchakam  and 
the  Antarmukham  should  be  made  use  of  in  exudating 
or  secreting  (Visravanam.i  The  Kutharika,  the  Vrihimu- 
kham,  the  Ara,  the  Vetasapatram  and  the  Suchi  (needle) 
should  be  used  in  puncturing.  The  Vadisha  and  the 
Danta-Shanku  should  be  used  in  extracting  sohd  bodies. 
The  Eshani  1  probe  or  director)  in  probing  or  search- 
ing the  course  or  direction  of  the  pus  (in  a  suppurated 
part),  and  the  Suchi  (needle;  should  be  used  in  suturing. 
Thus  we  have  explained  the  eight  different  func- 
tions ol  the  instruments  in  connection  with  surgical 

The  kutharika  (small,  blunt  axe)  measures  seven  lingers  and  a  half  in  liic 
handle,  the  blade  is  half  a  finger  in  width  and  is  blunted  like  the  tooth  of'a 
cow.  The  Vrihimukham  measures  six  fingers  in  its  entire  length  and 
its  top  is  like  that  of  a  Vrihi  seed,  and  the  edge  is  cut  into  small  thorn- 
like projections.  The  Ar5  resembles  the  awl  of  a  cobbler  and  measures 
ten  fingers  in  its  entire  length,  the  blade  is  wide  as  the  seed  of  a 
sesamum  and  has  the  girth  of  a  Durva  (grass)  stem.  The  Vetasapatram 
(knife)  resembles  the  leaf  of  a  Vetasa  plant.  The  blade  is  four  fingers 
in  length,  one  finger  in  width,  and  is  keenly  edged,  the  handle  measur- 
ing four  fingers  in  length.  The  Vadisha  is  shaped  like  a  modern 
fishing  hook.  The  Danta-shanku  (pincers  for  extracting  teeth)  somewhat 
resembles  the  Vrihimukham  in  shape.  The  face  of  an  Eshani  (probe)  is 
like  that  of  a  Gandupada  (earth-worm). 

66  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  Ylll. 

No^v  we  shall  deal  with  the  mode  ol  handling 
the  abovesaid  instruments. — The  Vriddhipatram  and 
other  instruments  for  excising  (Bhedanam;  should  be 
caught  hold  of  at  a  part  between  the  blade 
and  the  handle.  In  acts  of  scraping  the  Vriddhipatram 
and  the  MandaUgram  should  be  handled  with  the 
palm  of  the  hand  slightly  turned  up.  The  instruments 
for  secreting  should  be  caught  hold  of  at  the  roots 
of  their  blades  at  the  time  of  using  them,  while  in 
the  case  of  a  king,  an  old  man,  a  timid  or  a 
delicate  person,  a  child,  a  woman  and  specially  in  the 
case  of  a  prince  of  the  royal  blood,  the  Trikurchakam 
should  be  used  when  any  secreting  or  exudating  opera- 
tion would  be  necessary.  The  handle  of  a  Vrihi- 
mukham  should  be  kept  concealed  within  the  palm 
of  the  hand  and  the  blade  should  be  caught  hold  of 
with  the  thumb  and  the  index  finger  (Pradeshini). 
The  Kuth^rika  should  be  first  supported  on  the  left 
hand  and  then  struck  with  the  thumb  and  third  finger 
of  the  right.  The  Ara,  the  Karapatram  and  the 
Eshani,  should  be  caught  hold  of  at  their  roots.  The 
rest  of  the  surgical  instruments  should  be  grappled 
according  to  requirements. 

The  abovesaid  instruments  are  shaped  like  things 
which  their  very  names  imply,  as  ha^^e  been  al- 
ready described.  The  Nakashastram  and  the  Eshani 
measure  eight   fingers   in   length.     The   Suchi    (needle) 

Chap.  VIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  67 

shall  be  described  later  un.  The  top-ends  of  the  Vadisha 
and  the  Danta-Shankhu  pental  pincers';  are  a  little 
bent  down  and  their  faces  are  made  to  resemble 
sharp  thorns,  or  the  newly  sprouted  leaves  of  a 
barley  plant.  The  top-end  of  an  Eshani  closely 
resembles  the  mouth  of  an  earth-worm.  Tlie  lenj^th 
of  a  Mudrika  should  be  made  equal  to  that  of  the 
top  phalanges  of  the  index  finger  'of  a  man  of 
avera'ge  height.)  A  Shararimukham  measures  ten  fingers 
in  length.  The  rest  of  the  instruments  are  mostly 
made  to  measure  six  fingers  in  length. 

Commendable  features  in  a  Surgi- 
cal instrument  : —Instruments  that  are  fitted 
with  handles  of  easy  grip  and  are  made  of  good  and 
pure  iron,  well  shaped,  sharp,  and  are  set  with  edges 
that  are  not  jagged  and  end  in  well  formed  points  or 
tops,  should  be  deemed  as  the  best  of  their  kind. 

Curvature,  bluntness  ( Kuntha— lit  :— incapable  of 
cutting  hair  ,  unequal  sharpness  of  the  edge,  rough- 
edgedness,  over- thickness,  over-thinness,  over-lengthi- 
ness,  and  over-shortness  are  the  defective  traits  in  a 
surgical  instrument.  Those  possessed  of  contrary  features 
should  be  used.  But  a  Karapatram  set  with  a  very 
rough  (dentated)  edge  may  be  used  for  the  purpose  of 
sawing  the  bones. 

A  surgical  instrument  meant  *'or  excision  'Bhedanann 
should  be  set  with  an  edge  as  thin   as  that  of  a  Musura 

68  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  VIII. 

pulse  'lentil  seed  ,  while  an  instrument  used  in  scraping 
should  be  set  with  an  edge  half  as  thin  as  that  of 
the  former.  An  instrument  used  either  in  connection 
with  the  measures  of  secretion  or  cutting  by  uplifting 
(Vyadhanam)  should  be  set  with  an  edge  as  fine  as  the 
human  hair,  while  an  instrument  of  incision  should  have 
an  edge  half  as  thin  as  that  of  the  former. 

Surgical  instruments  should  be  tempered  with  one 
of  the  three  substances  such  as,  alkali,  water,  and  oil. 
Instruments  used  in  cutting  an  arrow,  a  bone,  or  any 
foreign  matter  (Shalyami  pricked  into  the  human 
body,  should  be  tempered  with  alkali,  whereas  those  that 
are  made  use  of  in  cutting,  cleaving,  and  lopping  off  the 
flesh  from  an  affected  part),  should  be  tempered  with 
water.  Instruments  used  in  opening  Vyadhanam) 
a  vein  (Shira)  or  in  cutting  open  a  nerve  .Sna)^!: 
should  be  tempered  with  oil,  and  should  be  whetted 
upon  a  species  of  stone-slab  resembling  a  Masha  pulse  in 
colour,  and  their  set- edge  should  be  protected  by  putting 
it  in  a  sheath  made  of  Sh^lmali  wood. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— An  instrument,  well-ground,  well-shaped,  fitted 
with  a  convenient  handle  and  capable  of  (laterally) 
cutting  a  hair  in  two  and  made  according  to  measures 
laid  down  in  the  Shastras,  should  be  alone  used  in  a 
surgical  operation. 

Chap.  VIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  6g 

The  Inferior  or  substitutive  instru- 
ments (the  Anu-Shastras  : — The  skin  of  bamboos, 
crystals,  bits  of  glass,  Kuruvindas  Ca  sort  of  crystal"* 
leeches,  fire,  alkali,  nails,  the  leaves  of  trees  known  as 
Goji,  Shephalika  and  Shakapatra,  the  tender  sprouts 
of  corn,  hair,  and  the  fingers,  should  be  included  within 
the  category  of  the  minor  instruments  of  surgery  and 
(which  may  be  used  in  certain  instances  in  substitution 
for  the  principal  and  usual  ones. 

Metrical  texts  :— The  four  articles  such  as 
strips  of  bamboo  skin,  crystals,  bits  of  glass,  and  the  rock 
known  as  Kuruvinda,  should  be  used  by  an  intelli- 
gent physician  in  incising  or  excising  Bhedanam  i  opera- 
tions, where  the  patient  would  be  found  to  have  a  dread 
of  the  knife,  or  too  young  to  be  surgically  operated  upon 
with  it,  or  where  the  proper  instrument  cannot  be  pro- 
cured. The  nails  of  fingers  should  be  used  in  operations 
of  incising,  excising  or  extracting  in  (substitution  for  the 
instruments  enjoined  to  be  used  for  the  purpose),  when 
such  a  course  would  appear  feasible.  The  processes  of 
applying  alkalis,  leeches  and  cauterisation  will  be  dealt 
with  later  on.  In  Diseases  affecting  the  eyelids  or  the 
cavity  of  the  mouth,  operations  for  the  purposes  of 
secreting  or  evacuating  'the  accumulated  pus  or 
phlegm),  may  be  performed  with  the  leaves  of 
Shakapatra,  Shephalika  or  Gojis.  In  the  absence  of 
a  probe  or  director,  searching  may  be  done  with  the  help 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      L  Chap.  vili. 

of  a  finger,  or  with  a  hair,  or  with  a  corn  sprout. 
An  intelligent  physician  should  deem  it  his  im- 
perative duty  to  get  his  surgical  instruments  made 
by  a  skilful  and  experienced  blacksmith,  and  of 
pure,  strong  and  sharp  iron  steel  >.  A  physician,  skilled 
in  the  art  of  using  surgical  instruments,  is  always 
successful  in  his  professional  practice,  and  hence  the 
practice  of  surgery  should  be  commenced  at  the  very 
outset  of  medical  studies. 

Thus  ends  the   eighth   chapter    of  the    Sutrasthiinam    in  the    Sushruta 
SamhitS  which  treats  of  Surgical|Instruments. 

Now   we   shall  discuss   the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
practical  instructions  in  surgical  operations  (Yogya- 

The  preceptor  should  see  his  disciple  attends  the 
practice  of  surgery  even  if  he  has  already  thoroughly 
mastered  the  several  branches  of  the  science  of  Medicine, 
or  has  perused  it  in  its  entirety.  In  all  acts  connected 
with  surgical  operations  of  incision,  etc.  and  injection 
of  oil,  etc.  the  pupil  should  be  fully  instructed  as  regards 
the  channels  along  or  into  which  the  operations  or 
applications  are  to  be  made  (Karma-patha\  A  pupil, 
otherwise  well  read,  but  uninitiated  into  the  practice  (ol' 
medicine  or  surgery)  is  not  competent  >  to  take  in  hand 
the  medical  or  Surgical  treatment  of  a  disease  .  The  art 
of  making  specific  forms  of  incision  should  be  taught  by 
making  cuts  in  the  body  of  a  Pushpaphala  (a  kind  of 
gourd  ,  Alavu,  watermelon,  cucumber,  or  Ervaruka.  The 
art  of  making  cuts  either  in  the  upward  or  downward 
direction  should  be  similarly  taught.  The  art  of  making 
excisions  should  be  practically  demonstrated  by  making 
openings  in  the  body  of  a  full  water-bag,  or  in  the 
bladder  of  a  dead  animal,  or  in  the  side  of  a  leather 
pouch  full  of  slime  or  water.  The  art  of  scraping  should 
be  instructed  on  a  piece  of  skin  on  which  the  hair 
has  been  allowed  to  remain.     The    art    of  venesection 

72  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [Chap.  IX. 


(Vedhya)  should  be  taught  on  the  vein  of  a  dead  animal, 
or  with  the  help  of  a  lotus  stem.  The  art  of  probing 
and  stuffing  should  be  taught  on  worm  (Ghuna)  eaten 
wood,  or  on  the  reed  of  a  bamboo,  or  on  the  mouth  of  a 
dried  Alavu  (gourd).  The  art  of  extracting  should 
be  taught  by  withdrawing  seeds  from  the  kernel  of 
a  Vimbi,  Vilva  or  Jack  fruit,  as  well  as  by  extract- 
ing teeth  trom  the  jaws  of  a  dead  animal.  The  act 
of  secreting  or  evacuating  should  be  taught  on  the 
surface  of  a  Shalmali  plank  covered  over  with  a  coat 
of  bee's  wax,  and  suturing  on  pieces  of  cloth,  skin 
or  hide.  Similarly  the  art  of  bandaging  or  ligaturing 
should  be  practically  learned  by  tying  bandages  round 
the  specific  limbs  and  members  of  a  full-sized  doll  made 
of  stuffed  linen.  The  art  of  tying  up  a  Karna-sandhi 
(severed  ear-lobe)  should  be  practically  demonstrated 
on  a  soft  severed  muscle  or  on  flesh,  or  with  the  stem 
of  a  lotus  lily.  The  art  of  cauterising,  or  applying 
alkaline  preparations  \^causticsj  should  be  demonstrated 
on  a  piece  of  soft  flesh  ;  and  lastly  the  art  of  inserting 
syringes  and  injecting  enemas  into  the  region  of  the 
bladder  or  into  an  ulcerated  channel,  should  be  taught 
(by  asking  the  pupil)  to  insert  a  tube  into  a  lateral 
fissure  of  a  pitcher,  full  of  water _,  or  into  the  mouth 
of  a  gourd  (Alavu). 

Authoritative   verses   on   the    sub- 
ject :— An   intelligent  physician   who   has   tried  his 

Chap.   IX.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  73 

prentice  hand  in  surgery  ion  such  articles  of  experiment 
as,  gourds,  etc.,  or  has  learnt  the  art  with  the  help  of 
things  as  stated  above  ,  or  has  been  instructed  in  the  art 
of  cauterisation  or  blistering  (application  of  alkali)  by 
experimenting  on  things  which  are  most  akin,  or  simi- 
lar to  the  parts  or  members  of  the  human  body  they 
are  usually  applied  to,  will  never  lose  his  presence  of 
mind  in  his  professional  practice. 

Thus  ends   the  ninth   chapter   of    the   SutrasthSnam    in   the    Sushruta 
Samhit^  which  treats  of  Instructions  in  Surgical  operations. 


C  HAPTER    X. 

Now  we  sliall  discuss  the  Chapter  wliich  treats  of 
the  essential  qualifications  of  a  physician  before 
he    formally     enters     his    profession      (Vishlkha'- 


A  physician  haying  thoroughly  studied  the  Science  of 
medicine,  and  fully  pondered  on  and  yerified  the  truths 
he  has  assimilated,  both  by  obseryation  and  practice,  and 
haying  attained  to  that  stage  of  (lucid )  kno^vledge,  ^yhich 
\yould  enable  him  to  make  a  clear  exposition  of  the 
science  (^vhene^■er  necessary),  should  open  his  medical 
career  conmience  practising)  with  the  permission  of 
the  king  of  his  country.  He  should  be  cleanly  in  his 
habits  and  well  shaAed.  and  should  not  allow  his  nails 
to  grow.  He  should  wear  white  garments,  put  on  a 
pair  of  shoes,  carry  a  stick  and  an  umbrella  in  his  hands, 
and  walk  about  with  a  mild  and  benignani  look  as  a 
friend  of  all  created  beings,  read}-  to  help  all,  and  frank 
and  friendly  in  his  talk  and  demeanour,  and  neyer  allow- 
ing the  full  control  of  his  reason  or  intellectual  powers 
to  be  in  any  way  disturbed  or  interfered  with. 

A  physician,  haying  met  with  a  messenger  of 
happy  augury,  or  having  been  encouraged  on  his  journey 
by  the  notes  of  auspicious  birds  or  sights,  should  go  to 
the  house  of  his  patient.     [Then,  haying  entered   the 

Chap.   X.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  >jz^ 

sick  room],  the  physician  should  \ie\v  the  bod>'  of  his 
patient,  touch  it  with  his  own  hands,  and  enquire 
(about  his  complaint  .  SeNcral  authorities  hold  that  these 
three,  (inspection,  touch  and  questioning;  largely  form 
the  means  of  our  ascertaining  the  nature  of  a  disease. 
But  that  is  not  correct,  inasmuch  as  the  five  sense- 
organs  of  hearing,  sight,  etc.  and  oral  enquiry  material- 
ly contribute  to  a  better  diagnosis. 

Diseases,  which  are  to  be  diagnosed  with  the  help  of 
the  organ  of  hearing,  will  be  fully  treated,  later  on,  in 
the  Chapter  on  Vrana-Srava  (secretions  from  an  ulcer). 
The  wind  (Vayu),  making  the  blood  ebullient,  forces  it  up 
with  a  distinctly  audible  report  and  thus  affects  the  sense 
of  hearing.  But  this  will  be  dealt  with  later  on  in  the 
abovesaid  chapter.  The  heat  and  coldness  of  the  body, 
or  the  gloss,  roughness,  hardness,  or  softness  of  the  skin 
of  the  affected  part  as  in  fever,  or  in  an  oedematous 
swelling  of  the  body,  are  perceptible  by  the  sense  of 
touch.  Fullness  or  emaciation  of  the  body  (cachexia), 
state  and  indications  of  ^■itality,  strength,  complexion, 
etc.  are  perceived  by  the  sense  of  sight.  Secretions  or 
discharges  (from  the  inflamed  mucous  membrane  of 
the  urethral  in  Prameha  etc.,  should  be  tested  with 
the   organ   of  taste.*     The  characteristic  smell  emitted 

*  The  .-jwecl,  ur  an}'  olher  ta.'^lc  of  ihe  dibcharj^eb  should  Ijt;  inleiicd 
from  the  fad  of  iheir  bting  or  not  being  swarmed  wiili  hosts  of  ants 
or  flies,  etc. 

76  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  X. 

by    an   ulcer   in   its   critical  stage   f  Arishta)  should  be 
determined  with  the   help   of  the  organ  of  smell. 

While  such  facts  as  the  time  or  season  (of  the  first 
appearance)  of  the  disease,  the  caste  which  the  patient 
belongs  to,  and  things  or  measures  which  tend  to 
bring  about  a  manifest  amelioration  of  the  disease, 
or  prove  comfortable  to  the  patient  (Satm3'ami 
as  well  as  the  cause  of  the  disease,  the  aggrava- 
tion of  pain,  the  strength  of  the  patient,  and  his 
state  of  digestion  and  appetite,  the  emission  of 
stool,  urine  and  flatus,  or  their  stoppage,  and  the 
maturity  of  the  disease  as  regards  time,  should 
be  specifically  ascertained  by  directly  interrogating  the 
patient  (on  those  subjects).  Though  the  abovesaid  five 
organs  of  sense,  like  the  three  fundamental  vital  humours, 
help  us  to  make  the  correct  diagnosis  of  a  disease, 
still  the  objects  locally  perceived  by  these  senses 
should  not  be  left  out  of  account  in  ascertaining  its 
specific  nature. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  disease  wrongly  observed  or  incorrectly 
described,  or  wrongly  diagnosed,  is  sure  to  mislead  a 

Ha^'ing  made  these  observations  the  physician  will 
try  to  cure  diseases  that  are  curable,  adopt  palliative 
measures  in  cases  where  palliation  is  the  only  remedy 
that  can  be  offered,  and  give  up  a  case  which  is   beyond 

Chap.  X.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM  .  ^7 

all  medical  treatment,  and  mosth'  those  which  are  of  more 
than  a  year's  standing.  Diseases  affecting  a  Br^hmana 
well  versed  in  the  Vedas_,  or  a  king,  or  a  woman,  or  an 
infant,  or  an  old  man,  or  a  timid  person,  or  a  man  in  the 
royal  service,  or  a  cunning  man,  or  a  man  who  pretends 
to  possess  a  knowledge  of  the  science  of  medicine,  or  a 
man  who  conceals  his  disease,  or  a  man  of  an  excessively 
irascible  temperament,  or  a  man  who  has  no  control 
over  his  senses,  or  a  man  in  extremely  indigent  cir- 
cumstances of  life  or  without  any  one  to  take  care  of 
him,  are  apt  to  run  into  an  incurable  type  though 
appearing  in  a  common  or  curable  form  at  the  outset. 
The  physician,  who  practises  his  art  with  a  regard  to 
these  facts,  acquires  piety,  wealth,  fame  and  all  wished 
for  objects  in  life. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  physician  should  abjure  the  company  of 
women,  nor  should  he  speak  in  private  to  them  or 
joke  with  them.  A  physician  is  forbidden  to  take 
anything  but  cooked  rice  from  the  hands  of  a  woman. 

Thus   ends    the    tenth    Chapter   of  the  Sutrasthanam   in    the    Sushruta 
Samhiti  which  treats  of  the  essential  qualifications  of  a  physician. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of  the 
pharmacy  of  alkalis  or  potential  cauteries  (KshaTa- 

In  cases  that  require  incising,  excising  and  scraping, 
alkalis  or  alkaline  preparations  are  of  greater  importance 
than  surgical  instruments  and  appliances  (both  principal 
and  secondary  or  substitutive,  as  they  are  possessed  of 
the  virtues  of  subduing  the  three  deranged  bodily 
humours    such  as  wind,  bile  and  phlegm). 

The  etymological  signification  of  the  term  Kshara 
(alkalis)  is  based  on  their  property  of  corroding  i the  skin 
or  the  flesh  of  an  affected  part  of  the  body),  or  on  their 
peculiar  quality  in  destroying  the  skin  and  flesh  where 
such  an  effect  is  desired  .  Since  a  variety  of  substances 
enter  into  the  composition  of  Kshara  alkalis  ,  they  are 
endued  with  the  virtue  of  subduing  the  three  deranged 
bodily  humours.  Owing  to  their  white  colour,  Ksharas 
should  be  included  within  the  category  of  cooling 
substances  ( Saumya'. 

But  since  many  drugs  or  substances  of  a  hot  or  fiery 
nature  ( Agneya)  enter  into  their  composition,  KshiCras 
(alkalis)  are  endued  with  the  properties  of  blistering, 
burning,   suppurating   •  Pachana  >,  opening  etc.,   without 

Chap,   XI.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM, 


involving  any  contradiction  to  their  generic  iSanimya) 
nature,  and  lience  the}-  are  included  within  the  list  of 
those  substances  which  are  both  hot  and  cooling  (Saum^^a 
and  Agne^'a  in  their  ^'irtues.  The}'  are  pungent  in 
taste,  of  a  heat- making  potency,  irritant,  digestive, 
corrosive,  absorbent,  liquefacient,  improve  unhealth}' 
sores  and  granulation,  and  act  as  styptic  and 
paralysing  agents.  They  exercise  destructive  action 
on  aaimal  tissues.  They  are  antitoxic,  anthelmintic 
and  possess  the  propert}-  of  curing  mucous  accumu- 
lations in  the  intestines.  They  tend  to  reduce  fat  and 
phlegm  and  they  have  the  ^'irtue  of  destroying  skin 
diseases.  In  large  doses,  'alkalis)  have  the  effect  of 
destroying  the  virile  potency  of  a  man. 

Kshara  (caustics  may  be  grouped  under  two  distinct 
heads  according  to  their  mode  of  administration  \  such 
as  the  Pratisaraniya  i  for  external  application)  and  the 
Pania  i  alkaline  potions  .  Alkaline  preparations  should 
be  externally  used  in  such  skin  diseases  as  Kitima, 
Dadru,  Kilas,  Mandala,  Fistula  in  ano,  tumour,  bad 
ulcer  fDushta  Vrana',  sinus,  Charma-kila,  Tilkalaka, 
Nacchya,  Vyanga,  Mashaka  and  external  abscesses 
and  hoemorrhoids.  In  cases  of  worms  and  poisoning 
as  well  as  in  the  seven  forms  of  diseases  which  affect  the 
cavity  of  the  mouth,  such  as  Upajihva,  Upakusha, 
Danta-Vaidarbha,  and  in  the  three  types  of  Rohini, 
external   applications   of    alkalis    act   like   substitutive 

go  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.         [Chap.  XI. 

surgical  instruments.  Alkaline  potions  or  any  other 
internal  use  of  alkalis,  should  be  prescribed  in  cases 
of  Gulma  (abdominal  glands;,  Ascites,  loss  of 
appetite,  indigestion,  flatulent  distension  of  the  abdomen 
with  suppression  of  stool  and  urine,  urinary  calculi, 
stone  in  the  bladder,  internal  abscesses,  worms  in  the 
intestines  and  hcemorrhoids,  as  well  as  for  subduing 
or  eliminating  any  sort  of  poison  from  the  system. 

Alkalis  or  alkaline  potions  will  prove  positively 
injurious  to  a  patient  laid  up  with  fever  or  hsemoptysis, 
to  a  man  of  bilious  temperament,  to  an  infant,  or  to  an 
old  man,  and  they  will  work  similar  mischief  in  a  weak 
person,  or  in  a  patient  suffering  from  vertigo,  insensi- 
bility, syncope  and  Timira  (darkness  of  vision).  These 
preparations  of  Alkalis  should  be  made  in  one  and 
the  same  way  b}-  filtering  ;  and  we  reserve  the  full 
description  of  this  process  for  another  occasion. 

Alkalis  for  external  application  are  prepared  in 
three  different  potencies  ;  the  mild,  middling  and 
strong  (extremel}'  irritant'.  A  physician  wishing 
to  prepare  such  an  alkali,  should  first  purif^^  his 
body  and  mind,  and  observe  a  l^st  on  a  day  in  autumn 
marked  by  auspicious  astral  combinations.  Then 
having  ascended  the  brow  of  a  hill,  he  should  select  a 
full  grown  Ashita-mushka  (Ghanta  parul  i  tree  of  middle 
age,  and  growing  on  soil  recommended  in  the  works 
on   pharmacy   and  not   anywise  affected.    Then  having 

Chap.  XI.  SUTRASTHANAM.  8l 

formally  invoked  the  spirit  of  the  aforesaid  tree, 
which  bears  no  white  flowers)  the  physician  should 
fell  it  on  the  day  following, — reciting  the  Mantra  which 
reads  as  : — "  O  thou  possessed  of  mighty  virtues,  O 
thou  endued  with  fiery  potency,  may  thy  potency 
never  decrease  or  vanish.  Stay  here,  O  thou  blissful  one, 
execute  my  work,  and  after  the  performance  thereof 
thou  shalt  be  at  libert}-  to  ascend  to  the  heavenly 

Then  haA'ing  performed  the  Homa  ceremon}'  with 
thousands  of  white  and  red  flowers,  the  physician 
should  cut  the  wood  of  the  abovesaid  tree  into 
small  pieces  and  put  them  in  a  place  pro- 
tected from  the  wind.  Then  having  placed  pieces  of 
unslaked  limestone  over  them,  the  physician  should 
burn  them  to  ashes  with  the  lighted  faggots  of  dried 
sesamum  plants.  Then  after  the  fire  has  fairly 
burnt  itself  out,  the  ashes  of  the  limestone  and  the 
Ghanta-parula  wood  should  be  separately  collected 
and  stored.  Similarly  the  wood  as  well  as  the 
leaves,  roots  and  fruits  of  Kutaja,  Palasha,  Ashva- 
karna,  Paribhadra,  Vibhitaka,  Aragvadha,  Tilvaka, 
Arka,  Snuhi,  Apamarga,  Patala,  Naktamala,  Vrisha, 
Kadali,  Chitraka,  Putika,  Indra-Vrilvsha,  Asphota, 
Ashvamaraka,  Saptachchhada,  Agnimantha,  Gunja, 
and   the    four   species    of  Koshataki,    should   be  burnt 

down  to  ashes. 

S2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap.  XI. 

Then  a  Drona  measure  of  the  ashes  thus  prepared* 
should  be  dissolved  and  stirred  up  in  six  Drona  measures 
of  pure  water  or  cow's  urine,  and  be  filtered 
twenty-one  times  in  succession.  The  ('alkaline  water 
filtered  as  abo\-e)  should  ])e  kept  in  a  large  caldron 
over  a  fire  and  boiled  by  gently  agitating  it  with  a 
ladle.  .  It  should  be  taken  down  from  the  fire  when  bv 
gradual  stirring,  the  saturated  water  would  appear 
transparent,  slimy,  red  and  irritating.  It  should 
then  be  filtered  through  a  piece  of  clean  linen, 
and  the  dregs  thrown  away.  After  this  a  Kudava 
measure  and  a  half  12  Palas)  of  the  (abovesaid) 
saturated  or  alkaline  water  should  be  taken  out 
of  the  caldron,  and  the  rest  should  be  again  kept  boil- 
ing over  the  fire.  Following  this,  substances  laiown 
as  Kata-Sharkara,  the  ashes  of  the  burnt  limestone 
pre^■iously  obtained,  Kshirapakas  (fresh  water  oysters) 
and  Sankhanabhi,  should  be  burnt  red  hot  in 
equal  proportions,  and  then  immersed  and  pressed 
in  the  Kudaba  measure  of  alkaline  water  previoush" 
set     apart     in     an     iron     basin     as    above    described. 

Then  having  immersed  eight  Pala  measures  of  the 
substances  known  as  the  Shankhanabhi  etc.,  in  the 
abovesaid  alkaline  water,  the  physician  should  boil 
it    by     continuous     and     steady     stirring,   care  being 

*  Two  piuia  of  tht    buinl  ashes  of  Ghanla-panila  and    one  pari    of  ihc 
ashes  of  Kuiaja,  n^Ic. 

Chap.  XI.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  8 


taken  not  to  make  it  of  too  thin  nor  of  tod  thick 
a  consistency.  Then  the  basin  or  the  caldron 
should  be  taken  down  from  the  oven,  and  its  contents 
poured  into  an  iron  pitcher,  carefully  covering  its 
mouth  after  filling  it.  The  alkali  thus  prepared  is 
called  the  Kshara  (alkali  of  middling  potency,  which, 
if  prepared  without  the  subsequent  addition  (lit  : 
throw-over)  of  the  ashes  of  Katasharkara,  etc.,  goes  by 
the  name  of  mild  alkali  'IVLi-idu  Kshara).  Similarly,  alkali 
prepared  with  the  addition  of  the  powders  of  the  drugs 
known  as  Danti,  Dravanti,  Chitraka,  Langulaki,  Putika- 
Pravala  Talpatri,  \'idha,  Suvarchika,  Kanaka-Kshiri, 
Hingu,  Vacha,  and  Visha,  or  with  as  many  of  them  as  are 
available,  each  weighing  four  tolas,  is  called  the  strong 
Kshara  (extremely  irritating  alkali).  These  alkaline  pre- 
parations of  different  potencies,  should  be  severally  used 
in  cases  where  their  adnn'nistrations  would  be  clearlv 
indicated.  An  alkaline  preparation,  any  way  weakened, 
should  be  strengthened  by  adding  to  it  alkaline  water 
(water  saturated  with  an  alkali)  as  before  described. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject ;  The  commendable  features  in  an  alkali  are 
based  on  its  whiteness,  on  its  being  neither  too  mild  nor 
too  strong,  on  its  gloss  and  sliminess,  on  its  sticking  to 
the  place  of  application,  and  on  its  power  of  secreting 
(Abhisyandi  the  morbid  fluid,  and  on  its  rapid  effect. 
On  the  other  hand,  its  defective  traits  consist  in  its  being 

8^  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        |  Chap.  XI. 

too   m'lld,  of  excessive  whiteness,  excessive  strength  or 

irritability,  of  over-sliminess,     excessive   stickiness  or 

thickness,     insufficient    boiling,     and     insiifiiciency  of 
component  ingredients. 

A  patient  laid  up  with  a  disease  amenable  to  an 
application  of  alkali  potential  cautery  or  caustic)  should 
be  kept  in  a  spacious  chamber,  and  should  not  be  ex- 
posed to  draughts  and  to  the  hot  rays  of  the  sun, 
[Then  the  physician  having  secured]  the  necessary 
appliances  etc,  as  already  laid  down  in  the  Chapter  V, 
should  view  the  part  of  the  patient's  body  to  which 
the  alkali  is  to  be  applied.  The  affected  part  should 
be  then*  rubbed  or  scarified t  with  an  alkali,  and  covered 
overt  with  a  piece  of  linen.  The  alkaline  prepara- 
tion should  be  applied  with  a  rod  or  director*  and  kept 
undisturbed  for  a  period  needed  to  articulate  a  hundred 
long  letter  sounds). 

Metrical  texts  :  The  perfect  burning  (blis- 
tering, should  be  inferred  from  the  black  colour  of  the 
skin  of  the  affected  part.  Madhuka  and  the  substances 
included  within  the  Amla-varga  (group  of  acid  drugs) 
pasted  with  clarified  butter,  should  be  applied  to  allay 
the  incidental  burning  isensation).     A  plaster  composed 

♦  In  a  case  brought  about  by  (Pitta)  ascendency  of  the  deranged  bile. 

t  It  sliould  be  scraped  with  the  alkali  where  the  skin  would  appear 
hard  and  benumlied  owinp;  In  ihc  action  of  the  deranged  vital  winds  (V5yu). 

i  In  a  case  of  deranged  phlegm  (Kafa)  the  affected  part  being  marked 
by  itching  and  swelling. 

Chap.   XI.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  g^ 

of  the  shreds  of  Amla-Kaiijika,  sesamum  and  Madhiikam 
taken  in  equal  parts,  and  pasted  together,  should  be 
applied  to  the  part  burnt  with  an  alkali  ;  in  the  event 
of  the  latter  having  failed  to  produce  the  desired  effect 
owing  to  the  disease  being  deepl}"  seated.  Madhukam 
and  the  Kalka  paste  of  sesamum  mixed  with  clarified 
butter  would  cause  such  an   incidental;  ulcer  to  heal. 

Now  you  may  ask  the  question  how  can  an  acid 
subst'ance,  which  is  fiery  in  its  virtue  and  heat-making  in 
its  potency,  tend  to  subdue  the  effects  of  an  alkali  which 
is  possessed  of  similar  virtues  and  properties,  instead 
of  augmenting  them,  as  can  naturally  be  apprehended  ? 
Well  my  child,  the  question  can  be  fairly  answered 
by  stating,  that  substances  of  all  tastes  enter  into  the 
composition  of  an  alkali  except  the  acid  one.  The 
pungent  (Katu :  taste  is  the  principal  taste  of  an  alkali, 
while  the  saline  :Lavana  forms  its  minor  or  accessory 
flavour  LAnurasa).  Xow  this  saline  taste  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  acid  one  renounces  its  extremely 
sharp  or  irritating  property  and  is  thus  transformed  into 
one  of  sweetness  or  of  soothing  virtue.  Hence  it 
is  that  an  acid  taste  tends  to  alla)^  the  burning  incidental 
to  an  application  of  alkali  (potential  caustic)  in  the 
same  way  as  water  tends  to  put  out  fire. 

An  operation  of  perfect  cauterisation  with  an  alkaline 
application  brings  about  an  amelioration  of  the  disease, 
or   the   disease   is   entirely   subdued,   accompanied   by 

86  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.         [  Chap.  XI. 

Hghtne^ss  of  the  limbs  and  absence  of  secretion  from 
the  affected  part  ;  while  an  insufficient  burning  [of 
the  part]  is  generally  attended  by  symptoms  of 
aggravation  of  the  malad}'  and  also  gives  rise  to 
local  pain,  itching  and  numbness,  [On  tire  other 
hand],  excessive  burning  [of  the  part]  with  an 
alkaline  preparation  may  ha^'e  a  fatal  termination,  and 
is  attended  by  such  symptoms  as  burning,  suppuration, 
redness,  secretion  in  and  from  the  seat  of  affeqtion. 
A  feeling  of  languor  and  fatigue  comes  upon  the 
patient  accompanied  with  thirst,  swooning  and  an  aching 
sensation.  An  ulcer  incidental  to  a  burn  by  an  alkali 
should  be  treated  with  a  special  eye  to  the  nature  of  the 
disease  and  the  deranged  bodily  humour  specifically 
involved  in  the  case. 

A  weak  person,  an  infant,  an  aged  person,  a  man  of 
timid  disposition,  a  patient  suff'ering  from  abdominal 
dropsy  with  general  anasarca  or  from  haemoptysis, 
a  pregnant  woman,  a  woman  in  her  menses,  a  person 
suffering  from  an  attack  of  high  fever  or  urethral 
discharges,  or  emaciated  with  chronic  inflammation 
of  the  lungs,  or  a  person  subjected  to  fits  of  faint- 
ing or  abnormal  thirst,  or  a  person  suffering 
from  virile  impotency,  or  whose  testes  ha^'e  become 
deranged  either  upwards  or  downwards,  or  a  woman 
suffering  from  retro\'ersion  or  introversion  of  the 
uterus  or  prolapsus   of  the    vagina,  should   be   deemed 

Chap.  XI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  87 

unfit  for  being  cauterised  with  alkalis.  More- 
over their  application  is.  not  to  be  sanctioned  over 
the  veins,  nerves,  joints,  gristles  or  tender  bones  or 
cartilages,  sutures,  arteries,  throat,  umbilicus,  genitals, 
regions  of  Srotas  (external  channels),  parts  covered 
over  with  a  thin  layer  of  flesh,  inside  the  nails  and 
other  vulnerable  parts  of  the  body,  nor  in  diseases 
of  the  eyes,  excepting  those  which  affect  the  eyelids. 

Alkalis  fail  to  produce  any  beneficial  effect  in  a 
patient  suffering  from  oedema  of  the  limbs,  or  suffering 
from  bone- ache,  or  laid  up  with  a  disease  affecting  the 
joints  or  the  heart,  or  in  a  person  of  impaired  appetite 
who  has  lost  all  relish  for  food,  even  when  their  use 
is  otherwise  indicated. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject :  An  Alkali  adnn'nistered  by  an  ignorant  phv- 
sician  is  to  be  dreaded  more  than  poison,  fire,  blows 
with  a  weapon,  thunder-bolts,  or  death  itself  ;  while 
in  the  hand  of  an  intelligent  physician  it  is  potent 
enougli  to  speedily  subdue  all  serious  diseases  in  which 
its  use  is  indicated. 

Thus  ends  the  eleventh  Chapter  of  the    Suliasthanam    in    the   Siishiuta 
Samhita  which  treats  of  the  Pharmacv  of  AlkaHs. 

C  H  A  PT  E'R    XII. 

Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
cauteries  and   the    rules   to   be    observed   in    their  use 


A  fire  (cautery )  is  better  than  an  Alkali  as  far  as  its 
healing  property  is  concerned.  A  disease  burnt  with 
fire,  is  cured  for  good  and  knows  no  recrudescence  ;  and 
diseases  which  ordinarily  baffle  the  skill  of  a  surgeon 
or  a  physician,  and  never  prove  themselves  amenable 
to  medicinal  or  surgical  remedies,  are  found  to  yield 
to  fire  I  cauterisation  . 

The  following  drugs,  articles  and  substances  should 
be  understood  as  accessories  to  an  act  of  cauterisation, 
viz.,  Pippali,  the  excreta  of  goats,  the  tooth  of  a  cow 
I  Godanta'',  Shara,  a  rod,  the  surgical  instrument  known 
as  the  Jamvavaustha,  articles  made  of  copper  or  silver, 
honey,  treacle,  oil,  or  any  other  oily  substance.  Out  of 
these,  Pippali,  the  Godanta,  Shara  and  the  rod  should  be 
(made  red  hot  and)  used  in  cauterising  the  affected  part 
in  a  disease  which  is  restricted  only  to  the  skin  ; 
similarly  the  surgical  instsument  known  as  the 
Jamvavaustha,  as  well  as  the  appliances  made  of 
copper  or  silver  should  be  used  in  a  disease  which 
is  seated  in  the  flesh.  Honey,  treacle  and  oil  should 
be   (boiled  and    employed   in    cauterising   the   disease 

Chap.  XII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  89 

which  affects  any  of  the  veins,  nerves,  bones  or'bone- 

Cauterisation  is  admissible  in  all  seasons  of  the 
year  except  summer  and  autumn;  but  no  such  distinction 
should  be  observed  in  cases  of  impending  danger,  when 
it  should  be  practised  with  the  help  of  such  appliances 
of  a  contrary  (cooling)  nature,  [as  wet  sheets,  cooling 
drinks  and  cooling  plasters,  etc.] 

In  all  diseases  and  in  all  seasons  of  the  year,  the 
patient  should  be  fed  on  a  diet  of  slimy  (mucilaginous) 
food  before  actually  applying  the  cautery  ;  while  the 
patient  should  be  kept  on  an  empty  stomach  before  the 
act  where  the  complaint  would  be  a  case  of  Mudagarbha 
rfalse  presentation),  fistula  in  ano,  haemorrhoids  or  a 
disease  affecting  the  cavity  of  the  mouth. 

According  to  certain  authorities  the  processes  of 
cauterisation  may  be  grouped  under  two  heads  according 
as  the  skin  or  the  flesh  is  cauterised.  The  present  work 
does  not  lay  an}^  injunction  against  the  cauterisation  of 
any  nerve,  vein,  bone  or  bone  joint  (as  stated  before). 
A  burning  of  the  skin  is  accompanied  by  a  peculiar 
bursting  or  cracking  sound.  The  skin  becomes  con- 
tracted and  emits  a  fetid  smell.  Similarly,  in  a  case 
where  the  flesh  is  burnt,  (the  affected  part)  assumes 
a  dove  color  of  (blackish  brown),  marked  by  pain 
and  a  little  swelling,  and  the  incidental  ulcer  becomes 
dr)'  and  contracted.  In  the  case  where  a  nerv^e  or  a  vein 



THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.         [  Chap.  Xll. 

is  burnt,  the  ulcer  presents  a  raised  (elevated)  and 
black  aspect  with  the  stoppage  of  all  secretions  ;  while 
an  ulcer  incidental  to  the  cauterisation  of  any  of  the 
bone  joints  has  a  parched  red  hue  and  becomes  hard 
and  rough. 

The  regions  of  the  eye-brows,  forehead  and  temple- 
bones,  should  be  cauterised  in  diseases  affecting  the 
head  as  well  as  in  a  case  of  Adhimantha  (Ophthalmia). 
In  diseases  affecting  the  ej'elids  the  eye  should  be 
covered  over  with  a  moist  piece  of  Alaktaka  (a  thin 
pad  of  red  pigment  principally  used  in  d3'eing  the  feet 
of  ladies)  and  the  roots  of  the  eyelashes  should  be  duly 
cauterised.  Cauterisation  is  specificall}'  enjoined  to 
be  resorted  to  incases  of  glandular  inflammation,  tumour_, 
fistula  in  ano,  scrofula,  elephantiasis,  Charmakila,  warts, 
Tilakalaka,  hernia,  sinus  hoemorrhage,  and  on  the  occa- 
sion of  cutting  a  vein  or  a  bone  joint,  as  well  as  in 
the  event  of  the  vital  wind  (Vayu)  being  extremely 
agitated  and  lodged  in  the  local  skin,  flesh,  vein,  nerves 
and  the  bone-joints  and  giving  rise  to  excruciating 
pain  in  and  about  the  ulcer  which  in  consequence 
presents  a  hard,  raised  and  inert  surface. 

The  modes  of  cauterisation   vary   according   to  the 

seat  of  the   disease,  and    number  four  in   all,   viz.,  the 

Ring,   the   Dot,  the  Lateral  or   Slanting  lines,  and  the 
Rubbing  modes. 



Authoritative  verse  on  the  subject :  — 

A  physician,  after  having  tarefully  considered  the  seat 
of  the  disease  and  judiciously  ascertained  the  patient's 
strength  and  the  situations  of  the  Marmas  the  vital 
parts  of  the  patient's')  body,  should  resort  to 
cauterisation  with  an  e3''e  to  the  nature  of  the  malady 
and  the  then  prevailing  season  of  the  year. 


The  part,  after  being  properly  cauterised,  should  be 
rubbed  with  an  unguent  composed  of  honey  and  clarified 
butter.  A  man  of  bilious  temperament  or  with  a  quantity 
of  bad  blood  lying  stagnant  and  locked  up  in  any  part 
of  his  bod}',  or  of  lax  bowels,  a  person  with  any  foreign 
substance  (such  as  a  thorn  or  a  splinter  still  lodged  in 
his  body),  a  weak  or  an  old  man,  an  infant,  or  a  man 
of  timid  disposition,  or  a  person  afflicted  with  a  large 
number  of  ulcers,  as  well  as  a  patient  suffering  from 
any  of  the  diseases  in  which  diaphoretic  measures 
are  forbidden,  should  be  regarded  as  a  subject  unfit  for 

Now  we  shall  describe  the  characteristic  sym- 
ptoms of  the  several  kinds  of  burns  other  than  those 
caused  (for  surgical  purposes).  Fire  feeds  both 
upon  fatty  and  hard  fuels,  [such  as  oil  and  logs  of  wood 
etc.].  Hot  or  boiling  oil  has  the  property  of  permeating 
or  entering  into   the  minutest   nerves   and  veins,  and 

g2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  Xli. 

hence,  it  is  capable  of  burning  the  skin,  etc.  Accord- 
ingly an  ulcer  incidental  to  such  a  burning  (scald)  is 
characterised  by  extreme  pain,  etc. 

Burns  may  be  grouped  under  four  distinct  heads  viz., 
the  Plush tam,  the  Dur-Dagdham,  the  Samyag-Dagdham 
and  the  Ati-Dagdham.  A  burn  characterised  by  the 
discolouring  of  its  seat  and  extreme  burning  and  mark- 
ed by  the  absence  of  any  vesicle  or  blister,  is  called  the 
Plushtam,  from  the  root  "plusha"  to  burn.  A  burn, 
which  is  characterised  by  the  eruption  of  large  vesicles  or 
blisters,  and  assumes  a  red  colour,  and  is  characterised  by 
excessive  burning  and  a  kind  of  drawing  pain,  and  which 
suppurates  and  takes  a  long  time  to  heal,  is  called  the 
Dur-Dagdham  (bad  burn  or  scald).  A  burn,  which  is  not 
deep  (superficial)  and  assumes  the  colour  of  a  ripe  Tala 
fruit,  and  does  not  present  a  raised  or  elevated  aspect 
and  develops  the  preceding  symptoms,  is  called  the 
Samyag-Dagdham  (fully  burnt  one).  A  burn  in  which 
the  flesh  hangs  down,  and  where  the  veins,  nerves  and 
bones  are  destroyed,  accompanied  with  fever,  burn- 
ing, thirst,  fainting  and  such  like  disturbances,  and 
which  leads  to  a  permanent  disfiguration  of  the  body, 
retarding  the  healing  of  the  incidental  ulcer  which  leaves 
a  discoloured  cicatrix  even  after  healing,  is  called  the 
Ati-Dagdham  (over  burnt  one).  A  physician  should 
try  to  heal  any  of  these  four  types  of  burns  with  the 
measures  already  laid  down  before. 

Chap.  XII.  ]  sutrasthanam  93 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject.— The  blood  of  a.  man  is  agitated  and  made 
hot  by  fire,  and  the  blood  thus  heated  tends  to 
excite  or  causes  it  to  raise  the  bile.  And  since  fire  and  bile 
(Pittam)  are  similar  in  their  taste,  essence,  effect,  potency 
and  natal  factors,  the  effects  of  Pittam  (burning  sensation 
etc.),  are  naturally  aggravated  and  augmented  through  a 
contact  with  fire.  Blisters  or  vesicles  crop  up  in 
rapid'  succession  and  mark  the  seat  of  burning,  and 
fever,  thirst,  etc.,  supervene. 

Now  I  shall  describe  the  course  of  medical  treat- 
ment to  be  adopted  for  the  cure  of  burns.  Hot  and 
dry  fomentations,  as  well  as  warm  plasters  should  be 
applied  to  a  burn  of  the  Plushtam  type,  and  a  course 
of  hot  food  and  drink  should  be  likewise  prescribed  for 
the  patient.  The  blood  becomes  thin  when  the  body 
is  diaphorised  by  m.eans  of  warm  fomentations,  and  water, 
in  virtue  of  its  natural  cooling  properties,  tends  to 
thicken  the  blood.  Hence  warm  fomentations  or  appli- 
cations exercise  curative  virtues  in  the  case  of  a 
burn  of  the  foregoing  t)^pe,  and  water  or  cold  appli- 
cations produce  the  contrary  effect.* 

Both  warm  and  cold  measures  are  to  be  adopted 
in  the  case   of  a   burn   of  the  Dur-Daghdha  t5''pe,   the 

*  By  arresting  the  radiation  of  the  incarcerated  heat  and  thereby 
favouring  the  elevation  of  the  local  temperature  and  the  increase  of  the 
burning  sensation. 

94  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.        [  Chap,  xil 

medicinal  remedies  consisting  of  cold   applications   and 
unguents  of  clarified  butter.*  • 

A  plaster  composed  of  Tugakshiri,  Plaksha,  Chandana, 
Gairika,  and  Amritam  Guduchi),  pasted  together  with 
clarified  butter,  should  be  applied  over  a  bum  of  the 
Samyag-Dagdha  type,  or  the  flesh  of  domestic  or 
aquatic  or  amphibious  animals  should  be  pasted  and 
plastered  over  the  affected  part.  A  burn  ol  the 
present  type,  marked  by  excessive  burning,  should 
be  medicinally  treated  in  the  same  manner  as  a  case  of 
bilious  abscess  (Pitta-vidradhi). 

In  the  case  of  a  burn  of  the  Ati-Dagdha  (over-burnt  i 
t3^pe,  the  loose  or  the  dangling  integuments  (skin) 
and  flesh  should  be  removed,  and  cold  applications  should 
be  made  over  the  ulcer.  Then  the  affected  part 
should  be  dusted  over  with  pulverised  Shali  rice, 
or  a  plaster  composed  of  the  pulverised  skin  of 
Tinduki  and  clarified  butter  pasted  together,  should  be 
applied  over  its  surface.!  The  affected  part  should  be 
covered  over  with  the  leaves  of  Guduchi,  or  of  lotus,  or 
other  aquatic  plants,  and   all   measures  and  remedial 

*  Cold  applications  and  cooling  measures  should  be  resorted  to  in  the 
case  of  a  deep  and  excessive  burn,  while  the  contrary  should  be  held  as  the 
correct  remedy  in  the  case  of  a  slight  and  superficial  one. 

•)•  Several  authorities  prescribe  Tinduki  bark  and  human  cranium 
powdered  together  and  mixed  with  clarified  butter,  while  others  prescribe 
a  decoction  of  Tinduki  bark. 

Chap.  XII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  95 

agents,  indicated  in  the  case  of  a  bilious  erysipelas, 
should  be  resorted  to  in  the  present  instance 
as  well. 

A  plaster  composed  of  bee's  wax,  Madhukam, 
Sarjarasa,  Manjistha,  (red)  Chandanam  and  Murva 
pasted  together  and  boiled  with  clarified  butter  should 
be  regarded  as  beneficial  to  burns  of  all  types  to 
promote  rapid  healing. 

In  the  case  of  a  burn  from  boiling  oil,  clarified  butter 
or  such  like  substances  should  be  externally  applied 
and  all  measures  which  promote  dryness  of  the 
part  (Ruksha)  should  be  adopted  without  the  least 

Now  we  shall  describe  the  s5''mptoms  which  become 
manifest  in  a  person  [whose  nostrils  and  larynx] 
are  choked  with  smoke. — The  respiration  becomes 
laboured  and  hurried  and  the  abdomen  is  distended 
accompanied  by  constant  sneezing  and  coughing.  The 
eyes  look  red  and  seem  as  if  burning.  The  patient 
breathes  out  smoke  and  fails  to  catch  any  other  smell 
than  that  of  it.  The  sense  of  hearing  is  considerably 
affected  ;  the  sense  of  taste  becomes  inert ;  fever, 
thirst  and  a  burning  sensation  supervene  ;  and  the 
patient  drops  down  utterly  unconscious. 

Now  hear  me  discourse  on  the  course  of  medical 
treatment    to    be     adopted    in     the    case     of     one 

g6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [  Chap.  XII. 

over-powered  with  smoke.— Emetics  in  the  shape  of 
clarified  butter  mixed  with  sugarcane  juice  or  milk 
saturated  with  the  juice  of  grapes,  or  lumps  of 
sugar- candy  dissolved  in  an  adequate  quantity  of 
w^ater,  or  any  acid  potion  slightly  sweetened,  should  be 
administered  to  th.e  patient.  The  contents  of  the 
stomach  are  speedily  discharged  by  vomiting ;  the  disten- 
sion of  the  abdomen  is  removed ;  the  smell  of  smoke  in 
the  breath  is  mitigated,  and  the  accompanying  fever  with 
(its  concomitants)  of  sneezing,  languor,  thirst,  cough, 
laboured  breathing  etc.  is  abated,  and  the  patient  is 
restored  to  consciousness.  Gargles  having  a  sweet, 
saline,  acid  or  pungent  (katu)  taste  restore  the  sense- 
perception  of  the  patient,  and  gladden  his  mind.  Medi- 
cated snuffs  in  adequate  quantities  should  be  adminis- 
tered by  a  well-read  physician  to  such  a  patient,  whereby 
his  head,  eyes  and  neck  would  be  able  to  resume 
their  normal  functions.  And  a  course  of  diet,  which  is 
light,  emollient  and  not  acid  in  its  reaction,  should  be 

Cooling  measures  or  applications  should  be 
prescribed  or  made  in  the  event  of  any  part  of  the  body 
being  scorched  by  excessive  heat,  or  by  being  exposed 
to  a  draught  of  hot  and  parched  wind.  Similarly,  hot 
and  emollient  measures  or  applications  should  be  re- 
sorted to  where  any  part  of  the  body  has  become  frozen 
or  shrivelled  by  snow  or  cold  winds.    A   person  struck 

Chap.  XII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  gy 

by   lightning  should  be  regarded   as  beyond  the  pale 
of  medicine.* 

*  Additional  texts  :— \\Tieie  the  scorching  would  be  found  to  be  consi- 
derably extensive  ;  otherwise  such  measures  as  lubrication  with  medicated 
unguents  etc.  should  be  adopted  in  a  case  where  the  patient  is  picked 
up  alive. 

Thus  ends  the  twelfth  Chapter  of  the  SutrasthSnam  in  the  Sushruta 
Samhit^  which  treats  of  Cauteries  and  the  rules  to  be  observed  in  their  use. 



Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  leeches  and  of  how  and  which  to  use  (Jalaukar- 

Leeches  should  be  applied  where  the  patient 
would  be  found  to  be  old  or  imbecile,  or  a  woman, 
or  an  infant,  or  a  person  of  an  extremely  timid  disposition, 
or  a  person  of  a  delicate  constitution,  and  as  such  is 
not  fit  to  be  surgically  operated  upon,  since  this 
mode  of  bleeding  is  the  gentlest  that  can  be  possibly 
devised.  The  blood  vitiated  by  the  deranged  wind 
(Vayu\  bile  (Pittam),  and  phlegm  (Kapham)  should  be 
respectively  sucked  through  a  horn^  by  leeches  and  a 
gourd  appliance  (Alavu-Yantra)  or  with  whichsoever 
of  them  is  available  at  the  time,  irrespective  of  the  cause 
of  such  vitiation,  whenever  such  bleeding  or  sucking 
would  be  found  to  be  imperatively  necessary. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  CO  whom  is  described  in  the  Shastras  as  of  a 
hot  or  heat  making  potency,  and  as  possessed  of  a 
slightly  cooling  (Snigdha)  or  soothing  (Madhura)  pro- 
perty. Accordingly  it  should  be  used  in  sucking  the 
blood  vitiated  through  the  action  of  the  deranged  bodily 
wind.  Leeches,  which  are  born  in  water,  are  possessed  of 
Madhura  (sweet  or  soothing)  properties,  and  hence  they 


should  be  used  in  sucking  the  blood  vitiated  throoigh  a 
deranged  condition  of  the  bile  (Pittam\  The  gourd 
(Alavu)  is  pungent,  parching  and  irritating  in 
its  potency  and  should  be  therefore  used  in  sucking 
the  blood  vitiated  through  the  action  of  the  deranged 
phlegm  (Kapham). 

Mode  of  application  :— The  part  from 
which  the  blood  is  to  be  sucked  should  be  first  scarified 
or  slightly  cut  in  two  or  three  places,  and  then  the 
mouth  or  the  open  end,  of  the  horn,  covered  with  a 
thin  piece  of  muslin  tied  round  its  edges  should  be 
placed  over  it  and  sucked  with  the  mouth  through  the 
aperture  at  its  tip  or  top- end,  or  with  a  gourd  appliance 
equipped  with  a  lighted  lamp  placed  in  its  inside. 

The  term  Jalauka  (leeches)  may  be  etymolo- 
gically  interpreted  to  mean  creatures  whose  life 
(Ayu)  or  whose  longevity  is  in,  or  depends  upon,  water, 
whereas  the  derivative  meaning  of  the  term 
Jalauka  (leeches)  is  based  upon  the  fact  of  their  dwelling 
("Oka"— dwelling  place)  in  water  (Jalam).  Leeches  may 
be  divided  into  twelve  distinct  species  of  which  six  are 
venomous,  and  six  non-venomous.  The  six  venomous 
species  are  named  Krishna,  Karvura,  Alagarda, 
Indrayudha,  Sdmudrik^  and  Gochandana.  The  leeches 
of  the  first-named  species  (Krishna)  are  marked  by  thick 
heads,  and  of  a  colour  resembling  powdered  lampblack. 
The  leeches  of  the   Karvura  type  have   extended  or 

lOO  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  XIIl. 

elongated  bodies  like  the  Varmifishes,  and  are 
indented  and  thick  at  the  waist.  The  Alagarda 
leeches  are  hairy,  thick  and  round  at  the  sides,  and  black 
at  the  mouth.  The  leeches  of  the  Indrayudha  species 
are  marked  on  the  surface  with  up-pointed  rainbow 
coloured  lines.  The  skins  of  the  Samudrikas  are  black- 
ish yellow,  dotted  over  with  white  spots  of  a  variety 
of  shapes.  Leeches  which  are  provided  with  narrow 
mouths  and  are  marked  by  bifurcating  line  at  the 
bottom  like  the  scrotal  sac  of  a  bull  are  called 

A  person  bitten  by  any  of  the  abovesaid  venomous 
leeches  has  an  irresistble  inclination  to  scratch  the  seat 
of  the  bite  which  is  marked  by  a  considerable  swelling. 
Fever,  with  burning,  retching,  drowsiness  and  delirium 
supervenes  and  ultimately  the  patient  loses  all  conscious- 
ness. The  remedy  consists  in  the  administration  of 
an  anti-toxic  medicine  known  as  Mahagada,  as  snuffs, 
potions  and  unguents,  etc.  A  bite  by  an  Indrayudha 
usually  proves  fatal.  Venomous  leeches,  as  well  as  cures 
for  their  bites,  have  thus  been  described. 

The  non-venomous  species  include  Kapilas,  Pingalas, 
Shankhamukhis,  Musikas,  Pundarimukhis  and  Saravikas. 
The  Kapilas  are  coloured  like  Manah-Shila  (  realgar  ) 
at  the  sides,  and  their  backs  are  tinged  with  a 
glossy  hue  like  that  of  a  Mudga  pulse.  The  Pingalas 
have    a    reddish    colour,     are     round    in    shape    and 

Chap.  XIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAAI.  loi 

capable  of  speedy  locomotion.  The  Shankhamuldiis  are 
marked  by  a  blackish  red  hue  like  that  of  the 
liver,  are  provided  with  sharp  elongated  moutlis, 
and  are  capable  of  sucking  blood  with  the  greatest 
swiftness.  The  Musikas  are  coloured  like  the  common 
blind  moles,  and  emit  a  fetid  smell  from  their  bodies. 
The  Pundarimukhas  are  coloured  like  the  IMudga  pulse 
and  are  so  called  from  the  fact  of  the  resemblance  of 
their  mouths  to  the  full-blown  lotus  hhes  TPimdarikas). 
The  Saravikas  have  cold  bodies  marked  with  impress- 
ions like  lotus  leaves  and  measure  eighteen  fingers' 
width  in  length,  and  they  should  be  employed  in 
sucking  blood  from  the  affected  parts  of  lower  animals. 
This  exhausts  the  list  of  non-venomous  leeches. 

The  countries,  such  as  Turkesthan  (Yavana),  the 
Deccan  (Pandya),  the  tract  of  land  traversed  by  the  Ghaut 
mountains  (Sahya),  and  Pautana  (modem  Mathura),  are 
the  natural  habitats  of  these  leeches.  The  leeches, 
found  in  the  aforesaid  countries,  are  specifically  non- 
venomous,  strong,  large-bodied,  greedy  and  ready 

The  venomous  leeches  have  their  origin  in  the  de- 
composed urine  and  fecal  matter  of  toads  and  venom- 
ous fishes  in  pools  of  stagnant  and  turbid  water.  The 
origin  of  the  non- venomous  species  is  ascribed  to  such 
decomposed  vegetable  matter,  as  the  petrified  stems  of 
the  several  aquatic  plants  known   as   Padma,  Utpalam, 

I02  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  XIII. 

Nalina,  Kumuda,  Pundarika,  and  the  common  zoophytes 
which  live  in  clear  waters. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject.— The  non-venomous  leeches  swim  about  in  sweet 
scented  waters,  live  on  non-poisonous  weeds,  lie  on  the 
leaves  of  flowering  water  plants  instead  of  on  the  dank 
and  ooz)^  beds  of  pools,  and  suck  blood  from  the  affected 
part  of  a  human  organism  without  causing  any  discomfort. 

Leeches  should  be  caught  hold  of  with  a  piece  of 
wet  leather,  or  by  some  similar  article,  and  then  put  in 
to  a  large-sized  new  pitcher  filled  with  the  water  and 
ooze  or  slime  of  a  pool.  Pulverised  zoophytes  and  powder 
of  dried  meat  and  aquatic  bulbs  should  be  thrown  into 
the  pitcher  for  their  food,  and  blades  of  grass  and 
leaves  of  water-plants  should  be  put  into  it  for  them 
to  lie  upon.  The  water  and  the  edibles  should  be 
changed  every  second  or  third  day,  and  the  pitchers 
should  be  changed  each  week,  (the  leeches  should  be 
transferred  to  a  new  pitcher  at  the  end  of  every 
consecutive  seven  days). 

The  authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Leeches  that  are  venomous,  thick  about  the 
middle,  elongated,  of  slow  locomotion,  look  fatigued, 
do  not  readily  take  to  the  part  they  are 
appHed  to,  and  capable  of  sucking  only  a  small  quantity 
of  blood,  should  be  looked  upon  as  not  belonging  to 
the  proper  or  the  commendable  type. 

Chap.  XIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM,  103 

Then  having  seated  or  laid  down  the  patient  'suffer- 
ing from  a  disease  which  requires  the  application  of 
leeches,  the  seat  of  bleeding,  if  not  previously  ulcerated, 
should  be  roughened  b}'  dusting  it  over  with  a  compo- 
sition of  loose  earth  and  pulverised  cowdung.  Then 
the  leeches  should  be  taken  out  of  their  receptacles 
and  sprinkled  over  with  water  saturated  with  mustard 
seed  and  pasted  turmeric.  Then  for  a  moment  they 
should  be  kept  in  a  basin  full  of  water,  and  after  they 
have  regained  their  natural  vivacity  and  freshness,  they 
should  be  applied  to  the  affected  part.  Their  bodies 
should  be  covered  with  a  piece  of  thin  and  wet  linen, 
or  with  a  piece  of  white  cotton.  The  affected  part 
should  be  sprinkled  over  with  drops  of  milk  or 
blood,  or  slight  incisions  should  be  made  into  it  in  the 
event  of  their  refusing  to  stick  to  the  desired  spot. 
Other  fresh  leeches  should  be  applied  even  when  the 
preceding  measures  should  prove  ineffectual.  That  the 
leeches  have  taken  to  the  affected  part  may  be  inferred 
from  the  mouths  of  the  leeches  assuming  the  shape 
of  a  horse-shoe,  and  the  raised  and  arched  position 
of  their  necks  after  they  had  become  attached  to 
the  seat  of  the  disease.  While  sucking,  the  leeches 
should  be  covered  with  a  piece  of  wet  linen  and 
should  be  constantly  sprinkled  over  with  cold  water. 

A  sensation  of  itching  and  of  a  drawing  pain  at  the 
seat  of  the    application   would  give  rise  to  the  pre- 

104  ^^^  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.        [Chap.  XIII. 

sumption  that  fresh  blood  was  being  sucked,  and  the 
leeches  should  be  forthwith  removed.* 

Leeches  refusing  to  fall  off  even  after  the  production 
of  the  desired  effect,  or  sticking  to  the  affected  part  out 
of  their  fondness  for  the  smell  of  blood,  should  be 
sprinkled  with  the  dust  of  powdered  Saindhava  (rock 

After  falling  off,   the   leeches    should     be     dusted  | 

over  with  rice  powder    and   their   mouths  should  be  j 

lubricated  with  a  composition  of  oil  and  common  salt. 
Then  they  should  be  caught  by  the  tail-end  with  the 
thumb  and  the  forefinger  of  the  left  hand  and  their 
backs  should  be  gently  rubbed  with  the  same  fingers  of 
the  right  hand  from  tail  upward  to  the  mouth  with  a 
view  to  make  them  vomit  or  eject  the  full  quantity  of 
blood  they  had  sucked  from  the  seat  of  the  disease. 
The  process  should  be  continued  until  they  manifest 
the    fullest    symptoms   of    disgorging.     Leeches    that,  -y.^ 

had  vomited  the  entire  quantity  of  blood  sucked 
as  above,  would  briskly  move  about  in  quest  of 
food  if  placed  in  water,  while  the  contrary  should  be 
inferred  from  their  l5nng  dull  and  inert.  These 
should  be  made  to  disgorge  again.  Leeches  not 
made  to     emit    the    entire   quantity    of    the    sucked 

"^  The  leeches,  though  a  blissful  dispensntion  of  Nature  in  themselves, 
instinctively  draw  off  the  vitiated  blood  from  a  diseased  part,  attacking  the 
healthy  vital  fluid  (red  blood)  \Yhen  the  former  has  been  completely  tapped 
or  sucked. 

Chap,  XIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  105 

blood  stand  in  danger  of  being  attacked*  with 
an  incurable  disease  peculiar  to  their  genus,  and 
which  is  known  as  Indramada.  The  leeches  should 
then  be  put  into  a  new  pitcher,  and  treated  as  before 
laid  down,  after  they  had  fully  emitted  the  sucked  blood. 

An  ulcer  incidental  to  an  application  of  leeches 
should  be  rubbed  with  honey  or  washed  with  sprays 
of  cold  water,  or  bound  up  with  an  astringent  (kashaya) 
sweet  and  cooling  plaster,  according  to  the  quantity  of 
blood  removed  from  the  part.* 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — The  physician  who  is  fully  conversant  with 
the  habitat,  mode  of  catching,  preservation  and  appli- 
cation of  leeches,  can  well  aspire  to  cure  the  diseases 
which  yield  to  them  or  in  which  their  use  is  indicated. 

*  In  case  of  full  and  proper  bleeding  (Voga)  the  ulcer  should  be 
rubbed  with  clarified  butter  technically  known  as  the  Shatadhautam  (lit: 
hundred  times  washed)  Ghritam  (clarified  butter),  or  a  piece  of  cotton, 
soaked  in  the  same  substance,  applied  as  a  compress  over  the  part. 
The  ulcer  should  be  rubbed  with  honey  in  a  case  of  insuflicient  bleeding, 
while  it  should  be  washed  with  a  copious  quantity  of  cold  water  if 
excessive  bleeding  (Ati-Yoga)  should  set  in.  Similarly  in  a  case  marked  by 
the  absence  of  any  bleeding  at  all  (Mithya-Yoga)  a  sour,  sweet  and  cooling 
plaster  should  be  applied  over  the  ulcer. 

Thus  ends  the  thirteenth  Chapter  of  the  Sulrasthinam  in  the  Sushruta 
Samhita  which  treats  of  Leeches  and  of  how  and  which  to  use. 



Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
blood  (Shonita-Varnaniya- mad  hya'yam). 

The  food  of  a  human  being,  which  is  usually 
composed  of  the  five  fundamental  material  principles, 
admits  of  being  classified  under  four  different  heads 
[as,  drinks  and  edibles,  etc.].  It  has  six  different 
tastes  or  is  of  two  [cooling  or  heat-making]  potencies, 
or  consists  of  eightfold  properties,  [viz.  hot,  cool, 
dry,  expansive,  slimy,  mild,  sharp,  etc.]  and  of  a 
variety  of  other  active  or  efficacious  virtues.  The 
food  is  fully  digested  with  the  help  of  the  internal 
heat  and  ultimately  assimilated  in  the  system,  giving 
rise  to  lymph  chyle  (Rasa)  which  is  extremely  thin 
or  attenuated  in  its  consistency  and  which  forms  the 
essence  of  the  assimilated  food.* 

The  lymph  chyle  (Rasaj,  though  running  through  the 
whole  organism,  has  its  primary  seat  in  the  heart,  whence 
it  flows  through  the  twenty- four  vessels  which  branch 
off  from  the  latter  (heart)  to  the  remotest  parts  and 
extremities  of  the  bod5\  Of  the  aforesaid  twenty-four 
vessels,  ten  are  up-coursing,  ten  are  down-coursing, 
and  four  have  a  lateral  direction.    The  Rasa   or  the 

*  It  is  free  from  all  sorts  of  impurities  such  as  fecal  matter,    etc.,   and 
permeates  the  minutest  vessels  and  capillaries. 



lymph  chyle,  thus  flowing  out  of  the  heart,  constantly 
soothes,  maintains,  and  irrigates  b}^  transudation  the 
body,  and  further  contributes  to  its  growth,  and  supports 
life  owing  to  the  dynamical  effects  of  causes  which 
lie  beyond  the  ken  of  human  understanding.  The  nature 
and  course  of  this  lymph  chyle,  which  runs  through 
the  whole  system,  can  be  inferred  from  the  growth, 
attenuation,  or  other  modified  conditions  of  the  bod5\ 

Now  it  may  be  asked,  whether  the  Rasa,  which 
permeates  the  entire  body  and  limbs,  and  which  by 
flowing  through  different  chambers  (visceras)  of  the 
body  is  thus  in  constant  contact  with  the  excreta  and 
other  morbid  humours,  is  of  a  cooling  (Saum3'a)  or 
heat-making  (Agneya)  potency  ? 

The  question  may  be  answered  by  stating  that,  since 
the  Rasa  or  lymph  chyle  is  a  fluid,  and  possessed 
of  lubricating,  vitalising,  moistening,  and  nutritive  (lit : — 
supporting)  properties,  it  must  be  included  within  the 
class  of  Saumya  (cooling)  substances.  The  Rasa,  though 
a  Saumya  fluid,  obtains  its  characteristic  pigment 
(Ragam)  in  its  passage  through  the  spleen  and  liver. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject:—The  Rasa  or  the  lymph  chyle,  coloured 
through  the  effect  of  the  healthy  normal  d5''eing  heat 
of  the  body,  obtains  the  name  of  blood.  The  Rasa 
is  transformed  into  the  catamenial  flow  in  women  which 
commences  at  the  age  of  twelve  and  ceases  at  fifty. 

I08  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  XIV. 

Catamenial  blood,  though  originating  from  Rasa 
which  is  of  a  cooling  potency^,  is  fiery  or  heat-making 
(Agneya)  in  its  character  ;  and  the  fecundated  or 
impregnated  o\'um  (Garbha)  is  both  cooling  and  heat- 
making  in  its  properties  on  accoimt  of  its  partaking  of 
the  nature  of  both  the  menstrual  blood  (ovum)  and 
semen  which  are  respectively  possessed  of  the  two 
preceding  virtues.  Hence  several  authorities  hold  the 
blood  to  be  identical  with  the  life  blood  or  with  the 
vital  principle  of  a  living  organism,  and  being  such,  to  be 
the  product  of  the  five  fundamental  material  principles 

lYIctrical  texts:— In  blood  the  properties  such 
as,  a  raw  or  fleshy  smell,  fluidity,  redness,  lightness 
and  mobility,  which  respectively  characterise  the 
fundamental  principles  (of  earth,  water,  fire,  air,  and 
sky)  are  to  be  found  thus  representing  those  specific 
elements  in  its  composition. 

The  chyle  produces  blood.  From  blood  is  formed 
flesh.  From  flesh  originates  fat  which  gives  rise  to 
bones.  From  bones  originate  marrow,  which,  in  its 
turn,  germinates  semen. 

The  Rasa  which  is  originated  from  the  digested  or 
assimilated  food  and  drink  pre-eminently  strengthens 
all   the  fundamental  principles  of  the  body. 

The  Purusha  or  self-conscious  personality  is  Chyl«- 

Chap.  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM  109 

born  in  its  origin,  and  hence  an  intelligent  person  should 
carefully  preserve  his  bodily  Rasa  dymph  chyle)  by 
adopting  a  proper  regimen  of  diet  and  conduct. 

The  term  Rasa  is  derived  from  the  root  "Ras",  to 
go,  and  the  substance  is  so  called  from  the  fact  of  its 
continually  flowing  through  and  permeating  every  vital 
principle  of  an  animated  organism. 

The  Rasa  is  successively  transformed  into  each  of  the 
six  remaining  fundamental  principles  of  the  body,  and 
continues  in  the  shape  of  each  for  the  period  of  three 
thousand  and  fifteen  kalas  five  days  according  to  our 
modern  computation  .  Thus  the  Rasa  is  converted  into 
semen,  or  into  the  menstrual  blood  'ovum)  in  women, 
in  the  course  of  a  month.* 

*  The  successive  development  of  the  fundamental  or  root  principles 
of  the  body  follows  a  distinct  order.  The  essence  of  the  assimilated  food- 
matter  under  the  heat  of  digestion  goes  towards  the  formation  of  chyle, 
and  is  ultimately  transformed  into  it,  its  excreted  and  effete  residue  being 
passed  out  of  the  organism  in  the  shape  of  stool,  etc.  The  chyle  thus 
produced  is  called  the  immature  Rasa,  or  the  Rasa  in  its  nascent  stage. 
Subsequently  it  enters  into  the  bodily  principle  of  Rasa,  becomes  matured 
by  the  native  heat  of  the  latter,  and  is  resolved  into  three  factors,  or  in 
other  words,  its  excreted  matter  is  transformed  into  phlegm,  its  thick 
or  condensed  portion  is  transformed  into  and  assimilated  in  the  matured 
Rasa  of  the  bodv,  whereas  its  subtile  essence  is  metamorphosed  into 
blood.  The  blood,  thus  newly  generated,  is  merged  into  the  fundamental 
organic  principle  of  blood  ;  and  there  by  the  heat  of  the  latter 
it  is  again  resolved  into  three  factors,  viz.,  its  excreted  portion  is 
transformed  into  bile,  its  thick  or  condensed  portion  is  transformed 
or  assimilated  into  the  fundamental  organic  principle  of  blood,  and 
its  subtile  essence  is  metamorphosed  into  flesh.  The  flesh,  thus 
newly  formed,  is  merged  into  the  fundamental  organic  principle  of  flesh, 
and    there,    by   the   native   heat    of   the  latter,   it  is    resolved    into    three 

I  JO  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XIV. 

Authoritative  verse  on  its  com- 
putation:— In  the  present  work,  as  well  as  in  other 
works  of  recognised  authority,  a  month  is  calculated  to 
consist  of  eighteen  thousand  and  ninety  Kalas. 

The  said  Rasa  courses  through  the  whole  body  in 
invisible  currents  of  zigzag  shape,  like  the  waves  of  sound, 
or  in  (an  upward  direction)  like  flames  of  fire,  or  (in 
a  downward  direction  s  like  rivulets  of  water. 

factors,  vis,  its  excreted  portion  goes  towards  the  formation  of  such 
excreta  as  are  found  to  be  deposited  in  the  corners  of  the  eyes  and 
inside  the  integuments  of  the  prepuce,  or  about  the  region  of  the  glans  penis, 
its  thick  or  condensed  portion  is  transformed  into  the  organic  principle 
of  flesh  and  its  subtile  essence  is  metamorphosed  into  fat.  The  fat, 
thus  newly  generated,  enters  into  the  organic  principle  ',of  that  name,  and 
there,  by  the  native  heat  of  the  latter,  is  resolved  into  three  factors, 
?7-,  its  excreted  portion  is  discharged  through  the  pores  of  the  skin  in 
drops  of  perspiration,  its  condensed  portion  is  assimilated  in  the  organic 
principle  of  fat,  and  its  subtile  portion  is  metamorphosed  into  bone. 
Again  the  bone,  in  its  nascent  stage,  enters  into  the  organic  principle 
of  bone,  and  there,  by  the  inherent  heat  of  that  principle,  is  resolved  into 
three  factors,  v!~,  its  excreted  portion  goes  towards  the  formation  of  hairs, 
mustaches,  etc,  its  thick  or  condensed  portion  is  assimilated  into  the 
organic  principle  of  bone,  and  its  subtile  portion  is  metamorphosed  into 
marrow.  The  marrow,  in  its  nascent  state,  enters  into  the  organic 
principle  of  that  name  ;  and  there  matured  under  the  native  heat  of 
that  principle,  it  is  resolved  into  three  factors,  vh,  its  excreted  portion 
contributes  towards  the  formation  of  gelatinous  matter  deposited  in  the 
corners  of  the  eyes,  and  the  oily  secretions  of  the  skin,  its  condensed  portion 
is  assimilated  into  the  organic  principle  of  marrow,  and  its  subtile  portion 
is  metamorphosed  into  semen.  The  semen  again,  in  its  nascent  stage, 
enters  into  the  organic  principle  of  that  name  and  there  matured  under 
its  native  heat  is  resolved  into  two  factors,  I'i:.  thick  and  thin.  The  thick 
portion  is  assimilated  into  the  organic  principle  of  semen,  the  thin  one  being 
metamorphosed  into  (albumen).  Semen,  like  gold  a  thousand  times  purified, 
casts  off  no  dregs.  Hence  certain  authorities  hold  albumen  (protoplasmic 
matter)  to  be  the  eighth  or  the  culminating  principle  of  the  body. 

Chap.  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 1 1 

Now  it  may  be  asked,  since  the  Rasa  is  naturally 
transformed  into  semen  in  .the  course  of  a  month,  what 
is  the  use  of  administering  medicine  which  has  a 
stimulating  effect  upon  the  organs  of  generation 
(Vajikaranam.)  The  answer  is,  that  such  medicines  out 
of  their  own  specific  potencies  and  virtue  help  the 
speedy  conversion  of  Rasa  into  semen  and  its  profuse 
emission  [on  the  desired  occasion]  like  purgatives  aiding 
the  drastic  evacuation  of  the  bowels. 

Again  it  may  be  asked,  how  is  it,  that  semen 
is  not  found  in  an  infant  ?  Since  perfume  in  a  flower- 
bud  is  imperceptible  to  the  organ  of  smell  you  may 
as  well  ask  whether  there  is  any  perfume  in  it  or  not. 
But  what  does  not  exist  in  a  thing  can  not  be  evoked 
in  the  subsequent  course  of  its  development.  As  the 
perfume  in  a  flower-bud  lies  latent  in  its  earl}^  stage 
of  growth  but  becomes  patent  only  with  the  growth 
of  its  seed  organs,  so  semen  or  catamenial  blood 
lies  in  a  potential  state  in  a  male  or  a  female 
child,  and  appears  with  the  growth  of  beards  and 
mustaches,  or  with  the  enlargement  of  the  breasts, 
uterus  and  vaginal  canal  and  the  appearance  of  pubic 

The  same  Rasa,  originated  from  the  assimilated  food, 
serves  only  to  maintain  the  vitality  in  the  old  and 
spontaneously  decayed  subjects  owing  to  an  exhausted 
state  of  the  inner  vitalising  principle,  natural  to  old  age. 

112  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        : Chap.  XIV. 

The  abovesaid  principles  (of  Rasa,  blood  etc.)  are  called 
the  root  principles  (Dhatus),  inasmuch  as  they  maintain 
the  integrity  of  the  human  organism  and  guard 
against  its  speedy  dissolution).  And  since  the  strength 
or  weakness  of  the  abovesaid  bodily  principles 
absolutely  depends  upon  the  richness  or  poverty  of  blood, 
we  shall  discourse  on  the  latter  condition  of  the  blood. 

The  blood,  vitiated  by  the  deranged  bodily  wind 
(Vayu),  becomes  thin,  frothy,  transparent,  quick- coursing, 
and  expansive,  assumes  a  vermilion  or  black  hue, 
and  is  divested  of  its  slimy  character  ;  whereas  vitiated 
through  a  deranged  condition  of  the  bile  (Pittam),  it 
assumes  a  blue,  yellow,  green,  or  brown  colour,  emits  a 
fishy  smell,  becomes  thin  in  its  consistency  and  is  shun 
by  flies  and  ants.  Similarly,  blood,  vitiated  by  the 
deranged  phlegm  (Kapham),  becomes  cold,  glossy  and 
thick,  assumes  a  colour  like  that  of  the  washings  of 
Gairika  or  that  of  a  flesh  tendon,  takes  time  in  secreting 
or  in  mnning  down,  and  is  marked  by  an  increase  of  its 
slimy  character.  The  blood,  vitiated  through  a  concert- 
ed derangement  of  the  three  bodily  humours,  is  marked 
by  features  peculiar  to  each  of  them,  and  assumes  a 
colour  like  that  of  Kanjika  (sour  gruel),  and  emits  a 
fetid  smell.  Similarly,  the  blood,  vitiated  through 
the  joint  action  of  any  two  of  the  (beforesaid)  bodily 
humours,  is  characterised  by  features  peculiar  to  each 
of  them. 

Cain  .  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM. 


The  blood  in  its  healthy  and  natural  state  is  possess- 
ed of  a  vivid  red  colour  like  that  of  an  Indragopa 
(Cochineal)  insect,  and  is  neither  too  thin  nor  too 

Cases  where  blood-letting  is  pro- 
hibited : — A  person  afflicted  with  an  oedematous 
swelling  extending  all  over  the  body  should  be  deemed 
unfit  for  bleeding.  An  intumescence  occurring  in  a  weak 
and  enfeebled  patient  owing  to  an  excessive  use  of 
acid  food  or  in  a  person  suffering  from  jaundice  or  laid 
up  with  haemorrhoids  or  abdominal  dropsy,  as  well  as 
in  an  enceinte,  or  in  a  person  suffering  from  Pulmonary 
consumption  (Shosha),  should  not  be  bled. 

Blood-letting,  with  the  help  of  a  surgical  instrument, 
may  be  grouped  under  two  distinct  heads,  according 
as  scarification  (Prachchhanam)  or  venesection  (Sira- 
Vyadhanam)  is  resorted  to  for  the  purpose.  In  such  a 
case  the  knife  or  the  instrument  (Shastram)  should  be 
driven  straight  and  speedily  so  as  to  make  the  incision 
straight,  narrow,  unextended,  and  of  equal  and  slight 
depth  throughout,  (so  as  to  reach  only  the  surface 
layer  of  the  flesh  and  blood),  and  not  to  injure  in  any 
way  the  local  veins,  nerves,  joints,  and  other  vital  parts. 

Bleeding  performed  on  a  cloudy  day  or  done  with  a 

*  Additional  texts  : — Later  on  we  shall  have  occasion  to  speak  of 
the  principles  known  as  the  life-blood  (essential  conditions  of  vitality — 
Sk.  Jiva-Shonita)  and  of  the  process  of  blood-letting. 


114  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  Xiv 

wrong  incision,  or  with  full  exposure  to  cold  and  wind, 
or  performed  on  a  patient  not  previously  diaphorised, 
or  on  a  patient  with  an  empty  stomach,  is  attended 
.  with  little  or  no  outflow  of  blood  owing  to  the  thickened 
condition  of  the  blood. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Blood-letting  surgically  performed  on  a  fatigued 
or  exhausted  subject,  or  on  a  person  in  a  swoon, 
or  anyway  poisoned  or  intoxicated,  or  on  a  person 
suffering  from  extreme  constipation  of  the  bowels  accom- 
panied by  suppression  of  the  flatus  i  Vayu)  and  urine,  or 
on  a  person  of  timid  disposition,  or  on  one  overcome  with 
sleep,  is  marked  by  the  absence  of  any  outflow  of  blood. 

The  vitiated  blood,  failing  to  find  out  an  outlet,  gives 
rise  to  itching,  swelling,  redness,  burning,  suppuration 
and  pain  in  the  part  (to  which  it  is  confined). 
On  the  contrary,  blood-letting  performed  on  the  body 
of  a  person  excessively  diaphorised  or  heated,  or  by 
an  ignorant  or  inexperienced  surgeon,  or  with  an 
injudiciously  deep  incision,  is  attended  with  haemorrhage, 
which  may  be  followed  by  such  dreadful  results  as 
Shirobhitapa  or  violent  headache,  blindness  or  loss  of 
sight  (Timria,  Adhimantham  (ophthalmia^  loss  of  vital 
principles  of  the  body  (Dhatu-Kshaya),  convulsions, 
paralysis  (Ekanga  Vikara),  Hemiplegia  (Pakshaghata), 
thirst,  a  burning  sensation,  hic-cough,  cough,  asthma, 
jaundice  and  even  death. 

Chap.  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  n^ 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Therefore  blood-Jetting  should  be  performed 
on  a  patient  not  in  an  extremly  hot  or  cold  season, 
neither  on  one  who  is  too  much  heated  or  im- 
properly diaphorised  (before  the  act).  The  patient 
should  be  given  gruel  ( Yavagu)  before  the  operation. 
A   spontaneous  cessation    of  red   flow  would    indicate 

that  there  has  been  a  free  discharge  of  blood. 
An  act  of  complete   and   successful   blood-letting  is 

followed  b}'  a  feeling  of  lightness  and  alleviation  of  pain 

in  the   affected   part,   by   an  abatement  of  the  disease, 

and  a  general  sense  of  cheerfulness. 

A  person,  accustomed  to  blood  letting,  enjoys  a  kind 
of  immunity  from  all  types  of  skin  diseases,  sarcomata, 
aneurism,  oedema,  and  diseases  brought  about  by  a 
vitiated  condition  of  the  blood  such  as,  Ovarian  tumour, 
Carbuncle,  Erysipelas,  etc. 

A  plaster  composed  of  Ela,  Shitashiva,  Kustha, 
Tagara,  Patha,  Agaradhuma,  Bhadradaru,  Vidanga, 
Chitraka,  Trikatus,  Ankura,  Haridra,  Arka,  and  Nakta- 
mala,  or  three,  or  four,  or  as  many  of  them  as 
are  available,  pasted  together  and  soaked  in  mustard  oil 
saturated  with  common  salt,  should  be  rubbed  over 
the  mouth  of  the  incision.  By  this  means  the  blood  will 
fully  come  out.  In  a  case  of  excessive  flow  or  hcem- 
orrhage,  the  mouth  of  the  incision  should  be  gently  rubbed 
with  a  composition  consisting  of  the  powders  of  Lodhra, 

Il6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  Xiv. 

Priyangii,  Madhiika,  Pattanga,  Gairika,  Sarjarasa, 
Rasanjana,  Shalmali  flowers,  Shankha,  Shukti,  Masha, 
Yava  and  Godhuma,  and  firmly  pressed  with  the  tips  of 
the  fingers.  As  an  alternative,  the  mouth  of  the  incision 
should  be  gently  rubbed  with  the  powdered  barks  of 
Sdla,  Sarja,  Arjuna,  Arimeda,  Mesha-shringi,  and 
Dhanvana,  or  the  edges  of  the  wound  should  be  lightly 
dusted  with  the  burnt  ashes  of  a  silk  cord  (a  piece  of  silk 
rolled  up  in  the  form  of  a  cord},  and  firmly  pressed 
with  the  tips  of  the  fingers  ;  or  the  mouth  of  the 
wound  should  be  lightly  touched  with  the  powders  of 
Laksha  and  Samudra-phena,  and  its  edges  should  be 
similarly  pressed  together  as  above.  Then  the  wound 
should  be  firmly  tied  up  (with  a  piece  of  silk  or 
linen;  plastered  over  with  a  paste  of  the  substances 
mentioned  in  connection  with  the  bandaging  of  ulcers 
(Vrana).  The  patient  should  be  kept  in  a  cool 
room,  covered  over  with  a  wet  sheet  and  constantly 
soothed  with  sprays  of  cold  water.  A  medicinal  plaster 
of  a  cooling  virtue  and  a  course  of  cooling  diet  should  be 
prescribed  for  him.  The  wound  should  be  cauterised 
with  fire  or  an  alkali,  or  the  vein  should  be  again 
opened  at  a  point  a  little  below  the  seat  of  the 
first  incision  in  case  where  the  abovesaid  measures 
should  have  failed  to  check  the  flow  of  blood.  The 
-patient  should  be  made  to  drink  a  decoction  compound  of 
drugs  of  the  Kakolyadi  group,  sweetened  with  sugar  or 
honey  ;  and   his   ordinary'   drink   should  consist  of  the 

[Chap.  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  II7 

blood  of  the  Ena  or  common  deer,  or  of  a  sheep,  hare, 
or  buffalo.  A  diet  composed  of  boiled  rice,  soaked 
in  or  saturated  with  clarified  butter,  should  be  pres- 
cribed, and  the  complications  should  be  subdued 
according  to  the  nature  of  the  deranged  bodily 
humours  respectively  involved  therein. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject:— Excessive  blood-letting  is  followed  b}'  im^paired 
appetite  and  an  agitated  condition  of  the  vital  Vayu 
owing  to  the  loss  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the 
body,  and,  accordingly,  to  recoup  the  health  of  the 
the  patient  a  course  of  diet  should  be  prescribed 
which  is  light  and  not  excessively  heat-making,  and 
which  contains  a  fair  amount  of  emollient  and  blood- 
making  matter,  and  is  marked  by  Kttle  or  no  acid  taste. 

The  four  measures  indicated  for  the  stoppage  of 
bleeding  are  known  ;  as  the  Sandhanam  (process 
by  contracting  the  affected  part),  the  Skandanam 
(thickening  or  congealing  the  local  blood),  the 
Pachanam  (process  of  setting  up  suppuration  in  the 
wound)  and  the  Dahanam  (process  of  cauterisation). 

Drugs  of  astringent  tastes  are  possessed  of  the 
property  of  bringing  about  an  adhesion  (contraction)  of 
the  wound.  Cooling  measures  such  as,  applications  of 
ice  etc,  tend  to  thicken  the  local  blood  ;  alkalis  and 
alkaline    preparations  produce  suppuration    in    such  a 

Il8  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  XIV. 

woimci  or  ulcer,  whereas  cauterisation  has   the  property 
of  .contracting  a  vein. 

Remedies  and  appHances  possessed  of  the  virtue  of 
bringing  about  an  adhesion  of  such  a  wound  should  be 
used  where  applications  for  thickening  or  congealing 
the  local  blood  would  fail  ;  whereas  the  suppurating 
measures  should  be  adopted  in  the  event  of  the 
former  (Sandhanam)  proving  ineffectual.  With  any  of  the 
three  of  these  preceding  measures  a  physician  should  try 
to  check  the  outflow  of  blood  incidental  to  an  operation 
of  bleeding,  and  lastly  the  process  of  cauterisation 
should  be  resorted  to  in  the  event  of  the  preceding 
ones  having  pro^-ed  unavailing,  as  it  is  pre-eminently 
the  best  means  of  checking  the  bleeding. 

The  least  residue  of  the  vitiated  blood  continuing 
in  the  affected  part  may  not  aggi-avate  the  disease 
but  prevent  its  perfect  healing.  In  such  a  case  bleed- 
ing should  not  be  again  resorted  to,  but  the  derang- 
ed residue  should  be  subdued  by  means  of  pacifying  or 
absorbing  remedies. 

Blood  is  the  origin  of  the  body.  It  is  blood  that 
maintains  vitality.  Blood  is  life.  Hence  it  should  be 
preserved  with  the  greatest  care. 

The  Vayu  of  a  person  who  has  been  bled,  and 
which  has  been  aggravated  by  constant  cold  applications 

Chap.  XIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  119 

may  give  rise  to  a  swelling  of  the  incised*  part 
characterised  by  a  piercing  pain,  which  should  be 
treated  with  an  unguent  of  tepid  clarified  butter. 

Thus  ends  the  fourteenlh  Chapter  of   the  Sutrasthan^m  in   the    Sushrula 
Samhit^  which  treats  of  Blood. 


Now  we  shall  describe  the  Chapter  which 
treats  of  development  and  non-deA'elopment  of  the 
humoral  constituents .  of  the  body  and  excrements 
(Dosha- Dhai:u-IVIaIa- Kshaya-Vriddhi - 

Since  the  human  body  is  constituted  of  humours, 
(Doshas),  excretions  (Mala\  and  the  fimdamental  princi- 
ples (Dhatus.  of  blood,  marrow,  etc.,  hear  me  discourse 
on  the  features  which  are  peculiar  to  each  of  them. 

The  Vayu. — The  imparting  of  motion  to  the 
body  :  Praspandanam;,  the  carrsing  of  the  sensations  of 
the  respective  sense  organs  (Udvahanam',  the  passing 
down  of  food  to  its  proper  receptacles  (Puranam),  the 
separation  of  excretions  from  the  assimilated  food  matter 
(,Viveka  ,  and  the  retention  and  evacuation  of  urine  and 
semen,  etc.  (Dharanam'  should  be  ascribed  to  the 
fimctions  of  the  five  kinds*  of  Vayu  inerve  forcei 
which  support  the  body. 

The  Pittam. — Pigmentations  or  coloiu-ing 
(Ragakrit),  the  digestion  of  food  and  metabolism  of 
tissues  (Paktikrit),  the  vitalisation  and  nutrition  of  the 
protaplasmic  cells  (Ojakrit),  the  origination   and  preser- 

*  They  are  called  Pr^na,  Ud<ina,  Samdna,  \'y^na  and  Apina. 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTR ASTHANAM .  1 2  i 

vation  of  eye-sight  (Teja-Krit),  the  germination  df  heat 
and  maintenance  of  the  temperature  of  the  body  (Ushma- 
Krit),  and  the  origination  of  the  faculty  of  intellection 
(Medha-Krit)  should  be  regarded  as  the  functions  of 
the  five  kinds*  of  Pittam,  which  contribute  to  the 
preservation  of  the  body  through  its  thermogenetic 
potency  (Agni-Karma). 

The  Shieshma'.— The  function  of  the  five 
kindsf  of  Shieshma  is  to  lubricate  the  interior  of  the 
joints  (Sandhi-Samshleshanam),  to  contribute  to  the 
gloss  of  the  body  (Snehanam),  to  aid  in  the  formation 
of  healthy  granules  in  sores  (Ropanam),  to  add  to  the 
size  of  the  body  (Puranam',  to  build  fresh  tissues 
(Vrimhanam),  to  impart  a  pleasant  or  soothing  sensation 
to  the  body  (Tarpanam),  to  increase  its  strength 
' Valakrit ,  and  to  give  firmness  to  the  limbs  'Sthairya- 
krit),  thereby  contributing  to  the  welfare  of  the  body 
by  supplying  it  with  its  watery  element. 

The  Rasa  or  the  lymph  chyle  exercises  a 
soothing  effect   upon   the    entire   organism  and    tends 

*  They  are  named  as  Ranjaka.  P^chaka,  SSdhaka  (Medh^krit  and 
Ojakrit),  Alochaka  and  BhrSjaka. 

t  They  are  known  as  Shleshmaka,  Kledaka,  Vodhaka,  Tarpaka, 

A^.  B, — The  V^yu,  Pittam,  andShleshmS,  (Kaphham),  though  ordinarily 
translated  as  wind,  bile  and  phlegm,  differ  in  their  meaning  from  their 
usual  English  synonyms.  We  reserve  the  treatment  of  these  subjects  for 
a  separate  place  in  another  part  of  the  book  when  we  shall  have 
occasion  to  deal  with  the  essentials  of  Ayurvedic  Physiology — Tr. 

122  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.       [Chap.  XV. 

to  contribute  to  the  increased  formation  of  blood. 
The  blood,  in  its  turn,  increases  the  healthful  glow 
of  the  complexion,  leads  to  the  increased  formation  of 
flesh  and  muscles  and  maintains  vitalit}-  in  the  organism. 
The  flesh  contributes  towards  the  stoutness  or  rotundity 
of  the  limbs  and  occasions  the  formation  of  fatty 
matter  in  the  system.  The  fat  gives  rise  to  the 
glossiness  (formation  of  oily  or  albuminous  matter)  of 
the  body  and  primarily  contributes  towards  the  firm- 
ness and  growth  of  the  bones.  The  bones,  in  their 
turn,  support  the  body,  and  contribute  to  the  formation 
of  marrow.  The  marrow  contributes  towards  the  for- 
mation and  increase  of  semen,  and  fills  in  the  internal 
canities  of  the  bones,  and  fomis  the  chief  soiu"ce  of 
strength,  amorous  feelings  and  hilarity.  The  semen  gives 
rise  to  valour  and  courageousness,  makes  a  man  amor- 
ously disposed  towards  the  female  sex,  increases  his 
strength  and  amativeness,  is  the  sole  impregnating 
principle  in  the  male  organism,  and  is  possessed  of  the 
virtue  of  being  quickly  emitted. 

The  excreta  or  the  fecal  matters  of  a  man  are  in- 
dispensably necessary  for  the  preser\^ation  of  the  body. 
They  contain  the  wind  and  digestion  .being  primarily 
connected  with  the  movements  of  the  bodily  Vayu  and 
the  feeling  of  hunger).  The  urine  fills  the  receptacle  of 
the  bladder,  and  is  possessed  of  the  property  of  washing 
or  draining  off  the  waste  or  refuse  matter  of  the  organism  ; 
whereas  perspiration  tends  to  moisten  the  skin. 



The  Artavam  (menstrual  blood)  is  endued  with  the 
same  properties  as  its  arterial  namesake,  and  is  one  of  the 
essential  factors  in  a  woman  which  makes  impregnation 
possible.  The  foetus  or  impregnated  matter  (Garbha) 
serves  to  make  patent  the  features  characteristic  of 
pregnancy.  The  breast-milk  in  its  turn  tends  to 
bring  about  an  expansion  of  the  mammae  lof  a 
woman  ,  and  maintains  the  life  of  her  child  (by 
suppl}'ing  it  with  the  necessary  and  nutritive  element 
of  food).  These  Vayu,  etc.  should  be  duly  preserved 
in  their  normal  condition. 

Now  we  shall  describe  the  symptoms  which 
attend  the  loss  or  waste  of  any  of  the  foregoing 
principles  of  the  body.* 

The  loss  of  the  bodily  Vayu  f nerve-force)  is  followed 
bv  a  state  of  languor,  shortness  of  speech,  uneasiness 
or  absence  of  hilarity,  and  loss  of  consciousness.  The 
loss  of  fPittam)  is  marked  b}'  a  dulness  of  complexion, 
diminution  of  the  bodily  heat  and  an  impaired  state 
of  internal  fire  (digestive  heat).  The  loss  of  phlegm 
(Kapham)  is  marked  by  dryness,  a  sensation  of  internal 
burning,  a  feeling  of  emptiness  in  the  stomach  and  other 

*  Such  a  loss  or  perceptible  deterioration  of  any  of  them  should  be 
ascribed  to  the  use  of  exce^^sive  cleansing  or  cathartic  (Samshodhanam)  and 
pacifying  (Samshamanam)  measures,  or  to  a  repression  of  the  natural 
urgings  of  the  body,  or  to  a  course  of  violent  or  overfatiguing  physical 
exercise,  or  to  amorous  excesses,  or  to  the  use  of  unwholesome  and 
unsuitable  food,  or  ta  grief,  etc. 

124  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XV. 

cavities  or  chambers  of  the  body,  looseness  of  the  joints 
(a  feeling  as  if  the  joints  were  all  broken),  thirst,  weak- 
ness, and  insomnia.  In  such  cases  the  medical  treatment 
should  consist  of  remedial  agents  which  are  capable 
of  directly  contributing  to  the  growth  or  formation 
of  the  humour  so  lost  or  deteriorated. 

Similarly  the   loss  of  lymph    chyle  is  marked  by 

pain    about   the   region   of  the  heart,  Angina  Pectoris, 

with      palpitation     of    the      heart,     a     sensation     of 

emptiness    or   gone-feeling   in   the   viscus,   and    thirst. 

The  loss  of  blood  is  attended   with   such   symptoms   as 

roughness   of  the   skin,   and   a   craving   for   acid   food 

or  drink.     The   patient   longs   to   be   in   a   cool   place 

and  asks  for  cool  things,    and   the    veins   become   loose 

and  flabby.     The  loss  of  flesh  is   marked  by  emaciation 

of  the  buttocks,  cheeks,   lips,   thighs,   breasts,  armpits,* 

neck,  and  the  calves  of  the   legs.     The  arteries   seem 

loose   and   flabby,    and   the  body    seems  to  be  dry  and 

inert,     accompanied   by   an   aching  or    gnawing    pam 

in  its  members.     The  loss  of  fat   is   followed   by   such  the  enlargement  of  the  spleen,  a  sense  of 

emptiness  in  the  joints,  and   a   peculiar   dryness   of  the 

skin   and   a  craving  for  cold   and  emollient    meat.    The 

degeneration  of  the  bones  is  marked  by  an  aching  pain 

in   the   bones   and  bone-joints,  a  wasting  of  teeth  and 

ffums,  and  a  general    drvness   of  the   body.     Similarly,  . 

*  The  armpits  look  thin,  narrow  and  contracledt 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  125 

the  loss  or  waste  of  marrow  is  characterised  by  the  for- 
mation of  a  lesser  quantity  of  semen,  aching  pain  in  the 
bones  and  breaking  pain  in  the  bone-joints  which  have 
become  marrowless.  The  loss  or  waste  of  semen  is  mark- 
ed by  pain  in  the  penis  and  the  testes,  and  by  incapacity 
for  sexual  intercourse.  In  such  cases  the  emission  of  semen 
but  rarely  happens,  and  is  then  perceptibly  deficient  in  its 
quantity,  the  emitted  matter  consisting  of  a  small  quantity 
of  sehien  marked  with  shreds  of  blood.  The  medical  treat- 
ment under  the  preceding  circumstances  should  consist 
of  remedies  of  such  medicinal  virtues  as  are  found  to 
directly  and  immediately  contribute  to  the  formation 
of  the  bodily  principle  (thus  wasted  or  lost). 

The  loss  absence,  suppression  or  scanty  forma- 
tion of  fecal  matter  is  attended  with  a  sensation 
of  pain  at  the  sides  and  the  region  of  the  heart, 
and  the  upward  coursing  of  (the  incarcerated)  wind 
or  flatus,  accompanied  with  a  rumbling  sound 
about  the  region  of  the  liver  and  the  intestines. 
Similarly,  the  loss,  absence  or  scanty  formation)  of 
urine  is  marked  by  an  aching  pain  in  the  bladder,  causing 
it  dribble  or  to  come  out  in  thin  and  scanty  jets.  Here, 
as  in  the  foregoing  instances,  the  remedial  agents 
should  consist  of  drugs  which  directly  contribute  to 
the  formation  of  urine.  Similarly  the  waste,  absence  or 
scanty  formation  of  perspiration  is  followed  by  such 
symptoms  as  numbness  about  the  pores  of  the  hair,   and 

126  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  XV. 

dryness  of  the  epidermis  (skin\  The  sense  of  touch  is 
perceptibly  affected,  and  perspiration  is  entirely  stopped. 
The  medical  treatment  in  such  a  case  consists  in 
the  application  of  medicated  unguents,  lubrications, 
diaphoretics,  and  adoption  of  measures  (that  tend  to 
produce  a  copious  perspiration\ 

In  the  case  of  loss  or  waste  of  the  catamenial 
flow,  the  menses  do  not  appear  at  the  appointed 
time  or  are  scant}'.  The  vagina  seems  stuffed  and 
painful.  The  medical  treatment  in  such  cases  consists  in 
the  adoption  of  alterative  or  cleansing  measures,  and  in 
the  administration  of  drugs  of  a  heat-making  (Agneya) 
potency  or  virtue. 

The  loss  or  waste  of  breast-milk  is  characterised  by 
a  shrunken  condition  of  the  mammae,  and  suppression  or 
scanty  secretion  of  the  fluid.  The  medical  treatment 
in  such  cases  lies  in  the  administration  of  drugs  which 
generate  Kapham. 

The  atrophy  or  wasting  of  the  foetus  in  the  womb 
(during  the  period  of  gestation)  is  marked  by  the 
absence  of  any  movement  in  the  uterus  and  the  non- 
distended  condition  of  the  sides  or  walls  of  the  abdomen. 
The  treatment  consists  in  the  application  of  Kshira 
Vastis  (enemas  of  medicated  milk  into  the  region  of  the 
utenis)  in  the  eighth  month  of  gestation,  and  prescribing 
courses  of  emollient  fare  for  the  patient  mother)* 

*  Several  editions  read  invigorating  diets,  egg,  etc. 



Now  we  shall  describe  the  symptoms  which  mark 
the  excess  (excessive  accumulation  in  the  body  >  of  any 
of  the  fundamental  humours,  ]>rinciples  and  excrements 
of  the  body. 

The  quantities  of  these  humours,  principles  and 
secretion,  are  abnormally  increased  through  the  use  of 
substances  that  primarily  contribute  to  their  formation 
in  the  organism.* 

An  excess  of  Vayu  in  the  body  is  marked  by  such 
symptoms  as  roughness  of  the  skin,  t  emaciation  of  the 
body,  darkness  of  complexion  flit :  blackness  of  hue),  a 
little  tremor  or  trembling  of  the  limbs,  longing  for 
heat,  or  for  hot  things,  insomnia,  thickness  or  increased 
consistency  of  the  fecal  matter  and  decrease  of  bodily 
strength.  (Similarly,  an  abnormal)  increase  of  Pittam 
is  characterised  by  a  sallow  complexion  or  a 
yellowish  colour  of  the  skin,  a  general  burning  sensation 
in  the  body  as  well  as  insomnia,  a  craving  for  cold 
contacts  and  cooling  things,  diminution  of  strength, 
weakness  of  the  sense  organs,  fits  of  fainting  and 
yellowness  of  the  conjunctivae,  stool  and  urine. 

An  excess  of  Kapham  in  the  body  is  marked 
by  such  symptoms,  as  the  whiteness,  coldness  and 
numbness   of  the     body,   heaviness     of  the   limbs,     a 

*  Several  Editions  read  it  as  an  additional  text. 
+  Several  Editions  read  roughness  of  speech. 

128  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XV. 

sense   of  drowsiness   and   languor_,   somnolence,  and  a 
feeling  of  looseness  of  the  bone-joints. 

Similarl}',  an  increased  germination  of  lymph  chyle 
(Rasa)  in  the  body  is  manifest  by  such  characteristics 
as,  nausea,  water-brash,  and  an  increased  flow  of  salivary 
secretion.  A  plethora  of  blood  in  the  system  gives  a 
reddish  glow  to  the  complexion  and  the  white  of  the 
eyes,  and  imparts  fullness  to  the  veins.  An  increase  of 
flesh  is  marked  by  the  rotundit}"  and  fullness  of  the 
buttocks  and  the  lips,  as  well  as  of  the  penis,  arms,  and 
the  thighs,  and  an  increased  heaviness  of  the  whole  body. 
An  excess  of  fat  in  the  body  imparts  an  oily  gloss  to  the 
skin.  The  sides  of  the  abdomen  are  increased  in  bulk, 
and  the  body  emits  a  fetid  smell,  and  the  person  is 
assailed  with  cough  and  dyspnoea.  An  excessive  forma- 
tion of  bone  (abnormal  ossification)  is  attended  with  such 
symptoms  as  the  cutting  of  additional  teeth  and  the 
abnormal  development  of  any  of  the  bone-structures.  An 
excessive  formation  of  marrow  gives  rise  to  a  heaviness 
of  the  eyes  and  to  the  members  of  the  body. 

An  excess  of  semen  in  the  body  is  marked  b}'  an  ex- 
cessive flow  of  that  fluid  and  gives  rise  to  the  fomiation 
of  gravels  (concretions)  in  the  bladder  which  are  known 
as  Shukrashmari.  An  abnormal  increase  in  the  forma- 
tion of  fecal  matter  is  attended  with  distension  of  the 
abdomen  and  colic  pains  in  the  loins  and  the  intestines. 
An  excessive  formation  of  urine  is  manifest  by  constant 

Chap.  XV.  SUTRASTHANAM.  129 

urging   for  micturition   and   distension   of  the  bladder, 
attended  by  a  kind  of  gnawing  or  aching  pain. 

Similarly,  an  increased  secretion  of  perspiration  is 
attended  with  an  itching  of  the  skin  which  emits  a  bad 
odour.  An  excess  in  the  quantity  of  catamenial  blood* 
gives  rise  to  an  aching  of  the  limbs  and  an  excessive  flow. 
So  also  an  excess  in  the  quantity  of  the  breast-milk  is 
attended  with  frequent  secretions  of  that  fluid,  and  with 
inflaihmation  and  pain  in  the  mammae.  An  excessive 
growth  of  the  faetus  in  the  uterus  tends  to  abnomially 
swell  .the  region  of  the  abdomen,  and  is  accompanied 
by  anasarca,  or  dropsy,  of  the  lower  extremities 
(phlegmasia  dolens;. 

These  abnormal  excesses  of  the  aforesaid  humours 
and  principles,  etc.  of  the  body  should  be  checked  or 
remedied  with  corrective  (cleansing)  or  pacifying 
measures  as  would  be  indicated  by  their  respective 
natures,  so  as  not  to  reduce  them  to  a  smaller  quantity 
than  that  in  which  they  are  found  in  the  normal  and 
healthy  state  of  a  body. 

IVIetrical  text : — An  increased  quantity  of  a 
bodily  principle  gives  rise  to  a  similar  increase  in  the 
quantity  of  one  immediately  succeeding  it  in  the 
order  of  enumeration  as   stated   above  ;   aud   hence   an 

*  An  abnormal  flow  tends  to  stimulate  the  voluptuous  sensation  of  a 
woman  to  a  considerable  extent,  and  is  followed  by  a  sense  of  reactionary 
weakness.   Il  emits  a  fetid  smell  and  originates  ovarian  tumours. 



THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XV. 

increase  in  any  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  the 
body  should  be  checked  and  reduced  to  its  normal 

Now  we  shall  describe  the  characteristic  features 
of  the  strength-giving  principles  of  the  body,  as  well 
as  the  symptoms  that  mark  their  loss  or  waste.  The 
quintessence  of  all  the  fundamental  principles  of 
the  body,  starting  with  lymph  chyle  and  ending  with 
semen,  is  called  the  Ojas,  which  is  identical  with  what 
is  termed  "vital  power."  This  view  of  oneness  of 
vitality  with  protoplasmic  albumen  has  been  adopted 
in  the  present  work* 

This  Ojas  (albumen)  or  strength-giving  principle 
serves  to  impart  a  firm  integrity  to  the  flesh  (and  the 
muscles),  exercises  unbounded  control  over  all  acts  of 
vitality,  improves  the  voice  and  complexion,  and 
helps  both  the  external  (operative")  and  the  internal 
^intellectual)  sense  organs,  in  duly  performing  their 
natural  functions. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject:— Ojas  (albumen  being  of  a  white  colour  belongs 
to     the     class     of    Somatmakam  (cooling)    substances. 

*  The  Sanskrit  lerm  "Ojas"'  has  a  variety  of  meanings.  Primarily 
it  means  protoplasmic  matter  as  found  in  cells  (Vindus).  Secondarily 
it  means  albumen  as  we  shall  describe  later  on  in  the  chapters  on 
etiology  and  therapeutics  of  Prameha.  Several  authorities  hold  a  contrary 
view  staling  that  Ojas  (albumen)  forms  only  one  of  the  essentials  of 
vitality  and  that  the  two  are  by  no  means  identical. 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  131 

It  is  cooling,  oleaginous,  and  firm  (Sthira),  contributes  to 
the  formation  and  growth -of  flesh,  maintains  its  integrity 
or  holds  it  firm,  and  is  mobile  or  capable  of  moving  about 
from  one  place  to  another  within  the  organism.  * 
It  is  further  soft  and  shiny,  and  is  possessed  of  the  most 
efficacious  virtue  and  should  be  regarded  as  the  most 
important  element  (seat)  of  vitality.  The  whole  body 
with  its  limbs  and  members  is  permeated  with  Ojas, 
and  a  loss  or  diminution  in  its  natural  quantity  leads 
to  the  gradual  emaciation  (and  ultimate  dissolution)  of 

A  blow,  a  persistent  wasting  disease,  anger,  grief, 
cares  and  anxieties,  fatigue  and  hunger,  are  the  causes  to 
which  should  be  ascribed  the  wasting  or  disappearance 
of  this  strength-giving  principle  (albumen)  of  the  body. 
The  bodily  albumen,  through  the  agency  of  the  above- 
said  causes,  is  wasted  through  the  channels  carrying  the 
different  fundamental  principles  of  the  body.  Albumen  is 
transformed  into  strength  which  radiates  from  the  heart. 

A  deranged  or  vitiated  albumen  (Ojas)  is  characterised 
firstly  by  its  dislodgment  from  its  proper  seat  or  locality 
(Visransha),  secondly,  by  a  change  or  modification  of  its 
native  virtues  in  contact  with  the  deranged  humours 
or  disordered  organs  (Vyapad)  and  thiidly,  by  wasting 
away  (Kshaya\ 

*  Several  editions  read  Rasam,  meaning  it    to   be  possessed  of  a  sweet 

132  THE    SUSHRUTA    SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XV. 

The  first  of  the  preceding  properties  (dislodgment) 
gives  rise  to  such  symptoms  as  looseness  of  the 
bone-joints,  numbness  of  the  hmbs,  dislodgment  of 
the  deranged  humours  from  their  respective  recep- 
tacles and  suppression  of  the  (bodily  and  intellectual) 
functions.  To  the  second  of  the  foregoing  properties, 
(change  or  modification  of  its  natural  virtue  through 
contact  with  the  deranged  bodily  humours  etc)  should  be 
ascribed  such  symptoms,  as  numbness  and  heaviness  of 
the  limbs,  dropsy  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 
bodily  Vayu,  discoloured  or  changed  complexion,  feeling 
of  malaise,  drowsiness  and  somnolence.  The  third  pro- 
perty of  the  deranged  albumen,  loss  or  wasting),  brings 
on  fits  of  fainting,  loss  of  flesh,  stupor,  delirium  and 
ultimately  death. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject:—A  deranged  state  of  albumen  is  marked 
by  the  three  abovesaid  properties  of  dislodgment 
from  its  proper  seat  (Visransha)  ;  by  a  change  of  its 
natural  virtues  through  contamination  (Vyapadi  and 
by  wasting  (Kshaya .  The  first  of  these  properties 
(Visransha)  is  characterised  by  looseness  of  the  joints, 
by  an  inert  state  of  the  body,  by  a  sense  of  fatigue, 
by  a  dislodgment  of  the  deranged  humours  from  their 
natural  seats,  and  by  a  suppression  of  the  bodily  and 
intellectual  functions.  Numbness  and  heaviness  of 
the  limbs,  malaise,  a  discoloured  complexion,  drowsiness, 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  133 

somnolence  and  dropsical  swelling  brought  about  by 
a  deranged  state  ot  t\\e  bodily  Vayu,  should  be 
considered  as  natural  consequences  of  the  Vyapad 
^change  of  the  natural  virtues  of  albumen  through 
contamination).  The  loss  or  waste  of  Ojah  (albumen)  is 
marked  by  such  symptoms  as  fits  of  fainting, 
emaciation  of  the  body,  bewilderment  and  distraction 
of  the  mind,  delirium  and  loss  of  consciousness  and 
ultim?itely  death. 

The  medical  treatment  in  cases  of  dislodgment  or 
flowing  out  external  secretion)  of  albumen  from  its 
natural  seat  (Visransha),  as  well  as  in  the  event  of  it 
becoming  contaminated  by  the  vitiated  principles  of 
the  body,  should  consist  in  improving  its  quantity  by 
elixirs  and  remedies  possessed  of  rejuvenating  properties, 
tending  to  increase  the  quantity  of  such  fluid  (albumen  1 
in  the  body.  A  patient  who  has  lost  all  consciousness 
owing  to  an  excessive  loss  or  waste  of  albumen) 
should  be  given  up  by  a  physician   as  incurable\ 

The  oily  or  albuminous  matter  found  within 
the  components  of  the  other  fundamental  principles 
(Dhatu)  of  the  body  as  metabolised  by  the 
internal  heat  and  regularly  metamorphosed  into 
the  succeeding  ones)  should  be  grouped  under 
the  head  of  fiery  or  thermogenetic  (Agneya)) 
substances.  This  fatty  matter  iVas^'i  predominates  in 
the  female  organism  and  produces   its  peculiar  softness, 

134  ^^^  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap.  XV. 

beauty  and  pleasing  shape,  causes  the  grovrth  of  scanty 
but  soft  hair  on  its  surface.  It  strengthens  the  eyesight 
and  increases  the  energy  of  the  body,  improves  its 
power  of  digestion  and  heightens  its  glow  and  com- 
plexion. Fat  is  deranged  by  such  acts  as,  an  abuse  of 
astringent,  bitter,  cold,  parchifying  or  Vistambhi 
(indigestible  food  which  remains  stuffed  in  the 
stomach^  substances,  a  voluntary  repression  of  the  natural 
urging  for  evacutions  of  the  body,  by  excessive  sexual  in- 
dulgence, and  fatiguing  physical  exercise,  or  by  the 
draining  action  of  any  particular  disease. 

An  instance  of  dislodgment  of  fat  from  its  proper  seat 
or  locality  is  attended  by  such  symptoms  as  roughness 
of  the  skin,  loss  of  the  natural  healthful  glow  of  the  body 
and  a  breaking  or  an  aching  pain  in  the  limbs.  Anaemia 
or  a  gradual  emaciation  of  the  body,  impaired  digestive 
function  and  a  slanting  or  downward  course  of  the 
deranged  humours,  mark  the  case  where  the  bodily  fat  has 
undergone  a  change  in  its  natural  properties  through  any 
foul  contamination.  A  case  of  loss  or  waste  of  the  bodily 
fat  is  marked  by  such  S5aTiptoms  as,  impaired  digestive 
function,  dulness  of  sight,  decay  of  strength  and  aggra- 
vation of  the  bodily  Vayu,  and  always  ends  in  death. 

The  medical  treatment  in  the  latter  case  (loss  of  fat) 
should  consist  in  the  administration  of  oily  or  emollient 
drinks,  use  of  medicated  unguents  or  lubrications, 
Pradeha     (plasters    of     oleaginous    substances)     and 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  13^ 

Parisheka  (washes)  and  a  diet   comprising  light,  cooling 
and  well-cooked  articles  of  food. 

lYIetrical  texts  : — A  person  suffering  from 
a  wasting  of  any  of  the  constituent  humours  or 
fundamental  principles  or  excrements  of  the  body, 
as  well  as  one  suffering  from  loss  of  Ojah  (albumen) 
naturally  craves  for  drink  and  food  that  tend  to  con- 
tribute directly  to  the  formation  of  the  matter  (or  bodily 
principle)  so  lost  or  wasted.  Conversely,  the  particular 
food  or  drink  longed  for  b}'  a  person  suffering 
from  a  loss  or  waste  of  any  of  the  abovesaid  fluids  or 
principles,  should  be  looked  upon  as  possessed  of 
a  curative  virtue  in  that  particular  case.  Such  a 
person  devoid  of  consciousness  and  divested  of  his 
bodily  and  intellectual  functions  through  a  deranged 
state  of  the  bodih'  Vayu  ner\-e-force)  and  extremely 
weak  and  enfeebled  owing  to  the  loss  of  the  vital  fluid 
should  be  regarded  as  past  all  cure. 

Etiology  of  Obesity  :— Obesity  or  loss  of 
flesh  (Karsha)  should  be  ascribed  to  changes  in  the  condi- 
tion of  the  lymph  chyle.  The  lymph  chyle  derived  from 
the  assimilated  food  of  a  person,  who  is  habituated  to  a 
course  of  diet  which  tends  to  promote  the  quantitv  of 
the  bodily  Kapham  or  is  in  the  habit  of  pampering  his 
belly  even  when  a  previous  meal  has  not  been  thoroughly 
digested,  or  who  is  addicted  to  a  habit  of  sleeping  in  the 
day,  or  leading  a  sedentary  life,  or  is  averse  to   taking 

136  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        t  Chap.  XV. 

any  sort  of  physical  exercise,  continues  in  an  immature 
State  and  is  transformed  into  a  serum  of  sweet  taste  which 
moves  about  within  the  body,  engendering  the  formation 
of  fat  which  produces  excessive  stoutness.  A  person 
afflicted  with  obesity  develops  such  symptoms  as  short- 
ness of  breath,  thirst,  ravenous  appetite,  excessive  sleepi- 
ness, perspiration,  fetid  odours  in  the  body,  wheezing 
sound  in  the  throat  during  sleep  or  sudden  suspension  of 
breath,  inert  feeling  in  the  limbs,  dulness  or  heaviness 
of  the  body,  and  indistinctness  of  speech.  Owing  to 
the  softness  of  fat,  a  fatty  person  is  unntted  for  every 
kind  of  work.  Capacity  for  sexual  intercourse  is  dimi- 
nished (in  such  a  one),  owing  to  the  obstruction  of  the 
passage  of  semen  by  phlegm  and  fatty  deposits ; 
and  the  growth  of  the  rest  of  the  root-principles 
of  the  body  such  as,  lymph  chyle,  albumen,  semen, 
etc.,  is  considerably  arrested  owing  to  the  deposit 
of  fatty  matter  within  the  channels  of  the  internal 
passages  of  the  body,  thus  seriously  affecting  his  bodily 
strength.  An  obese  or  excessively  corpulent  person  is 
likely  to  be  afflicted  with  any  of  the  following  diseases 
such  as,  urethral  discharges,  eruptions,  boils,  carbuncles, 
fever,  fistula  in  ano,  or  with  any  of  the  diseases  which 
are  caused  by  a  deranged  state  of  the  bodily  V^3ai ; 
and  such  attacks  are  invariably  found  to  terminate 
in  death.  Any  disease  in  such  a  person  is  apt  to  develop 
into  one  of  a  violent  and  dangerous  type  owing  to  the 
obstruction  of  the  internal  channels  with  deposits  of  fat. 



Hence  all  things  or   conditions  which  foster  the  growth 
of  abnormal  fat  should  be  carefully  avoided. 

Accordingly  medicated  compositions,  consisting  of 
such  drugs  and  substances  as  Shilajatu,  Guggulu, 
Go-Mutram,  Triphala,  Loharaja,  Rasanjanam,  IMadhu, 
Yava,  Mudga,  Koradusha,  Shyamaka  and  Uddiilaka 
which  are  anti-fat  in  their  properties,  or  of  remedial 
agents  possessing  the  efficacy  of  cleansing  the 
internal  channels,  as  well  as  enematas  of  liquefacient 
solutions  technically  known  as  Lekhana  Vastis  and 
physical  exercise  should  be  prescribed. 

Etiology  of  Karshyam  :— Loss  of  flesh  or 
a  gradual  emaciation  of  the  body  should  be  ascribed  to 
the  partaking  of  food  in  the  composition  of  which,  matter 
which  aggravates  the  bodily  Vayu  largel)'  or  excessively 
enters,  to  over-fatiguing  physical  exercise,  sexual  excess- 
es, over  study,  fright,  grief  or  anxiety,  to  the  keeping 
up  of  late  hours,  to  unsatisfied  hunger,  insufficient  food, 
and  to  astringent  food  which  tends  to  dr}-  up  the  lymph 
chyle.  The  chyle,  thus  parched  up,  moves  about  in  the 
organism,  but  fails  to  impart  to  it  the  necessary  nutritive 
element  owing  to  its  being  insufficiently  charged  with  it, 
thus  causing  the  body  to  grow  extremely  emaciated. 

A  patient  suffering  from  extreme  emaciation  of  the 
body  fails  to  bear  the  inclemencies  of  weather  and  the 
variations  of  terrestrial  heat,  and  becomes  apathetic  to 
all  movements  and   does  but   imperfectly  perform   the 

138  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XV. 

functions  of  vitality,  and  is  also  incapable  of  enduring 
thirst  or  hunger.  The  bodily  strength  suffers  a  gradual 
diminution,  and  diseases,  incidental  to  a  deranged  state 
of  the  bodily  Vayu,  make  their  appearance,  and  the 
patient  has  to  meet  his  doom  from  any  of  the  following 
diseases  as  asthma,  cough,  Shosha  (phthisis),  enlarged 
spleen  or  liver,  abdominal  drops}^,  dyspepsia,  abdominal 
glands  and  haemoptysis.  Any  disease  appearing  in  such 
a  patient  develops  into  one  of  a  violent  type  owing  to 
the  loss  or  diminished  condition  of  the  bodily  strength 
or  protoplasm  (Prina). 

Contrarily,  conditions  or  factors  which  produce 
obesity  should  be  avoided.  A  case  of  patent  obesity 
should  be  checked  with  a  medicated  compound,  con- 
sisting of  such  drugs  as,  Payasya,  Ashvagandha,  Vidari, 
Vidarigandha,  Shat^vari,  Vala,  Ativala,  Nagavala  and  such 
other  drugs  of  sweet  taste.  Diets  consisting  of  thickened 
milk,  clarified  butter,  ciu^d,  meat,  boiled  Shall  rice, 
Yasthika,  wheat,  barley,  etc.,  should  be  prescribed  in  the 
case  ;  and  sleep  in  the  day,  sexual  indulgence,  physical 
exercise,  etc.,  should  be  prohibited.  Enematas  of  nutri- 
tive substances  can  be  likewise  given  with  advantage. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  lymph  chyle  of  a  man,  who 
partakes  of  food  belonging  to  both  the  abovesaid  classes, 
courses  through  his  organism  and  strengthens  the  root- 
principles  of  his  body,  thus  giving  a  middling  or  health- 
ful rotundity  to  his  limbs  owing  to  its  properties  being 

Chap.  XV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  j^c^ 

equipoised.  A  man  possessed  of  such  a  body  is  capable 
of  all  kinds  of  work  and  movement.  He  can  fairly  stand 
the  inclemencies  of  weather  and  the  keenness  of  hunger 
and  thirst,  and  will  gain  in  strength  and  energy.  Care 
should  be  always  taken  to  have  such  a  well  equipped 
body  of  moderate  size. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject*:— Excessively  corpulent  and  excessively  lean 
persons  are  alike  condemnable.  A  body  which  is 
neither  too  stout  nor  too  lean,  but  strikes  the  mean 
as  regards  plumpness,  is  the  best.  A  lean  frame 
should  have  the  preference  to  a  stout  one.  The  enraged 
or  aggravated  bodil}-  humours  dry  up  the  fundamental 
principles  of  the  body,  such  as  the  lymph  chyle  etc.,  just 
in  the  same  way  as  a  well- kindled  fire  will  evaporate 
the  water  contained  in  a  basin  placed  over  it.  Since 
^the  temperament,  constitution,  size  and  the  fundamental 
principles  of)  the  body  vary  in  different  individuals ; 
rand  since  the  body,  in  its  turn,  undergoes  such 
gradual  transformations  as  infancy,  youth  and  old 
age),  and  changes  its  state  each  moment,  it  is  absolutely 
impossible  to  lay  down  the  exact  quantity  of  the 
deranged  humours,  excrements  and  fundamental 
principles  (of  lymph  chyle,  blood,  semen,  albumen, 
etc.)  that  may  be  found  in  the  human  organism. 
Hence  it  is  necessary  for  a  physician  to  ascertain  their 
state  of  equilibrium  (their  continuance  in  normal  state  and 

[_,^0  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         l  Chap.  XV. 

quantity)  at  any  particular  time  ;  and  which  should  be 
pronounced  onl}'  in  cases  where  sigiis  of  perfect  health 
would  be  visible.  An  experienced  physician  would 
naturally  draw  a  contrar}-  inference  from  the  improper 
functions  of  the  organs  in  an  individual.  A  person 
with  an  uniformly  healthy  digestion,  and  whose  bodily 
humours  are  in  a  state  of  equilibrium,  and  in  whom 
the  fundamental  vital  fluids  course  in  their  normal 
state  and  quantity,  accompanied  by  the  normal  processes 
of  secretion,  organic  function,  and  intellection,  is  said 
to  be  a  healthy  person . 

An  intelligent  physician  should  preserAC  the  state 
of  health  in  a  healthy  individual,  wliile  he  should 
increase  or  decrease  the  quantity  of  the  bodily  humours, 
vital  fluids,  or  excrements  in  a  sick  patient  according 
to  the  exigencies  of  the  case  until  his  health  is  perfectly 

Thus  ends  ihe  fifteenth  Chapter  of'the  Sutrasthanam  in  the  Sushruta 
Samhit^  which  treats  of  the  Development  and  Non-development  of  the 
humoral  constituenls  of  the  bodv. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of  the 
piercing  and  bandaging  of  the  lobules  of  ears  (Kama- 

The  lobules  of  the  ears  of  an  infant  are  usually  pierced 
through  for  protecting  it  (from  the  evil  influences  of 
mali^ant  stars  and  spirits)  and  for  the  purposes  of 
ornamentation  as  well.  The  piercing  should  be  performed 
on  a  day  of  bright  fortnight  marked  by  the  auspicious 
lunar  and  astral  combinations,  and  in  the  sixth  or  the 
seventh  month  of  the  year  reckoned  from  its  beginning 
(Bhadra).  The  child  should  be  placed  on  the  lap  of  its 
nurse,  and  benedictions  should  be  pronounced  over  it. 
Then  having  soothed  it  and  lured  it  with  toys  and 
playthings,  the  physician  should  draw  down  with  his 
left  hand  the  lobules  of  its  ears  with  a  view  to  detect, 
with  the  help  of  the  reflected  sun-light,  (the  closed  up) 
apertures  that  are  naturally  found  to  exist  in  those 
localities.  Then  he  sliould  pierce  them  straight  through 
with  a  needle  held  in  his  right  hand,  or  with  an  awl  (Ara), 
or  with  a  thick  needle  where  the  appendages  would 
be  found  to  be  too  thick.  The  lobule  of  the  right  ear 
should  be  first  pierced  and  then  the  left  in  the  case  of  a 
male  child,  while  the  contrary  should  be  the  procedure  in 
the  case  of  a  female.  Plugs  of  cotton-lint  should  be  then 
inserted  into  the  holes  of  the  pricked  ear-lobules,  which 

1^2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  XVI. 

should  be  lubricated  or  rubbed  with  any  unboiled  oil. 
A  copious  bleeding  attended  with  pain  would  indicate 
that  the  needle  has  passed  through  a  place  other  than 
the  natural  (^and  closed  up)  fissure  described  above  ; 
whereas  the  absence  of  any  serious  after-effect  would 
give  rise  to  the  presumption  that  the  piercing  has  been 
done  through  the  right  spot.  Any  of  the  local  veins 
incidentally  injured  by  an  ignorant,  bungling  surgeon, 
may  be  attended  with  symptoms  which  will  be 
described  under  the  heads  of  K^lika,  Marmarika,  and 

Karlika'  is  marked  by  fever  and  a  burning  pain 
in  the  affected  part  and  swelling.  Marmarika  gives  rise 
to  pain  and  knotty  (nodular)  formations  about  the 
affected  region,  accompanied  by  (the  characteristic 
inflammatory)  fever  ;  while  in  the  last  named  type 
(Lohitika)  symptoms  such  as,  Manya-Stambha  (numb- 
ness of  the  tendons  forming  the  nape  of  the  neck), 
Apatfinak  (a  type  of  tetanus),  Shirograha  (headache)  and 
Karna-shula  (ear-ache)  exhibit  themselves,  and  they 
should  be  duly  treated  with  medicinal  remedies  laid 
down  under  their  respective  heads.  The  lint  should 
be  speedily  taken  out  from  a  pierced  hole  which  is 
marked  by  extreme  pain  and  swelling,  etc.,  on  account 
of  its  being  made  with  a  blunt,  crooked  or  stunted 
needle,  or  owing  to  its  being  plugged  with  a  deep  and 
inordinately  large  lint,  or  to  its  being  disturbed  by  the 
aggravated  bodily  humours  (Doshas),  or  to  its  being  made 

Chap.  XVI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 43 

at  a  wrong  place.  An  unguent  composed  of  Madhuka, 
Eranda  roots,  Manjistha,  Yava,  Tila,  honey  and  clarified 
butter  pasted  together,  should  be  thickly  plastered  over 
the  affected  part  until  the  ulcers  are  perfectly  healed  ; 
after  which  the  lobules  of  the  ears  should  be  again 
pierced  through  according  to  the  directions  laid  down 

The  lint  should  be  removed,  each  third  da)'-,  and  a 
thicker  one  should  be  inserted  in  its  stead  on  each 
successive  occasion,  and  the  part  should  be  rubbed 
with  (unboiled  oil)  as  before.  For  the  expansion  of 
the  fissures,  (sticks  of  Nimba  or  Apamarga,  or  rods  of 
lead)  should  be  inserted  into  them  after  the  subsidence 
of  the  accompanying  symptoms  and  deranged  bodily 
humours  t,in  the  locality). 

lYIetrical  Text :  — The  fissures  thus  expanded 
may  ultimately  bifurcate  the  lobules  of  the  ears  owing  to 
the  effects  of  the  deranged  bodily  humours  (Dosha),  or 
of  a  blow.  Now  hear  me  discourse  on  the  mode  of 
adhesioning  them  (with  suitable  bandages). 

These  unions  or  adhesions  admit  of  being  briefly 
divided  into  fifteen  different  kinds,  viz.,  the  Nemi- 
sandhdnaka,  the  Utpala-Bhedyaka  the  Valluraka,  the 
Asangima,  the  Ganda-karna,  the  Aharyaya,  the  Nirve- 
dhima,  the  Vyayojima,  the  Kapata-sandhika,  theArdha- 
kap^ta-sandhika,  the  Samkshipta,  the  Hina-karna,  the 
Vallikarna,  the  Yasthi-karna,  and  the  Kakaushthaka. 

144  '^^^  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  XVI. 

Out  of  these,  the  process,  known  as  the  Nemi- 
sandhanaka,  should  be  used  in  cases  where  each  of 
the  bifurcated  lobes  of  the  ears  would  be  found  to  be 
thick,  extended,  and  equal  in  size.  The  process,  known 
as  the  Utpala-Bhedyaka,  should  be  used  in  cases 
where  the  severed  lobes  of  the  ears  would  be  found  to 
be  round,  extended,  and  equal  in  dimensions.  The 
process,  Valluraka  should  be  resorted  to  in  cases  where 
the  severed  lobes  of  the  ears  would  be  found  to  be 
short,  circular  and  equal  in  size.  The  process,  known 
as  the  Asangima,  should  be  adopted  in  cases  where 
the  anterior  surface  of  one  of  these  severed  appendages 
would  have  a  more  elongated  shape  than  the  other. 
The  process,  known  as  the  Ganda-Karna,  consists  in 
slicing  off  a  patch  of  healthy  flesh  from  one  of  the 
regions  of  the  cheeks  and  in  adhering  it  to  one  of  the 
severed  lobes  of  the  ears  which  is  more  elongated  on 
its  anterior  side  than  the  other  (Plastic-operations).  In 
the  case  of  extremely  short  lobes,  the  flesh  should  be 
cutoff  from  both  the  cheeks  and  adhered  to  them,  the 
process  being  known  as  the  Aharyaya.  The  lobes  of  the 
ears  which  have  been  completely  severed  from  their  roots 
are  called  Pithopamas.  The  process  known  as  the 
Nirvedhima  should  be  resorted  to  in  such  cases  by 
piercing  the  two  Putrikas  (Tragus  and  Anti-tragus  of 
the  ears. 

The  process  known  as  the  Vyayojima  should  be 
made   use    of  in   cases   where   one   of   the   bifurcated 


Chap.  XVI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  145 

lobes  of  the  ear  should  be  found  to  be  dissimilar  to 
the  other  as  regards  its .  thickness  or  thinness.  The 
process  known  as  Kapata-Sandhika  consists  in  bring- 
ing about  an  adhesion,  on  the  posterior  side,  between 
one  of  the  bifurcated  lobes  and  another,  which  is 
elongated  on  the  anterior  side  of  the  ear.  The  adhesion 
is  so  called  from  the  fact  of  its  resembling  the  closing  of 
the  two  leaves  of  a  door  'Kapatam),  The  process 
knoWn  as  the  Ardha-Kapata-Sandhika  consists  in  bring- 
ing about  an  adhesion  on  the  anterior  side  between 
the  shorter  one  of  the  two  parts  of  a  bifurcated  ear- 
lobe  with  the  part,  elongated  on  the  posterior  side,  like 
a  half- closed  door. 

The  ten  aforesaid  processes  of  adhesion  may  be 
successfully  brought  about  and  their  shapes  can  be 
easily  pictured  from  the  meanings  of  their  respective 

The  remaining  five  sorts  such  as  the  Samkhiptam  etc., 
are  seldom  attended  with  success  and  hence  are  called 
impracticable  (Asadhayas'.  The  process  Samkhiptam 
has  its  scope  in  the  case  where  the  auricle  (^Shashkuli) 
has  been  withered  up  and  one  of  the  bifurcated  lobes 
is  raised,  the  other  being  reduced  and  shortened.  The 
process  of  Hina-karna  should  be  adopted  in  cases 
where  the  supporting  rim  of  the  lobe  (pinna)  has  been 
entirely  swept  away  and  its  exterior  sides  and  the  cheeks 
are  sunk  and   devoid   of  flesh.     Similarly   the  adhesive 


146  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XVI. 

process  known  as  the  Vallikarna  is  indicated  in 
cases  where  the  lobes  are  short,  thin  and  unequal. 
The  adhesion  known  as  the  Yasthi  Kama  is  indicated 
in  cases  where  the  thin  and  severed  ear-lobes  are  run 
across  with  veins  and  made  of  knotty  or  nodular  flesh. 
The  case  in  which  the  ear-lobe,  being  permeated  with 
a  little  quantity  of  blood,  is  fleshless  and  ends 
in  a  narrow  tip  or  end,  furnishes  the  occasion  for 

The  five  abovesaid  adhesions,  if  followed  by  swelling, 
inflammation,  suppuration  and  redness  of  the  affected 
part  and  found  to  be  secreting  a  sort  of  slimy  pus 
or  studded  over  with  pustular  eruptions,  may  be 
apprehended  as  not  to  be  attended  with  success. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — The  exact  middle  point  of  the  external  ear 
should  be  pierced  (with  a  knife^  and  the  severed  parts 
should  be  pulled  down  and  elongated  in  the  case  where 
both  the  parts  of  a  bifurcated  ear-lobe  would  be 
found  to  have  been  entirely  lost  or  eaten  away.  In 
the  case  where  the  posterior  one  of  the  two  bifurcated 
parts  would  be  found  to  be  longer  or  more  elongated,  the 
adhesion  should  be  effected  on  the  anterior  side  ;  whereas 
the  contrary  should  be  the  case  where  the  anterior 
one  would  appear  to  be  more  elongated.  Only  the 
remaining  one  of  the  two  bifurcated  parts  of  an  ear-lobe 
would  be  pierced,  cut  in  two  and  adhesioned  on  the  top, 

Chap.  XVI.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  147 

in  the  case  where  the  other  part  would  be  found  to 
be  gone.  A  surgeon  well-versed  in  the  knowledge  of 
surgery  ''Sh^stras  should  slice  off  a  patch  of  living 
flesh  from  the  cheek  of  a  person  devoid  of  ear-lobes 
in  a  manner  so  as  to  have  one  of  its  ends  attached 
to  its  former  seat  (cheek).  Then  the  part,  where 
the  artificial  ear-lobe  is  to  be  made,  should  be  slightly 
scarified  (with  a  knife),  and  the  living  flesh,  full  of 
blood'and  sliced  off  as  previously  directed,  should  be 
adhesioned  to  it  (so  as  to  resemble  a  natural  ear-lobe 
in  shape). 

A  surgeon,  wishing  to  effect  any  sort  of  adhesion 
other  than  those  described  before,  should  first  collect  the 
articles  enumerated  in  the  chapter  on  Preliminary 
Measures  to  Surgical  Operations,  together  with  milk, 
water,  Dh^ny^mla  (fermented  rice  boilings),  Suramanda 
(transparent  surface-part  of  wine)  and  powders  of 
earthen  vessel.  Then  the  hair  of  the  patient,  whether 
male  or  female,  should  be  gathered  and  tied  up  in  a 
knot,  and  the  patient  should  be  given  a  light  food 
(so  as  to  keep  up  his  strength  without  hampering 
his  digestion)  ;  after  which  his  friends  and  relations 
should  be  asked  to  hold  him  firm.  Then  having  ascer- 
tained the  particular  nature  of  adhesion  to  be  effected 
in  the  case,  the  smgeon  should  examine  the  local  blood 
by  incising,  excising,  scarifying  or  puncturing  the 
affected  lobes  as  found  necessary,  and  determine 
whether  the  same  is  pure   or  vitiated.    Then  having 

I_|8  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.        [  Chap.  XVI. 

washed  the  blood  with  Dhanyamla  and  tepid  water, 
if  found  vitiated  through  the  action  of  the  deranged 
(V^yu),  or  with  milk  and  cold  water  in  the  event  of 
the  same  being  contaminated  by  the  deranged  Pittam, 
or  with  Suramanda  and  warm  water  in  the  case  of  its 
being  vitiated  by  the  action  of  the  disordered 
Kapham,  the  surgeon  shall  bring  about  the  ad- 
hesion by  again  scarifying  the  affected  parts  of  the 
ear,  so  as  not  to  leave  the  adhesioned  parts  elevated 
(raised),  unequal  and  short.  Of  course  the  adhesion 
should  be  effected  with  the  blood  being  still  left  in  the 
parts  that  had  been  scraped.  Then  having  anointed 
them  with  honey  and  clarified  butter,  they  should  be 
covered  with  cotton  and  linen,  and  tied  with  strings 
of  thread,  neither  too  loose  nor  too  tight,  and  dusted 
over  with  powders  of  baked  clay.  Then  directions 
should  be  given  as  regards  the  diet  and  nursing  of 
the  patient,  who  may  be  as  well  treated  with  the 
regimen  laid  down  in  the  chapter  on  Dvi-vraniyam. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Tlie  patient  should  be  careful  not  to  disturb 
the  bandage  and  avoid  physical  exercise,  over- eating, 
sexual  intercourse,  exposure  to,  or  basking  in,  the  glare 
of  fire,  fatiguing  talk,  and  sleep  by  day.  For  three 
consecutive  days  the  ulcer  should  be  anointed  with 
unboiled  oil  ;  and  cotton  soaked  in  the  same  substance 
should  be  placed  over  it,  which  is  to  be  altered, 
each  third  day,  till  healing. 

Chap.  XVI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  14^ 

The  incidental  ulcer  should  not  be  tried  to  be 
healed  up  as  long  as  the  local  blood  (blood  in  the 
ulcer)  is  not  fully  purified  ;  or  so  long  as  there 
is  haemorrhage  from  the  seat  of  the  affection  or 
the  local  blood  continues  feeble.  An  ulcer,  adhesion- 
ed  with  the  least  of  the  Vayu-vitiated  blood 
continuing  in  its  inside,  will  spontaneously  burst  or 
break  open  afresh.  It  will  be  again  attended  with 
pain,  -burning,  redness  and  suppuration  in  the  event  of 
its  being  closed  with  a  little  quantity  of  Pitta-deranged 
blood  incarcerated  in  its  inside.  Adhesioned  even  with 
a  little  quantity  of  Kapha  fouled  blood  in  its  cavity 
an  ulcer  is  marked  by  itching  and  numbness.  An  ulcer 
adhesioned  with  the  continuance  of  an  active  haemor- 
rhage from  its  inside  is  marked  by  a  brown  or  blackish 
yellow  swelling.  An  ulcer,  adhesioned  at  a  time  when 
the  local  blood,  though  otherwise  good  or  pure,  has 
been  thinned  or  weakened  through  excessive  bleeding, 
is  followed  by  a  corresponding  emaciation  (thinness) 
of  the  adhesioned  part.  The  lobule  of  the  ear  thus 
adhesioned  should  be  gradually  pulled  down  and 
elongated  after  the  complete  healing  of  the  local  ulcer 
and  the  subsidence  of  its  concomitant  symptoms,  and 
after  the  cicatrix  has  assumed  the  colour  of  the 
skin  of  the  surrounding  part.  Otherwise  the  adhesioned 
part  may  be  characterised  by  pain,  swelling,  infla- 
mmation, burning  and  suppuration,  or  the  adhesion 
may    again    fall     off.    An    adhesioned     ear-lobe,    un- 



accompanied  by  any  of  the  distressing  or  unfavourable 
symptoms,  should  be  gradually  elongated  by  rubbing 
it  with  an  unguent  composed  of  the  milk,  fat,  and 
marrow  of  any  such  animals  and  birds  as  the  Godha,  the 
Pratudas,  the  Vishkiras,  the  Anupas,  or  the  Audakas  as 
would  be  available,  and  clarified  butter  and  the  oil  ex- 
pressed out  of  the  seeds  of  white  mustard,  boiled  with 
the  decoction  or  Kvatha  of  Arka,  Alarka,  VaU, 
AtivaU,  Anant^,  Apamarga,  Ashvagandh^,  V.idari- 
gandha,  Kshira-Shukla,  Jalashuka  and  the  drugs  form- 
ing the  group  known  as  the  Madhura,  which  should 
be  previously  prepared  and  carefully  stowed  in  a 
covered  receptacle. 

IVIetrical  texts  :— Then  the  above  medicinal 
unguent  should  be  applied  or  rubbed  over  the  lobe  of 
the  affected  ear,  whereby  all  the  disturbing  or  unfavour- 
able symptoms  would  be  subsided,  thus  favouring  its 
firm  and  steady  growth.  Similarly  a  plaster  composed 
of  Yava,  Ashvagandh^,  Yashtyahva,  and  Tila,  pasted 
together  might  be  rubbed  over  the  affected  ear-lobe  with 
advantage.  Oil  prepared  and  boiled  with  the  essence  of 
Shatavari,  and  Ashvagandh^,  or  Payasya,  Eranda,  Jivana 
and  milk  increases  the  growth  of  an  ear-lobe.  The  lobe 
of  an  ear,  which  refuses  to  grow  in  size  in  spite  of  being 
fomented  and  lubricated  as  above  indicated^  should 
be  scarified  with  slight  longitudinal  incisions  on  its 
anterior  side  (that  is  on  the  side  nearest  to  the  cheeks) 

Chap.  XVI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  I^l 

and  not  on  the  posterior  one,  as  such  a  procedure  might 
be  attended  with  dreadful  results. 

An  ear-lobe  should  not  be  tried  to  be  elongated  just 
after  the  adhesion  of  its  two  severed  parts,  inasmuch  as 
the  centre  of  the  adhesion,  still  being  raw,  might 
cause  them  to  fall  off  again.  Thus  an  ear-lobe  under 
the  circumstance  should  be  gradually  elongated,  only 
when  it  would  be  found  to  be  marked  by  the  growth  of 
hair  on  its  surface,  and  the  hole  or  the  perforation  has 
assumed  a  circular  look,  and  the  adhesion  has  become 
firmly  effected,  well-dried,  painless,  even  and  level  in  its 
entire  length. 

The  modes  of  bringing  about  an  adhesion  of  the 
two  severed  parts  of  an  e;f\-lobe  are  innumerable  ;  and 
a  skilled  and  experienced  surgeon  should  determine 
the  shape  and  nature  of  each  according  to  the  exi- 
gencies of  a  particular  case.* 

*  Additional  Text  :— O  Sushrula,  again  I  shall  deal  with  diseases 
which  affect  the  lobule  of  an  ear  under  the  circumstance  described  above 
The  deranged  bodily  Vdyu,  Pittam  and  Kaphani,  either  jointly  or  severally, 
give  rise  to  several  types  of  diseases  which  affect  the  lobule  of  an  ear.  The 
deranged  V^yu  produces  numbness  and  an  erysipelatous  swelling  and  ul- 
cer about  the  affected  ear-lobe,  while  an  erysipelatous  ulcer  in  the 
locality  accompanied  by  swelling,  burning,  suppuration,  etc.,  should  be 
ascribed  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Pittam.  Heaviness,  numbness  and 
swelling  of  the  ear-lobe  accompanied  by  constant  itching  in  the  affected 
locality  mark  the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham.  The  medical  treatment 
in  these  cases  consists  in  effecting  a  subsidence  of  the  particular  deranged 
humour  by  means  of  diaphoresis,  lubrication,  Parishekas  (medicated 
plasters)  or  blood-letting  as  the  case  may  be.  These  measures  should  be 
moderately  applied  and  a  nutritive  and  invigorating  food   should   be   pres- 

1^2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XVI. 

Rhinoplastic  operations  :  -Now  I  shall 
deal   with   the    process    of  affixing   an    artificial   nose. 

cribed  for  the  patient.  The  physician  who  is  well  familiar  with  the  actions 
of  the  deranged  bodily  humours  as  described  above,  should  be  looked  upon 
as  alone  entitled  to  take  in  hand  a  case,  which  falls  under  the  head  of  one 
of  the  preceding  types. 

Now  I  shall  enumerate  the  names  of  the  several  diseases  which  affect 
a  severed  lobe  of  the  ear  and  describe  the  sjTnptoms  which  each  of  them 
develops  in  succession.  They  are  known  as  UtpStaka,  Utputuka,  Shyava, 
Bhrisam-kanduj^ta,  Avamantha,  Sakanduka,  Akundaka,  Granthika,  J5m- 
vala,  SrAvi  and  Dihavdna.  Now  hear  me  discourse  on  the  nature  of 
medicinal  treatment  to  be  adopted  in  each  of  them. 

Remedies  : — A  plaster  composed  of  the  drugs  known  as  Apam£rga, 
Sarjarasa,  Patala  bark  and  Lakucha  bark  pasted  togather,  or  a  medicated 
oil  prepared  and  boiled  with  the  preceding  substances  should  be  applied 
in  a  case  of  the  Utpataka  type,  wherea'  a  case  of  the  Utputuka  type  would 
prove  amenable  to  a  medicinal  plaster  consisting  of  Shamp&ka,  Shigru, 
Putika,  the  fat  and  marrow  of  a  GodhS  and  the  milk  and  bile  of  a  she-deer, 
she-buffalo  or  sow,  pasted  togather  ;  ^r  to  a  medicated  unguent  com- 
posed of  the  abovesaid  substanees  duly  Lioiled  with  oil.  Similarly,  a  medi- 
cinal plaster  composed  of  the  drugs  known  as  Gauri,  Sugandhd,  ShydmS, 
Anantd,  Tanduliyakam,  or  an  oil  prepared  and  boiled  with  the  extract  of 
the  preceding  drugs,  would  prove  beneficial  in  a  case  of  the  Shyiva  type  of 
the  desease.  In  a  case  of  the  Vrisham-Sakundakam  type,  the  affected 
part  should  be  rubbed  or  lubricated  with  an  unguent  or  medicated  oil 
prepared  with  the  boiled  extract  of  PathA,  Rasanjanam,  Kshoudram,  and 
warm  Kdnjik5m.  or  a  plaster  composed  of  the  same  drugs  and  substances 
should  be  applied  over  the  diseased  locality. 

In  a  case  of  ulceration,  the  ulcerated  ear-lobe  should  be  rubbed  with  the 
oil  prepared  and  boiled  with  the  drugs  known  as  Madhukam  and  Kshira- 
kSkoli,  or  with  those  which  form  the  group  known  as  the  Jivakddi-Varga  ; 
while  in  a  case  where  Vringhanam  measures  are  to  be  adopted,  lard  pre- 
pared from  the  fat  of  a  Godhd,  boar,  or  snake  might  be  used  with  advantage. 
In  the  Avamanthaka  type  the  diseased  ear-lobe  should  be  washed  and 
covered  with  a  plaster  composed  of  the  drugs  known  as  Prapaundarikam, 
Madhukam,  Samanga  and  Dhavam,  or  rubbed  with  oil  prepared  and 
boiled  with  the  same  drugs.  Similarly,  a  case  of  Kandu-Juta  (accompanied 
with  itching)  would  yield  to  a  plaster  composed  of  the  drugs  known  as 
SahadevA,  Vishvadevd,  and  Saindhava  salt  pasted  with  goat's  milk,  or  to  the 
medicated  oil  boiled  and  prepared   with   the   same   drugs   and   substances. 

Chap.  XVI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 1;^ 

First  the  leaf  of  a  creeper,  long  and  broad  enough 
to  fully  cover  the  whole  of  the  severed  or  clipped 
off  part,  should  be  gathered  ;  and  a  patch  of  li\ing 
flesh,  equal  in  dimension  to  the  preceding  leaf,  should 
be  sliced  off  ;from  down  upward)  from  the  region 
of  the  cheek  and,  after  scarifying  it  with  a  knife, 
swiftly  adhered  to  the  severed  nose.  Then  the  cool- 
headed  physician  should  steadily  tie  it  up  with  a 
bandage  decent  to  look  at  and  perfectly  suited  to  the 
end  for  which  it  has  been  employed  (Sadhu  Vandha). 
The  physician  should  make  sure  that  the  adhesion  of 
the  severed  parts  has  been  fully  effected  and  then 
insert  two  small  pipes  into  the  nostrils  to  facilitate 
respiration,  and  to  prevent  the  adhesioned  flesh  from 
hanging  down.  After  that,  the  adhesioned  part  should 
be  dusted  with  the  powders  of  Pattanga,  Yashti- 
madhukam   and   Rasanjana   pulverised   together ;    and 

In  a  case  of  the  Granthika  type  (accompanied  by  the  formation  of  knotty 
growths  in  its  inside)  the  knotty  growths  or  glandular  formations  should 
be  first  removed,  and  che  affected  locality  should  be  bled  with  a  surgical 
instrument  and  dusted  with  powdered  Saindhava  salt.  Likewise,  in  a 
case  of  J^mvala  type,  blood-letting  should  be  resorted  to  by  scarifying 
the  seat  of  the  disease,  which  should  be  then  washed  with  a  spray  of  milk. 
The  ulcer  =^  ild  be  healed  after  the  perfect  purification  of  its  internal 
morbid  c^  Of  ts.  A  case  of  the  Srivi  (secreting)  type  would  readily 
vield  to  a  inal  plaster  composed  of  the  drugs  known  as    Madhuparni, 

snd  Mad'  ..alil,  or  of  Madhukam  pasted  with  honey,  or  to  the  medicinal  oil 
Uprepared  and  boiled  with  the  same  drugs  and  substances.  A  case  of  the 
Jahyam^na  (burning)  tj'pe  should  be  treated  with  a  plaster  composed  of 
the  drugs  known  as  the  five  Kalkas  and  Madhukam  pasted  together  and 
nixed  with  clarified  butter,  or  with  a  pasted  compound  of  the  drugs  which 
form  the  group  of  the  Jivakadi  Varga  with  a  quantity  of  clarified  butter 
added  to  it. 



the  nose  should  be  enveloped  in  Karp^sa  cotton  and 
several  times  sprinkled  over  with  the  refined  oil  of  pure 
sesamum.  Clarified  butter  should  be  given  to  the 
patient  for  drink,  and  he  should  be  anointed  with  oil  and 
treated  with  purgatives  after  the  complete  digestion 
of  the  meals  he  has  taken,  as  advised  (in  the  books  of 
medicine).  Adhesion  should  be  deemed  complete  after 
the  incidental  ulcer  had  been  perfectly  healed  up,  while 
the  nose  should  be  again  scarified  and  bandaged  in  the 
case  of  a  semi  or  partial  adhesion.  The  adhesioned 
nose  should  be  tried  to  be  elongated  where  it  would 
fall  short  of  its  natural  and  previous  length,  or  it  should 
be  surgically  restored  to  its  natural  size  in  the  case  of 
the  abnormal  growth  of  its  newly  formed  flesh.  The 
mode  of  bringing  about  the  adhesion  of  severed  lips  is 
identical  with  what  has  been  described  in  connection 
with  a  severed  nose  with  the  exception  of  the  insertion 
of  pipes.  The  physician,  who  is  well  conversant 
with  these  matters,  can  be  alone  entrusted  with  the 
medical  treatment  of  a  King. 

Thus  ends  the  sixteenth  chapter  of  the  Sutra-Sthina  n   in  the    Sushruta 

SamhitS  which  treats  of  the  Piercing  and  Bandaging  of  t    .-lobes. 


i  with 






Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  deals  with 
the  mode  of  distinguishing  between  suppurating  and  non- 
suppurating  swellings.  Ama-pakkaishaniya- 

Diseases  such  as,  Granthi  (Aneurism),  Vidradhi, 
(abscess)  and  Alaji  (inflammation  of  the  edge  of  the 
cornea)  etc.  are  ushered  in  by  a  preliminary  swelling 
which  subsequently  develops  symptoms  peculiar  to 
each  of  them.  These  diseases  differ  in  their  symptoms 
and  outward  shape.  A  swelling  which  may  appear  at 
any  part  of  the  body,  and  is  round,  elevated,  even,  or 
uneven  in  its  (surface)  is  called  a  Shotha  (swelling). 
It  restricts  itself  to  the  skin  and  flesh  of  its  locality 
and  is  characterised  by  the  several  or  concerted 
action  of  the  deranged  bodily  humours.  The  Shothas 
(swelling)  admit  of  being  divided  into  six  different 
types  according  as  they  are  caused  by  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Vayu,  Pittam,  Kapham  or  blood,  or  are  due 
to  the  concerted  action  of  the  three  fundamental 
humours  of  the  bod)'',  or  are  of  traumatic  origin. 

Now    we     shall    describe    the    symptoms    which 

maT'k   the     respective     actions   of   the   humours   in   a 

welling.    A  swelling  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 

iyu  a.'tsumes  a  reddish  or  blackish  hue  and  is   shifting 

1  its  ciiif acter.     It  feels  rough  and  soft  to  the  touch, 

1^6  THE    SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  XVII. 

and  is  marked  by  a  sort  of  aching  pain  (peculiar  to  the 
deranged  Vayu)  which  vanishes  at  intervals. 

A  swelling,  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 
Pittam,  assumes  a  yellowish  hue.  It  is  soft  and 
fluctuates  under  pressure,  and  is  marl^ed  by  an  accu- 
mulation of  blood  in  its  body.  It  swiftly  shifts  from 
one  part  of  the  body  to  another,  accompanied  by  a 
burning,  sucking  pain.  A  swelling,  brought  ^bout 
through  the  deranged  condition  of  the  Kapham,  assumes 
a  grey  or  whitish  colour.  The  skin  becomes  glossy  and 
cold,  and  the  swelling  very  slowl)'-  changes  its  original 
site,  if  it  shifts  at  all,  accompanied  b}-  pain  and  itching. 
A  swelling  engendered  through  the  concerted  action 
of  the  three  bodily  humours  successively  manifests  the 
symptoms  and  assumes  the  colours  respectively  peculiar 
to  each  of  them.  The  symptoms  which  mark  a  swelling 
due  to  the  action  of  the  vitiated  blood  are  identical  with 
those  which  are  exhibited  in  a  swelling  of  the  Pittaja 
type  with  the  exception  of  the  blackness  of  the  part 
(and  an  increase  of  heat).  A  swelling  due  to  an 
external  blow  traumatic)  manifests  symptoms  peculiar 
to'the  Pittaja  and  blood-origined  types. 

A  swelling,  which  does   not   3'ield   to  internal   and 
external  remedies  on  account  of  an  excessive  accumula 
tion  of  the   deranged   local   humours,   or   through   +' 
insufficient  or  contrary  effects  of  the   remedial   ame 
shows  sign  of  suppuration.  i  can 


Chap.  XVII.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  157 

Now  hear  me  describe  the  symptoms,  which  respec- 
tively mark  an  unsuppurated,  suppurating  or  sup- 
purated swelhng.  The  un  suppurated  or  immature  stage 
continues  as  long  as  the  skin  of  the  swelling  retains 
its  natural  hue,  marked  by  a  little  pain  and  heat  in 
its  inside,  and  coldness,  hardness  and  a  slight  elevation 
of  its  surface. 

The  suppurating  stage  gives  rise  to  a  sensation  of 
pricking  pain  in  the  affected  locality.  The  swelhng 
seems  as  if  it  is  being  pricked  with  needles,  or  bitten 
or  wandered  over  by  a  host  of  ants,  or  cut  with  a 
knife,  or  pierced  with  a  spear,  or  thrashed  with  a  club, 
or  pressed  with  the  hand,  or  scraped  round  with  fingers, 
or  burnt  with  a  fire  or  an  alkali.  The  patient  complains 
of  a  sort  of  sucking,  burning  pain  in  the  swelling  of 
a  fixed  or  shifting  character.  The  patient,  as  if  stung 
by  a  scorpion,  does  not  find  comfort  in  any  place 
or  position.  The  hue  of  the  local  skin  is  changed 
and  the  swelling  goes  on  increasing  like  an  inflated 
leather  bag  ;  and  fever,  thirst,  a  burning  sensation  and 
aversion  to  food  etc.  gradually  supervene. 

The  suppurated  stage  is  marked  by  an  amelioration 
of  the  local  pain  and  a  yellowishness  of  the  skin  over  the 
swelling,  which  cracks  and  seems  too  big,  thus  giving 
pu§  to  folds  in  the  integument.  The  swelling  exhibits 
the  uation  under  pressure  and  shows  perceptible  signs 
large  cdinution.     Moreover,   it    yields  to  pressure  and 

1^8  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XVII, 

reaches  its  former  height  when  the  pressure  is  removed. 
The  pus  or  the  suppurated  matter  changes  its  place,  or 
shifts  from  one  part  of  the  sweUing  to  another  under 
pressure  hke  water  in  a  bloated  leather  bag.  The 
distressing  symptoms  gradually  subside ;  the  patient 
again  evinces  a  desire  for  food,  and  feels  a  constant 
inclination  for  scratching  the  affected  part  which  is 
characterised  by  a  sort  of  aching  pain.  Sometimes, 
as  in  cases  of  traumatic  swelling  or  in  those  brought 
about  by  a  deranged  condition  of  the  Kapham,  the 
suppurating  process  is  restricted  to  the  deeper  tissues 
of  the  affected  part  and  hence  fail  to  exhibit  its 
characteristic  symptoms — a  fact  which  often  misleads 
a  physician  (surgeon)  as  regards  the  true  state  (lit  : — 
whether  suppurated  or  not)  of  the  accompan3'ing  swell- 
ing. But  the  knowledge  that  a  process  of  suppuration, 
occurring  in  the  deeper  tissues  of  an  affected  part,  is 
accompanied  by  alleviation  of  the  pain  and  swelling 
which  becomes  as  compact  as  a  stone  and  cold  to  the 
touch,  and  the  local  skin  resuming  its  natural  colour, 
would  unquestionably  ward  off  all  apprehensions  for 
error  of  judgment. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— A  physician  (surgeon)  who  is  fully  conversant 
with  the  symptoms  which  are  respectively  exhibited 
by  (an  inflammatory)  swelling  in  its  unsuppurated,  supT 
purating  and  suppurated  stages,  is  alone  worthy  of  the 
epithet  ;   the   rest  are  but  impostors.     Since  there  can 


Chap.  XVil.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  159 

be  no  pain  without  the  intervention  of  the  deranged 
V^yu  ;  and  no  suppuration  can  set  in  without  the 
action  of  the  deranged  Pittam  ;  nor  pus,  without  the 
action  of  the  deranged  Kapham  ;  it  is  evident  that  a 
suppurated  swelling  is  marked  b}^  the  combined  and 
simultaneous  action  of  the  three  deranged  humours  of 
the  body. 

According  to  certain  authorities,  the  deranged 
Pittam  gets  the  preponderance  over  the  local  Vayu  and 
Kapham,  and  transforms  the  blood  into  pus  out  of  its 
own  preponderant  energy. 

The  incision  or  opening  of  a  swelling  in  its  inflam- 
matory or  unsuppurated  (lit.  immature,  unripe)  stage 
is  attended  with  the  destruction  of  the  local  flesh,  liga- 
ment, bone,  vein,  or  joint,  and  is  usually  followed  by 
excessive  haemorrhage.  The  incidental  wound  becomes 
extremely  painful.  Many  distressing  symptoms  begin 
to  manifest  themselves  in  succession  and  cavities  are 
formed  inside  the  wound  which  may  lapse  into  a 
case  of  Kshata-Vidradhi  (a  type  of  ulcerated  abscess). 

On  the  other  hand,  a  fully  suppurated  swelling,  left 
unopened  for  a  long  time  out  of  fear  or  ignorance  by  the 
attending  physician,  is  attended  with  symptoms  which  are 
fraught  with  dreadful  consequences.  The  accumulated 
pus,  unable  to  find  an  outlet,  is  infiltrated  and  attacks 
the  deeper  tissues  of  the  affected  part,  and  forms 
large  cavities  or  sinuses  in  their  inside,  thus  converting 

l6o  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  XVII. 

the     disease     into   one     of    a    difficult    or  incurable 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — The  physician  (surgeon)  who  opens  an  unsup- 
purated  or  unripe  swelling  out  of  ignorance,  as  well  as 
the  man  who  neglects  a  fully  suppurated  one,  should 
be  looked  upon  as  the  vilest  Chandala  for  his  wrong 
or  incorrect  diagnosis.  The  patient  should  be  provided 
with  a  meal  before  the  surgical  operation,  or  strong 
wine  should  be  given  him,  if  he  is  found  to  be  addicted 
to  the  habit  of  taking  any.  The  effect  of  a  good  meal 
under  the  circumstance  will  be  to  keep  up  the  strength 
of  the  patient  and  to  guard  against  his  swooning  during 
the  operation,  while  the  effect  of  wine  will  be  to  make 
him  unconscious  of  the  pain.  The  rule  as  regards  the 
feeding  and  anaesthetising  (wine  giving)  of  the  patient 
should  be  strictly  adhered  to,  since  the  internal 
vital  principle  of  a  man  is  invigorated  by  the  strength 
of  his  body  which  is  the  product  of  lymph-chyle,  the 
essence  of  food,  and  the  quintessence  of  the  five 
material  principles.  A  swelling,  no  matter  whether 
limited  or  extensive,  spontaneously  runs  on  to  suppura- 
tion, if  not  medicinally  treated,  or  left  to  nature.  The 
base  of  such  a  swelling  goes  on  extending.  It  becomes 
unequally  suppurated  and  reaches  an  unequal  elevation, 
thus  affecting  the  deeper  tissues  of  the  part  and  swiftly 
running  into  one  of  an  incurable  type.  A  swelHng,  which 
does  not  yield  to  the  application  of  medicated  plasters 

Chap.  XVII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  l6l 

or  to  corrective  or  blood-letting  measures,  speedily  and 
uniformly  suppurates,  and  •  is  marked  by  a  small  and 
restricted  base  and  a  circular  or  conical  elevation.  As 
a  blazing  fire  fed  by  gusts  of  favourable  wind  soon 
consumes  a  withered  forest,  so  the  incarcerated  pus,  in 
the  absence  of  any  outlet,  attacks  and  eats  away  the 
healthy  flesh,  veins  and  nerves  of  an  organism. 

Surgical  acts  in  connection  with  an  abscess  (Shotha) 
may  be  divided  into  seven  kinds  such  as  i.  mutila- 
tion  (Vimlapanam)    of    the    swelling    by     massage, 

2.  Avashechanam  (bleeding  or  application  of  leeches) 

3.  Upanaham  (poulticing)  4.  Patanam  (opening  or 
incision;  5.  Shodhanam  (purification  of  the  internal 
morbid  matter  of  an  incised  boil  with  corrective 
medicines)  6.  Ropanam  (healing)  and  7.  Vaikritdpa- 
ham  (restoring  of  the  natural  colour  of  the  skin  to 
the  cicatrix). 

Thus  ends  the  .scvciUecnlh  Chaplei  of  ihc  Suiiaslhfinam  in  ttie 
Siisliiul;!  Sanihit^  which  lieals  ofhuw  to  (hslinguisli  Ijetween  suppurating 
and  noii-suppurating  swelhngs. 


CHAPTER     X  V 1 1 1 . 

Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  dressings  and  bandages  of  ulcers  (Vranarlepana- 

A  medicinal  plaster  should  be  regarded  as  the 
general  and  most  important  remedy  in  all  cases  of 
(inflammatory)  swelling.  We  shall  presently  discuss 
the  nature  of  plasters  to  be  used  in  each  specific  form 
of  disease.  A  bandage  plays  a  more  important  part  (than 
a  medicinal  plaster)  as  regards  its  healing  and  curative 
efficacy,  inasmuch  as  it  materially  contributes  to  the 
purification  and  healing  of  an  ulcer  and  keeps  the 
joints  steady.  A  medicinal  plaster  should  be  applied 
from  down  upward  or  in  a  direction  contrary-  to 
that  of  the  local  hair  (Pratiloma).  It  should  never 
be  applied  (so  as  to  run  down  with  the  local  hair), 
since  a  plaster,  applied  as  directed  above,  would  firmly 
stick  to  the  surface  of  the  affected  part,  and  naturally 
percolate  through  the  follicles  of  the  hair  and  the 
external  orifices  of  the  vehicles  of  perspiration 
(Sudoriferous  ducts),  thus  permeating  the  organism 
with  its  own  native  potency  and  virtue. 

A  medicinal  plaster  should  be  removed  or  replaced 
by  a  fresh  one  as  soon  as  it  has  become  dry, 
except   in  cases   where   the   purpose  of  its  application 

Chap.  XVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  l6^ 

would  be   found   to  be  the  drawing  of  pus  to  a  definite 
head  (Pidayitavya  Vrana).' 

A  dried  medicinal  plaster  will  prove  useless  or 
abortive,  and  may  act  as  a  caustic  or  corrosive  agent. 
A  medicinal  plaster  admits  of  being  grouped  under 
any  of  the  three  subheads  of  Pralepa,  Pradeha  and 
Alepana  (according  to  its  thickness  or  consistency)  etc. 

IVIeciicinal  plasters  :— A  medicinal  plaster 
of  the  Pralepa  class  is  applied  thin  and  cold,  and 
is  made  to  be  endued  with  an  absorbing  (Vishoshi) 
or  non-absorbing  Avishoshi*)  property  according  to 
the  nature  of  the  eftbct  desired. 

On  the  other  hand,  a  medicinal  plaster  of  the 
Pradeha  class  is  applied  either  thick  or  thin,  warm 
or  cold,  and  acts  as  a  non-absorbent. 

A  medicinal  plaster  of  the  Alepana  class  stands 
midway  between  a  Pralepa  and  a  Pradeha. 

Of  these,  a  plaster  of  the  Pralepana  class  is 
possessed  of  the  efficacy  of  pacifying  or  restoring  the 
deranged  blood  and  Pittam  to  their  normal  condition. 
A  plaster  of  the  Pradeha  class  pacifies  the  deranged 
Vayu  and  Kapham  and  tends  to  bring  about  the  union, 
purification,     and   healing   (of  an     ulcer),   causing  the 

*     As  in  the  case  of  a  Pidayitavya  ulcer,    described    before,    where    the 
withdrawing  or  gathering  of  pus  to  a  definite  head  is  desired. 



subsidence  of  pain  and  swelling.  Hence  it  should  be 
used  in  all  types  of  swelling  whether  ulcerated  or 

A  medicinal  plaster   (Alepanam)   applied   over   an 

ulcer  is  called   by  the   changed   epithet  of  Kalka  or 
f  ... 

Niruddha-Alepanam  (arrestive   or   astringent  plaster). 

The  function  of  such  an  Alepanam  consists  in  arresting  a 

local  haemorrhage,  in  softening  the  ulcer,  in  withdrawing 

sloughing  or  putrifying  flesh  from  its  cavity,  in  checking 

the   formation   of  pus   in    its  inside,   and  in  correcting 

the  morbid  matter   or  deranged   humours   (that   retard 

its  union  and  healing). 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — A  medicinal  plaster  of  the 
Alepanam  class  would  prove  beneficial  in  a  sweHing 
marked  by  the  absence  of  suppuration,  inasmuch  as  it 
subdues  the  characteristic  symptoms  of  each  of  the 
deranged  bodily  humours  y/2,  the  burning  sensation 
(peculiar  to  the  deranged  Pittam),  itching  (incidental 
to  the  deranged  state  of  Kapham)  and  the  aching 
pain  (which  marks  the  disorder  of  the  bodily  Vayu). 
Its  action  lies  principally  in  cleansing  the  skin,  the 
flesh  and  the  blood  of  all  morbiferous  diatheses,  in 
removing  the  burning  sensation,  and  in  alleviating 
the  piercing  pain  and  itching. 

A  physician  (surgeon)  should  use  an  Alepana  in 
(ulcerous)  diseases  appearing  about  the  anus,  or  about 
any  other  vital  part ;  Marnias)  of  the  body,  with  a  view 

Chap.  XVIII.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 5^ 

to  bring  about  the  purification  of  the  (local  deranged 
humours).  In  diseases  caused  by  a  deranged  con- 
dition of  the  Vayu,  Pittam  or  Kapham,  medicinal 
plasters  should  be  respectively  mixed  with  a  quantity 
of  clarified  butter,  measuring  a  sixth,  quarter,  and  an 
eighth  part  of  their  respective  quantities. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  thickness  of  an  Alepa- 
nam  "should  not  be  made  to  exceed  that  of  the 
newly-flayed  skin  of  a  buffalo.  Under  no  condition, 
should  a  medicinal  plaster  be  applied  at  night, 
inasmuch  as  such  a  measure  would  arrest  the  escape 
or  radiation  of  heat  from  the  swelling  in  virtue  of 
its  own  inherent  humidity,  and  thus  bring  on  an 

Metrical  Texts  : — In  diseases,  which  are 
amenable  to  the  application  of  medicinal  plasters  of 
the  Pradeha  type,  as  well  as  in  swellings  resulting 
from  the  vitiated  condition  of  blood  and  the  Pittam, 
or  in  those  which  are  of  extrinsic  origin,  or  are  due 
to  the  effect  of  a  poison  or  blow,  the  plaster  should 
be  applied  cold,  by  day.  A  plaster  should  not  be 
applied  without  removing  the  previous  one,  nor  over 
the  one  applied  on  the  day  before,  as  this  would 
increase  the  local  heat  and  aggravate  the  pain  and  the 
burning  sensation  on  account  of  its  greater  or  increased 
thickness.  A  medicinal  plaster,  previously  used,  should 
not  be  moistened  and  applied  again  ;  it  should  be  held 

l66  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap,  xvili. 

as  absolutely  ineffective  owing  to  its  virtue  having  been 
previously  used  or  soaked  in/ 

Articles  of  bandaging^ :— Now  we  shall 
enumerate  the  names  of  articles  which  are  required 
in  bandaging  ulcers.     They  are  as  follows  : — 

Kshauma  (cloth  woven  with  the  fibres  of  Atasi 
plant),  Avika  (blankets  made  of  sheeps'  wool), 
Dukulum  (loom-silk),  Kausheya  (silk),  the  Patroma 
(a  kind  of  cloth  made  of  the  fibres  of  Naga  trees, 
which  grow  in  the  provinces  of  Paundra  and  Magadha), 
the  Chinapatta  (Chinese  cloth),  Antarvalkala  (the 
inner  bark  or  fibres  of  a  tree),  Charma  iskin),  the 
Alfivu  Shakala  'the  skin  of  a  gourd),  the  Lata-Vidala 
(half  thrashed  Shyama  creepers),  string  or  cord, 
the  cream  of  milk,  Tula-phalam  (cotton  seeds)  and 
iron.  These  accessories  should  be  used  in  considera- 
tion of  the  exigencies  of  each  case  and  the  time  or  the 
season  of  the  year  in  which  it  occurs.! 

*  This  portion  of  the  text  has  been  omitted  hy  Chakrapani  in  his 
commentary  entitled  the  Bhdnutniifi. 

+  In  a  swelling  or  ulcer  caused  by  the  deranged  \'a\\x  and  Kapham, 
the  bandage  should  consist  of  a  piece  of  thick  cloth;  whereas  in  summer 
it  should  consist  of  thin  linen.  Similarly,  a  bandage,  tied  round  anv  deep 
or  hollow  part  of  the  body,  should  consist  of  a  piece  of  thick  cloth.  The 
contrary  rule  should  be  observed,  when  the  seat  of  the  bandage  would  be 
at  any  flexible  part  of  the  body. 

Similarly,  in  the  of  a  snake-bite,  a  ligature  .should  be-  firmly  tied 
above  the  punctured  wound  with  a  string  or  twisted  cord  of  cotton,  while 
a  fractured  bone  should  be  set  right  by  twisting  bunches  iif  half-thrashed 
shydmS  creeper  (LatAvidala)  round  the  seat  of  fracture.  A  local  hemorrhage 

Chap.  XVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHAN A  M.  1 67 

Bandag'es  : — The  fourteen  different  forms  of 
bandage  are  named  as  the  Kosha  (a  sheath  or  scabbard), 
the  D^ma  (a  cord  or  chaplet ,  the  Svastika  (cross),  the 
Anuvelhta  a  twist),  the  Pratoli  (a  winding  street  or 
road),  the  Mandala  (ring),  the  Sthagika  (a  betel -box), 
the  Yamaka  (double  or  twin),  the  Khatta  (a  bedstead), 
the  China  (a  streamer),  the  Vivandha  (noose),  the 
Vitana  (canopy)  the  Gophana  (cow-horn),  the  Panchangi 
(five  limbed).  Their  shapes  can  be  easil}'  inferred  from 
the  meanings  of  their  names. 

Applications  :— Out  of  these,  the  Kosha  or 
the  sheath-shaped  bandage  should  be  tied  round  the 
thumb  and  the  phalanges  of  the  fingers  ;  the  Dama  or 
chaplet-shaped  bandage,  round  the  narrow  or  unbent 
parts  of  the  body  ;  the  Svastika  or  cross  shaped,  round 
the  joints,  round  the  articulations  or  the  Marmas  known 
as  the  Kurchakas  (Navicular  ligaments)  round  the 
eye-brows,  round  the  ears  and  round  the  region  of 
the  breast.  Similarly,  the  bandage,  known  as  the  Anu- 
vellita,  should  be  used  when  the  seat  of  the  affection 
would  be  found  to  be  situated  at  the  extremities  (hands 
and  legs\  A  bandage  of  the  Protoli  class  should  be  tied 
round  the  neck   or  the   penis  ;  the   Mandalam  'ring- 

should  be  arrested  by  binding  the  part  with  milk-cream,  while  the  aflected 
part  in  a  case  of  Ardita  (facial  paralysis)  as  well  as  a  broken  tooth  should  be 
bound  with  strings  of  iron,  gold  or  silver.  Warts,  etc.  should  be  bandaged 
with  Ela  (cardamom  skins),  while  dried  ^ourd-skins  should  be  used  in 
bandaging  ulcers  on  the  head  (scalp). 

1 68  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap.  XVlil. 

shaped),  round  the  circular  parts  of  the  body  ;  the 
Sthagika  (betel-box),  round  the  glans-penis  and  the 
tips  of  the  fingers  ;  the  Yamakam,  round  the  confluent 
or  contiguous  ulcers  ;  the  Khatta  (bedstead-shaped), 
over  and  around  the  cheeks,  cheek-bones,  and  the 
parts  between  the  ears  and  the  eye-brows  ;  the  Vitdnam 
over  the  skull,  the  Gophana  (horn-shaped),  round  the 
region  of  the  chin  ;  and  the  Panchangi,  round  the  part 
lying  above  the  clavicles. 

In  short,  a  bandage  of  any  particular  shape  should 
be  tied  round  the  part  of  the  body  to  which  it  would 
be  found  to  be  most  suited.  Now  we  shall  deal  with 
the  Yantranas  (fastenings  of  bandages)  which  admit  of 
being  divided  into  three  different  classes  according  as 
they  are  fastened  above,  below,  or  obliquely  round 
an  ulcer. 

Kavalika'  (Tow)  :— Any  soft  stuffing  or  tow 
(such  as  the  leaves  or  the  bark  of  trees  of  medicinal 
virtues)  between  the  medicine  applied  over  an  ulcer 
and  the  bandaging  linen  is  called  the  Kavalika  (medi- 
cated tow).  The  tow  or  the  Kavalika  should  be 
placed  thickly  (on  the  seat  of  affection)  ;  and  then  the 
physician  (surgeon;  having  pressed  it  with  his  left 
hand  should*  place  a  piece  of  straight,   soft,   untwisted, 

*  Carefully  examining  whether  ihe  applied  remedy  had  been  unifurmly 
dislributed  over  the  diseased  surface  and  whether  tlie  contemplated 
pattern  of  bandage  would  l)e  actually  suited  to  the  case. 

Chap.  XVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  1 69 

and  unfolded  or  unshrivelled  linen  over  it,  and  then 
firmly  tie  up  the  bandage  in  a  manner  so  as  not  to 
leave  any  knot  over  the  seat  of  the  ulcer,  or  to  cause 
any  discomfort  to  the  patient. 

Introduction  of  lint  :— A  Visheshika  (lint) 
saturated  with  hone}',  clarified  butter,  and  a  medi- 
cinal paste  should  be  inserted  into  the  ulcer.  Care 
should  be  taken  not  to  introduce  the  lint  extremely 
dry,  or  oily  (oversoaked  in  a  lubricating  or  oily  medi- 
cinal preparation),  inasmuch  as  an  over-lubricated  lint 
would  give  rise  to  an  excessive  formation  of  slimy 
mucus  in  the  ulcer,  whereas,  its  parched  substitute 
would  bring  about  the  friction  and  the  consequent 
breaking  of  the  edges  of  the  ulcer,  like  one  mis- 
placed or  wrongly  inserted. 

A  bandage  should  be  tied  in  any  of  the  three 
ways  of  Gadha,  Sama  and  Shithila  fastenings 
according  to  the  shape  and  seat  of  the  ulcer.* 
A  tight  bandage  (Gadha- Vandha)  should  be  tied  round 
the  buttocks,  round  the  sides,  round  the  arm-pits,  round 
the  inguinal  regions,  round  the  breast  or  round  the 
head.  A  bandage  of  the  Sama  pattern  should  be 
fastened  round  the  ears,  round  the   extremities  (hands 

*  Additional  text  : — A  bandage,  tightly  tied  round  an  ulcerated  or 
affected  part  of  the  body  without  causing  any  pain  or  discomfort  to  the 
patient,  is  called  a  GAdha-Vandha,  while  the  one  which  is  loosely  bound  is 
called  Shithila,  the  one  neither  too  tight  nor  too  loose  being  called  a  Sama- 



and  legs),  round  the  face,  round  the  throat,  round 
the  lips,  round  the  penis,  round  the  scrotum,  round  the 
back,  round  the  belly  and  the  chest.  A  loose  bandaging 
(Shithila-Vandha)  should  be  the  rule  in  the  region  of 
the  eyes  and  locations  of  important  joints  or  unions. 

An  ulcer,  brought  about  or  characterised  b)^  the 
symptoms  of  the  deranged  Pittam  and  occurring  at  a 
place  where  a  tight  bandaging  is  indicated,  should  be 
fastened  with  one  of  the  Sama-Vandha  class,  and  with 
a  Shithila  bandage  where  one  of  the  Sama  type  would 
be  indicated  ;  whereas  it  should  not  be  bandaged  at  all 
in  the  event  of  a  loose  bandage  (Shithila-Vandha)  being 
indicated.  The  same  rule  should  be  observed  in  the 
case  of  an  ulcer  caused  through  a  diseased  or  contami- 
nated state  of  the  blood.  Similarl}'',  in  the  case  of  an  ulcer 
produced  through  a  deranged  condition  of  the  Kapha m, 
a  loose  bandaging,  otherwise  enjoined  to  be  adopted, 
should  be  substituted  for  one  of  the  same  pattern. 
A  tight  bandage  should  give  place  to  a  lighter  one 
under  the  same  circumstances,  and  such  a  procedure 
should  be  deemed  as  holding  good  even  in  the  case 
of  an  ulcer  caused  by  the  action  of  the  deranged 

In  summer  and  autumn,  the  bandage  of  an  ulcer, 
due  to  the  vitiated  blood  or  Pittam,  should  be  changed 
twice  a  day  ;  while  the  one  tied  round  an  ulcer  of  the 
deranged  Vayu  or  Kapham,  should  be  changed  on  each 

Chap.  XVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  171 

third  day  in  spring  and  Hemanta.  Similarly,  an  ulcer, 
marked  by  the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  should  be 
bandaged  twice  a  day.  "  Thou  shalt  exercise  thy  own 
discretion,  and  vary  or  adopt  the  preceding  rules  of 
bandaging  according  to  the  exigencies  of  each  case." 

A  medicated  lint  fails  to  have  any  efficacy  but 
rather  tends  to  augment  the  local  pain  and  swelling 
where  a  bandage,  enjoined  to  be  loosely  bound,  or  bound 
up  with  moderate  and  uniform  steadiness  (Sama-Vandha), 
is  replaced  by  a  tight  or  deep  fastened  one  (Gadha- 
Vandha,.  A  loose  bandage,  injudiciously  used  in  a 
case  where  a  tight  or  a  moderately  firm  bandage 
should  have  been  used,  would  cause  the  medicine  to 
fall  off  from  the  lint  and  give  rise  to  the  consequent 
friction  and  laceration  of  the  edges  of  the  ulcer. 
Similarly,  a  moderately  firm  and  steady  bandage 
(Sama-Vandha;  fastened  in  a  case  where  a  light  or  loose 
bandage  should  have  been  used,  would  fail  to  produce 
any  effect.  A  proper  bandage  would  lead  to  the 
subsidence  of  pain,  and  the  softening  of  the  edges  of 
the  ulcer,  thus  bringing  about  a  purification  of  the  local 

Evils  of  non- bandaging  :~An  ulcer, 
left  uncovered  and  untied  with  a  suitable  bandage,  is 
soon  assailed  by  gnats  and  flies.  It  is  moistened  by 
sweat  and  cold  wind,  etc.  and  stands  in  danger  of 
being   irritated   by  deposits   of  many   foreign   matters 

172  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XVIII. 

such  as>  the  particles  of  bone,  dust,  weeds,  etc. 
Moreover,  a  constant  exposure  to  heat  or  cold  brings  on 
varied  pains,  the  ulcer  develops  into  one  of  a 
malignant  type,  and  the  applied  medicinal  plasters 
are  dried,  encrusted  and  speedily  fall  off. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— A  smashed,  lacerated,  frac- 
tured, dislocated,  displaced  bone,  or  a  vein  or  a  ligament 
similarly  jeopardised,  may  be  soon  healed  or  set  right 
with  the  help  of  a  surgical  bandage.  The  patient  is 
enabled  by  such  a  means  to  lie  down,  or  stand  up  or 
move  about  with  ease.  And  an  increased  facility  of 
rest  or  movement  leads  to  speedy  healing. 

Cases  where  bandaging  is  prohibit- 
ed :  —Ulcers  should  not  be  bandaged  at  all  that  are 
due  to  the  deranged  condition  of  blood  or  Pittam, 
or  to  the  effects  of  a  blow  or  of  any  imbibed  poison, 
and  characterised  by  a  sucking,  burning  pain,  redness, 
or  suppuration,  as  well  as  those  which  are  incidental 
to  burns,  or  to  the  applications  of  actual  or  potential 
cauteries  marked  by  a  sloughing  or  phagedenic  character. 

Metrical  Texts  :— An  ulcer  due  to  a  scald  in  a 
leper  or  a  carbuncle  in  a  diabetic  patient  (Pidaka)  as 
well  as  a  fleshy  condylomata  due  to  a  bite  from  a 
venomous  rat,  or  any  other  poisonous  ulcer  should  not 
be  bandaged  at  all.     The  same  rule  should  be   observed 

*     Different  reading  :— Pricking,  burning  pain. 

Chap.  XVIII.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 73 

in  the  case  of  a  dreadful  suppuration  about  the  anus,  or 
in  that  of  a  sloughing  ulcej.  An  intelligent  physician, 
familiar  with  the  specific  features  of  ulcers,  should 
observe  the  shape  of  the  one  under  treatment,  and 
prognosticate  the  result  from  its  seat  or  locality  and 
the  nature  of  the  deranged  bodily  humours  involved 
in  the  case.  The  season  of  the  year  in  which  an  ulcer 
is  first  seen  to  appear  also  determines  the  nature  of 
the  pfognosis. 

Bandages  may  be  tied  up  either  from  above,  below, 
or  from  the  sides  of  a  diseased  locality.  Now  I  shall 
fully  describe  the  process  of  bandaging  an  ulcer.*  First 
the  Kavalika  or  tow  should  be  thickly  laid  over  the 
seat  of  the  ulcer  and  after  that  a  piece  of  soft  and 
unshrivelled  linen  should  be  placed  upon  it,  and  the 
bandage  should  be  loosely  or  tightly  tied  up  according 
to  the  directions  laid  down  before.* 

The  lint  and  the  (inserted)  medicine  should  not  be 
over-lubricated  and  must  not  be  inordinately  oily  in  as- 
much  as  such  a  lint  or  medicine  would  give  rise  to  the 
formation  of  excessive  and  abnormal  slimy  mucous  in 
the  ulcer.  On  the  other  hand,  an  extremely  dry  lint 
would  set  up  friction  and  laceration  of  the  edges  of 
the  ulcer,  like  the  one  wrongly  or   improperly   inserted 

*  Several  authorities  such  as  GayadAsa,  Brahmadeva,  etc.  hold  this 
portion  of  the  text  to  be  an  interpolation.  Both  Dallana  and  ChakrapSni 
have  included  it  within  their  commentaries  with  nearly  the  same  remark. 

174  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap,  xviii. 

into  its  cavity,  causing  numbness,  excessive  exudation 
and  unevenness  of  its  surface.  A  lint,  properly 
saturated  with  a  medicinal  plaster  and  rightly  inserted 
into  the  cavity  of  an  ulcer,  leads  to  its  speedy  healing. 
All  secreting  measures  in  connection  with  an  ulcer 
should  be  continued  or  stopped  according  to  its  condi- 
tion, whereby  the  nature  and  shape  of  the  bandage 
should  be  determined  as  well.  An  ulcer,  due  either 
to  the  deranged  condition  of  blood  or  the  Pittam, 
should  be  dressed  and  bandaged  once  a  day  which  may 
be  extended  to  a  number  of  times  in  the  case  of  an 
ulcer  brought  about  by  the  deranged  Kapham  and  Vayu. 
The  pus  or  the  local  morbid  matter  should  be  secreted 
by  pressing  the  base  or  the  bottom  of  an  ulcer  and  b}- 
gently  moving  the  hand  along  it  in  a  contrary'  direction 
(down,  upward  ;  and  all  bandages  around  joints  and 
Gudasandhis)  should  be  duly  tied  up. 

The  rules  laid  down  under  the  head  of  adhesioning 
the  parts  of  a  bifurcated  ear-lobe  would  hold  good  in  a 
case  of  severed  lips  as  well.  The  measures  amply  dis- 
cussed in  the  present  Chapter  should  be  extended  by 
means  of  inference,  analogy  and  judgment  to  apply 
mutatis  mutandis  to  the  bandaging  of  a  fractured  or 
dislocated  bone. 

An  ulcer,  properly  bandaged,  has  a  greater  chance 
of  not  being  affected  by  lying  down,  sitting  up,  or  any 
other   movement   of  the   patient,   nor  by   the   joltings 

Chap.  XVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  1 7^ 

of  a  conveyance  he  may  ride  or  be  carried  in.  An 
ulcer  affecting  a  vein  or  a  ligament  or  the  skin  (super- 
ficial) or  the  flesh  or  the  bones  cannot  be  healed 
without  bandaging  it.  An  ulcer  situated  in  any  of  the 
internal  chambers  (cavities)  of  the  bod}',  or  occurring 
at  any  junction  of  the  limbs  or  organs,  etc.  or  having 
its  seat  in  a  bone  and  whether  of  a  deep,  superficial, 
malignant,  or  corrosive  character,  cannot  be  brought  to 
a  successful  termination  without  the  lielp  of  a  bandage. 

Thus  ends  the  eighteenth  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasth^nam  in    the    Siishruta 
Samhita  which  treats  of  the  dressing  and  bandaging  of  ulcers. 

Now  we  shall  discuss  the   Chapter  which   treats   of 
the   management   or   nursing  of  a  patient  with  an  ulcer 
etc.  (Vranito-pa^saniya-madhyaryam). 

First  of  all  a  suitable  chamber  should  be  sought  and 
selected  for  a  patient,  suffering  from  an  ulcer.  It  should 
be  roomy  and  spacious  and  situated  in  a  commend- 
able site. 

IVIetrical  Text  :— Diseases,  which  are  physical, 
mental  or  traumatic  in  their  origin,  can  never  attack 
a  person  who  dwells  in  a  clean  and  spacious  chamber, 
protected  from  excessive  heat,  and  strong  gusts  of  wind. 

The  bed  should  be  spread  clean,  ample  and 
comfortable,  with  the  head  of  the  beadstead  turned 
towards  the  east,  and  provided  with  some  kind  of  a 

rVIetrical  Texts  :— In  a  spacious  and  well- 
spread  bed,  an  ulcer-patient  can  toss  about  and  move 
his  limbs  with  the  greatest  comfort.  The  reason  for 
the  head  being  turned  towards  the  east  is  that  the 
patient  may  easily  make  obeisance  to  the  (demons 
and)  celestial  spirits,  who  inhabit  that  quarter  of  the 
sky.  Thus  the  patient  shall  lie  in  comfortable  posture, 
attended  upon  by  his  sweet-talking  friends  and  relations. 

Chap.  XIX.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 77 

Metrical  Text  :— The  friends  and  relations 
of  a  patient  shall  alleviate  ,  the  pain  of  his  ulcer  with 
pleasant  and  interesting  topics,  and  by  solacing  him 
with  the  prospect  of  a  speedy  recovery.  An  ulcer- 
patient  should  not  sleep  in  the  day  time,  as  it 
tends  to  aggravate  the  pain,  swelling  and  redness 
of  the  ulcer,  increases  its  exudations,  and  gives  rise 
to  itching  and  heaviness  of  the  limbs. 

The  patient  must  carefully  protect  the  ulcer  when 
moving  any  of  his  limbs,  such  as  standing  up,  or 
sitting  down,  or  turning  on  his  sides,  or  while  moving 
about,  or  speaking  in  a  loud  voice. 

IVIetrical  Text  : — An  ulcer-patient,  even  if 
he  feels  himself  strong  and  capable,  should  avoid 
a  standing  or  sitting  posture,  as  well  as  locomotion, 
and  day-sleep.*  These  acts  done  to  excess,  or  a  long 
confinement  to  bed  would  aggravate  the  bodily  Vayu, 
thus  causing  pain  in  the  ulcer. 

He  should  studiously  avoid  the  company  and  touch 
of,  and  even  conversation  with,  women  with  whom  he 
can  legitimately  have  intercourse. 

Metrical  Text  : — The  sight  of  a  woman  etc 
might  lead  to  the  secretion   and  emission  of  semen  and 

*     Different  reading  : — Ridint;    in    a   carriage    or    on    horseback,    and 


178  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  XIX. 

give  rise  to  all  the  distressing  symptoms,  which  are 
consequent  upon  an  act  of  actual  coitus  under  the 

Prohibited  diet  :— A  diet  consisting  of 
newly  harvested  Dhan3''am,  Masha  pulse,  Sesamum_, 
Kalaya,  Kulattha,  and  Nishpaba  should  be  avoided 
by  an  ulcer-patient.  The  pot-herbs  known  as  Haritaka- 
shaka,  acid,  saline  or  pungent  substances,  treacle  and 
its  modifications,  cakes,  dried  meat,  dried  pot-herbs, 
goat's  flesh,  mutton,  meat  of  animals  which  are  amphi- 
bious in  their  habits  or  which  live  close  to  water,  lard, 
cold  water,  Krishara  (a  composition  prepared  with 
sesamum,  Masha  pulse  and  rice),  P^yasa  (a  sweetened 
preparation  of  rice,  milk  and  sugar  boiled  together), 
curd,  milk  and  whey  should  be  regarded  as  unwholesome. 

iVIctrical  Texts  :— Vegetables  and  articles 
which  belong  to  the  groups  commencing  from  the 
one  technically  known  as  the  Nava-Dhanya-Varga, 
and  ending  with  the  one  known  as  the  Takra-Varga, 
should  be  understood  as  possessed  of  the  property  of 
'  increasing  the  pus  in  an  ulcer  and  of  aggravating  the 
deranged  bodily  humours.  If  in  the  habit  of  taking 
wine,  an  ulcer-patient  will  do  well  to  avoid  the  use 
of  spirituous  liquors,  such  as  Mairaya,  Arishta,  Asava, 
Sidhu,  Sura  and  its  varieties.*    An  ulcer  may  develop 

*  The  species  of  wine  which  are  made  of  the  expressed  juice  of  grapes 
and  are  antacids  in  their  virtues,  as  well  as  those  mentioned  under  the  head 
of  Haemoptysis,  may  be  given  to  an  ulcer-patient. 



into  one  of  a  malignant  type  through  the  use  of  a 
wine  which  is  acid  in  its  taste,  or  is  sharp,  dry  and 
heat-making  in  its  potency,  or  is  followed  by 
almost  instantaneous  intoxication. 

An  ulcer-patient  should  avoid  all  things  that  retard 
the  progress  of  a  rapid  cure,  such  as  wind,  dust,  smoke, 
exposure  to  heat  and  cold,  over-eating,  unpleasant 
sounds  and  sights,  envy,  humiliation,  fear,  anger,  grief, 
scheming,  keeping  of  late  hours,  sitting  or  lying  in  an 
uneven  posture,  fasting,  garrulousness,  physical  exer- 
cise, leaping  or  a  standing  posture,  locomotion,  ex- 
posure to  cold  winds,  ingestion  of  unwholesome,  in- 
compatible or  indigestible  substances,  and  flea-bites 
on  the  affected  locality. 

IVIctrical  Texts  :— The  food,  partaken  of  by 
a  weakened  and  emaciated  ulcer-patient,  is  not  fully 
digested  owing  to  the  above  mentioned,  and  other 
multifarious  causes.  The  undigested  food  violently 
disturbs  and  aggravates  the  bodily  humours,  which  move 
about  in  the  body  and  give  rise  to  swelling,  secretion, 
burning  pain  and  suppuration  in  the  ulcer. 

An  ulcer-patient  should  always  be  clad  in  clean 
and  white  garments,  have  his  hair  and  nails  closely 
clipped  and  pared  off,  and  live  in  humble  devotion 
to  the  Br^hmans,  to  the  gods  and  the  preceptors.  The 
rites  of  benediction  and  divine  peace  should  be  done 
unto     him.     Wherefore  ?     Because  the  monsters  and 

j8o  the  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XIX. 

demons  of  mighty  prowess,  who  are  the  attendants 
of  the  gods  Pashupati,  Kuvera  and  Kum^ra,  roam 
about  in  quest  of  prey,  and  visit  the  bedside  of  an 
ulcer-patient  out  of  their  fondness  for  flesh  and  blood, 
being  attracted  thereto  by  the  smell  of  the  secreted  and 
morbid  matter  in  the  ulcer.  These  evil  spirits  come 
to  take  away  the  life  of  a  patient  in  a  case  which 
is  doomed  to  terminate  fatally,  while  in  a  successful 
case  their  advent  is  due  to  the  desire  of  extorting  sacri- 
ficial oblations  from  him. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject :  —These  honour-seeking  evil  spirits  should  be 
worshipped  and  propitiated  with  the  whole  heart  ; 
and  offerings  of  burning  incense  sticks,  edibles  and 
sacrifices,  etc.  should  be  made  to  them  with  the 
greatest  humility. 

The  evil  spirits,  worshipped  and  propitiated  as 
above,  spare  the  life  of  a  self-controlled  patient  ^out 
of  compassion '.  Hence  he  shall  be  kept  in  a  chamber 
furnished  with  flowers,  garlands,  weapons,  fried  paddy, 
and  lamps  kept  continuously  burning.  His  friends  and 
relations  should  regale  him  with  fond  and  loving 
topics  to  drive  away  the  feeling  of  sleepiness  with  the 
prospect  of  a  speedy  cure. 

Metrical  Texts  :— A  patient,  constantly 
cheered     with     the    suggested   prospects   of  a   speedy 

Chap.   XIX.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  l8l 

recovery,    and  beguiled   with    pleasant   and   congenial 
discourses,  soon  gets  rid  of  his  complaint. 

Morning  and  evening,  the  physicians  and  the  Brdh- 
mans  should  perform  the  rites  of  benediction,  over  him^ 
as  laid  down  in  the  Rik,  Yajuh,  Saman  and  the  Atharva 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — For  ten  consecutive  days, 
the  room  of  the  patient  should  be  diligently  fumigated, 
morning  and  evening,  with  the  fumes  of  mustard, 
Arishta-leaves,  clarified-butter  and  salt  made  into  a 
kind  of  incense  stick. 

Drugs  such  as  Chhatra,  Atichhatra,  Languli,  Jatil^, 
Bramhacharini,  Lakshmi,  Guh^^  Atiguha,  Shata-viryaya, 
Sahasra-viryaya  and  white  mustard  seeds  should  be 
placed  on  the  head  of  the  patient. 

Metrical  Texts  :— The  patient  should  be 
fanned  with  blowing  chowries  so  that  the  ulcer 
may  not  be  in  any  way  thrashed  or  lacerated 
during  the  fanning.  The  ulcer  should  not  be 
scratched  or  pressed.  The  patient  should  be  carefully 
watched,  while  asleep.  Demons,  that  get  abroad  in  the 
night,  fly  from  the  presence  of  an  ulcer-patient  pro- 
tected as  above,  as  herds  of  deer  fly  from  the  forest 
where  lions  are  found.  • 

Regimen  of  diet  and  conduct  :—  An 

ulcer-patient   living   on   a   diet   consisting   of  old   and 

igo  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  XIX. 

boiled  Shall  rice,  not  extremely  liquefied,  and 
treated  with  clarified-butter,  and  taken  with  the 
cooked  meat  of  animals  of  the  J^ngala  species,  soon 
gets  rid  of  his  disease.  A  diet  consisting  of  boiled  rice, 
the  pot-herbs  known  as  the  Tanduliyakam,  Jivanti, 
Sunishannaka,  V^stuka,  immatme  Mulaka,  Vartaku, 
Patola  and  K^ravella,  fried  with  Saindhava  (rock-salt) 
and  clarified-butter,  and  seasoned  with  the  expressed 
Juice  of  Dhadima  and  Amalakam,  or  of  Mudga  soup 
treated  as  above,  should  be  prescribed  for  the  patient. 
Barley  powder,  Vilepi,  Kulm^sha  and  boiled  water, 
should  be  likewise  given  to  the  patient  for  food 
and  drink.  Fatigue  or  physical  exercise  causes 
the  ulcer  to  swell,  while  the  keeping  of  late  hours 
increases  the  local  redness.  A  sleep  during  the  day 
under  the  circumstance  would  give  rise  to  pain  in  the 
affected  part,  while  a  coitus  may  bring  on  the  death 
of  the  patient. 

An  ulcer-patient,  not  given  to  sleep  in  the  day, 
and  ^ing  in  a  room  protected  from  gusts  of  wind, 
and  strictly  following  the  instructions  of  his  physician, 
(surgeon)  is  healed  in  the  course  of  a  very  short  time 
and  will  enjoy  a  long  life  through  the  observance  of 
the  abovesaid  regimen  of  diet  and  conduct.  This  is  the 
dictum  of  Dhanvantari. 

Thus  ends  the  nineteenth  Chapter  of  the  SutrasthSnam  in  the    Sushruta 
SamhitS  which  treats  of  the  nursing  or  management  of  an  ulcer-patient. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  treats  of 
the  salutary  and  non- salutary  effects  of  regimen,  etc. 
(H  ita'h  itiya-  madhyayam) . 

According  to  certain  eminent  medical  authorities,  an 
article  or  a  substance  which  is  beneficial  in  derange- 
ments of  the  bodily  Vayu  may  prove  positively  injuri- 
ous in  a  Pittaja  affection  ;  hence  it  is  impossible 
to  name  an  article  or  substance  which  is  absolutely 
or  universally  wholesome  (^irrespective  of  the  nature 
and  type  of  a  disease,  and  of  the  deranged  bodily 
humours  involved  therein}. 

But  we  cannot  subscribe  to  the  foregoing  hy- 
pothesis, since  by  nature  or  combination,  things 
(substances  are,  or  become  endued  with  properties, 
which  prove  absolutely  beneficial  or  unconditionally 
harmful  or  exert  a  mixed  virtue  (both  beneficial  and 
injurious)  according  to  the  difference  in  the  natu^  and 
type  of  the  disease  in  which  they  are  employed.  Things 
or  articles  such  as,  clarified- butter,  water,  milk  and 
boiled-rice,  etc.  may  be  denominated  as  absolutely 
beneficial  owing  to  their  congeniality  to,  or  natural 
suitableness  to  the  human  organism. 

Similarly,  substances  such  as  fire,  alkali  and  poison, 
may  be  designated  as  unconditionally  harmful  in  virtue 

184  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [Chap.  XX. 

of  their  burning,  suppurating  lit  :  boiling)  and  fatal 
effect  upon  the  organic  bodies  in  general.  A  substance, 
which  is  innocuous  by  nature,  may  prove  equally  injuri- 
ous as  any  active  poison  through  an  injudicious  or 
incompatible  combination  ;  whereas  a  substance  or  an 
article,  which  proves  beneficial  in  a  derangement  of  the 
Vayu,  ma}^  prove  otherwise  in  a  disorder  of  the  Pittam. 

Articles  or  substances  which  may  be  safel}'-  included 
within  the  food  stuffs  of  all  human  beings  are  the  mem- 
bers of  the  group  Varga)  known  as  the  red  Shali,  the 
Shastika,  the  Kanguka,  the  Mukundaka,  the  Panduka, 
the  Pitaka,  the  Pramodaka,  the  Kalaka,  the  Ashanaka, 
the  Pushpaka,  the  Karddamaka,  the  Shakunahrita,  the 
Sugandhaka,  the  Kalama,  the  Nivara,  the  Kodrava  the 
Uddalaka,  the  Shy^maka,  the  Godhuma  and  the  Venn, 
etc.,  as  well  as  the  flesh  of  the  Ena,  the  Harina  (copper 
coloured  deer),  the  Kuranga,  the  Mriga,  the  Mriga- 
matrika,  the  Shvadanstra,  the  Karala,  the  Krakara, 
the  Kapota  (pigeon),  the  Lava,  the  Tittiri,  the 
Kapinjala,  the  Varttira,  and  the  Varttika,  and  such  like 
beasts  and  birds.  The  varieties  of  pulse  which  form 
the  articles  of  human  food  are  known  as  the  Mudga, 
the  Vana-Mudga,  the  Makushtha,  the  Kalaya,  the 
Masura,  the  Mangalya,  the  Chanaka,  the  Harenu,  the 
the  Adhaki  and  the  Satina.  Similarly,  the  different 
species  of  pot-herbs,  which  may  be  safely  used  by  a  man 
to  give  a  greater  relish  to  his   food,  are  named   as  the 

Chap.  XX.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 85 

Chilli,  the  V^stuka,  the  Sunishannaka  the  Jivanti,  the 
Tanduliyaka,  and  the  Mandukaparni,  etc.  Clarified- 
butter,  the  salt  known  as  the  Saindhava,  and  the 
luscious  juice  of  the  pomegranate  and  the  Amalakam, 
should  be  generally  deemed  the  most  wholesome  articles 
of  food. 

Similarly,  the  practise  of  self-control,  residence  in  a 
room  protected  from  the  strong  gusts  of  wind,  sleeping 
only  at  night,  tepid  water,  and  moderate  physical  exercise 
should  be  regarded  as  absolutely  conducive  to  a  better 
preservation  of  health. 

We  have  already  enumerated  the  names  of  sub- 
stances which  are  absolutely  beneficial  or  uncondi- 
tionally injurious  to  human  health.  Things  which  are 
both  wholesome  and  injurious  are  those,  which,  for 
example,  may  prove  beneficial  in  a  distemper  of 
the  bodily.  Vayu  though  otherwise  in  a  Pittaj a  affec- 
tion. The  Valli  fruit,  the  Karaka,  the  Karira,  the 
Amla-phala,  the  salt,  the  Kulattha,  the  Pinyaka,  curd, 
oil,  Virohi,  cakes,  the  dried  pot-herbs,  goat's  flesh,  mutton, 
wine,  the  Jamboline  fruit,  the  Chilichima  fish,  the  flesh 
of  the  Godha,  and  the  Varaha  (wild  boar)  being  eaten 
simultaneousl)^  with  milk,  furnish  an  example  of  articles 
which  may  act  as  deadly  poisons  through  incompatible 

Metrical  Texts:— An     intelligent    physician, 
considering  the  nature  of  the  disease,  the  strength  and 

1 86  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  XX. 

temperament  of  the  patient,  and  the  state  of  his  diges- 
tion as  well  as  the  seat  of  the  affection,  the  physical 
features  of  the  country  and  the  then  prevailing  season 
of  the  year,  should  prescribe  a  diet  which  he  thinks 
the  most  proper  and  suitable  to  the  requirements  of 
the  case.  Since  the  conditions  infinitely  vary  in  the 
different  types  of  diseases  and  even  the  same  conditions 
do  not  obtain  in  one  and  the  same  type,*  physicians 
generally  prescribe  a  diet  of  their  own  selection,  one 
determined  with  regard  to  its  general  effect  on  health,  in 
preference  to  one  that  has  been  laid  down  in  books 
of  medicine. 

If  asked  to  prescribe  either  milk  or  poison  to  a 
healthy  person,  a  physician  would  naturally  prescribe 
the  former,  and  thereby,  prove  the  absolute  wholesome- 
ness  of  milk  and  unconditional  harmfulness  of  poison. 
Thus  is  verified,  Sushruta,  the  correctness  of  the  dic- 
tum, that  things  such  as  water,  etc.,  are  absolutely 
and  unconditionally  wholesome  or  otherwise,  by  virtue 
of  their  respective  natural  properties. 

Things  which  are  unwholesome 
through  combination  : — Now  I  shall  enu- 
merate the  names  of  substances  which  become  positively 
unwholesome  through  incompatible  combinations.    The 

*  The  propriety  and  improprietyof  a  particular  diet  should  be  deter- 
mined with  a  full  regard  to  the  antecedent  and  attending  circumstances 
of  a  particular  malady. 

Chap.  XX.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  1 87 

flesh  of  any  domestic  (Gramya)  or  aquatic  (Anupa) 
beast  or  bird,  as  well  as  the  flesh  of  those  which  live  in 
marshy  ground  (Audaka),  should  not  be  eaten  with 
boiled  rice  prepared  from  paddy  which  has  com- 
menced sprouting,  or  with  lard,  honey,  milk,  treacle 
or  Masha-pulse.  The  pot-herbs,,  known  as  the 
Rohini  and  the  J4tu-shaka,  should  not  be  partaken 
of  in  combination  with  milk  and  honey  ;  nor  the 
flesh  of  a  heron,  eaten  simultaneously  with  Kulm^sha 
and  the  spirituous  liquor  known  as  V^runi.  Maricha 
(black  pepper)  and  Pippalis  should  not  be  eaten  in 
combination  with  the  pot-herbs  known  as  the  Kakam^chi. 
The  pot-herbs  known  as  the  Nadima  and  Siddhi  should 
not  be  simultaneously  eaten  with  curd,  and  the  flesh  of 
a  cock.  Honey  should  not  be  taken  immediately  after 
drinking  warm  water,  nor  meat  and  bile  should 
be  simultaneouly  eaten.  Sura  (wine),  Krishara  and 
Payasa  should  not  be  taken  in  combination.  Similarly, 
Souviraka  and  sesamum  paste,  fish  and  modifications 
of  sugarcane  juice,  treacle  and  Kdkam^chi,  honey 
and  Mulakam,  treacle  and  the  flesh  of  a  wild  boar, 
or  honey  and  boar's  flesh  should  not  be  taken  in 

Similarly,  milk  and  Mulakam,  mango  fruit  and 
Jamboline  fruit  and  the  flesh  of  Godh^,  Porcupine  and 
hog  should  not  be  eaten  together.  All  fish,  specially 
those  of  the  Chilichimi  species,  should  not  be  taken  with 

1 88  I'HE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  [Chap.  XX. 

milk,  nor  the  fruit  of  a  plantain  tree  should  be  simulta- 
neously eaten  with  Tila  fruit,  milk  or  whey.  The  fruit 
known  as  Lakucha  should  not  be  taken  with  milk,  curd 
or  meat  soup,  nor  with  honey  and  clarified-butter,  nor 
immediately  before  or  after  the  drinking  of  milk. 

I  ncompatible  preparations  of  food:— 

Now  we  shall  enumerate  the  names  of  sub- 
stances, which  become  unwholesome  through  incom- 
patible preparations.  Flesh  of  pigeon  fried  with  mustard 
oil  should  not  be  eaten.  The  flesh  of  a  Kapinjala, 
Myura  (peacock,  L^va,  Tittira,  and  Godha,  boiled 
with  castor  oil  and  on  a  fire  of  the  twigs  of  castor 
plants,  should  not  be  eaten.  Clarified-butter,  kept 
in  a  vessel  of  Indian  bell  metal  for  ten  consecutive 
days,  should  be  rejected  as  unwholesome.  Honey 
should  not  be  used  in  combination  with  an  article 
or  substance  heated  by  fire,  nor  in  the  seasons  of 
spring  and  autumn.  The  pot-herbs  known  as  the 
Kakam^chi,  boiled  in  a  bowl  in  which  fish  or  ginger 
had  been  previously  boiled  or  prepared,  should  be 
rejected  as  positively  injurious. 

Similarly,  the  pot-herbs  known  as  the  Upodika 
should  not  be  eaten  by  boiling  them  with  the  levigated 
paste  of  sesamum.  The  flesh  of  a  heron  prepared 
with  hog's  lard  should  not  be  taken  with  the  pulp 
of  the  cocoanut  fruit.  The  flesh  of  a  Bhasa  bird,  roasted 
on  a  spit  over  a  charcoal  fire,  should  not  be  eaten. 



Objectionable  proportions  :— Now  we 

shall  enumerate  the  names  of  substances  which  become 
unwholesome  by  being  mixed  in  objectionable  pro- 
portions. Two  oily  substances  (such  as  oil  and 
clarified  butter)  or  honey  and  any  of  the  oily 
substances,  mixed  in  equal  proportions,  should  not  be 
taken  ;  nor  should  rain  water  be  drunk  immediately 
after  having  taken  honey  and  clarified-butter. 

Incompatible  tastes,  potencies  and 
chemical  actions  :— Now  we  shall  describe 
the  substances  enumerated  in  couples,  and  possessed  of 
different  tastes,  which  prove  incompatible  to  each 
other  through  their  respective  tastes,  potencies  and 
chemical  actions  Vipaka).  Sweet  and  acid  tastes, 
or  sweet  and  saline  tastes  should  be  deemed  incom- 
patible to  each  other  in  respect  of  their  potencies  and 
inherent  properties.  Sweet  and  acrid  tastes  are  incom- 
patible to  each  other  in  all  the  above  three  respects. 

Similarly,  sweet  and  bitter,  or  sweet  and  astringent 
things  should  be  deemed  incompatible  to  each  other  in 
respect  of  their  tastes,  and  chemical  action.  Acid  and 
sahne  things  are  incompatible  to  each  other  as  regards 
their  flavours.  Acid  and  acrid  things  are  incompatible 
as  regards  flavour  and  chemical  action.  Acid  and 
bitter,  or  acid  and  astringent  things,  are  incompatible 
to  each  other,  both  as  regards  their  respective  flavours, 
potencies,   and   digestive   or  chemical   transformations. 

IQO  THE   SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap.  XX. 

Saline  and  pungent  things  are  incompatible  to  each 
other  as  regards  their  respective  flavour  (Rasa)  and 
digestive  (chemical)  transformation. 

Similarly,  saline  and  bitter  things  or  saline  and 
astringent  things  are  incompatible  to  each  other 
in  respect  of  all  the  three  abovesaid  relations  and  cate- 
gories. Pungent  and  bitter  tastes  are  incompatible 
to  each  other  in  respect  of  flavour  and  digestive 
transformation,  whereas  substances  of  pungent  and 
astringent  or  bitter  and  astringent  tastes  are  in- 
compatible to  one  another  as  regards  their  re- 
spective potencies,  flavours  and  digestive  chemical) 
action  or  transformation. 

Degrees  of  incompatibility  :  -Sub- 
stances that  are  incompatible  with,  or  antagonistic  to,  the 
system  through  a  difference  of  degree  or  intensity,  as 
well  as  things  which  bring  about  an  extreme  dryness 
of  the  organism,  or  those  which  are  extremely  oily  in 
their  composition  or  are  characterised  by  extreme 
cold  or  warmth,  should  be  categorically  rejected. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— Things  or  substances  which  are  incompatible 
to  one  another  in  their  respective  tastes,  potencies  and 
reactionary  transformation  should  be  denied  as  abso- 
lutely unwholesome,  while  the  rest  should  be  consi- 
dered  as   possessed   of  mixed   virtues   ^wholesome    or 


Chap.  XX.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  191 

injurious  under    certain     circumstances'     as    described 

By  taking  substances  which  are  incompatible  to  one 
another  as  regards  their  tastes,  potencies  and  digestive 
transformation,  a  greed}^  and  intemperate  person 
becomes  afflicted  with  disease  and  weakness  of  the 
sense-organs,  and  ultimately  meets  with  his  doom. 

Anything,  which  being  taken  enrages  or  agitates  the 
bodily  humours  without  causing  the  assimilated  food 
( effete  matter)  to  be  evacuated  out  of  the  bowels,  or  is 
possessed  of  a  taste  contrary  to,  or  other  than  what  is 
necessary  for  the  purposes  of  vitalization,  should  be 
looked  upon  as  the  primary  source  of  all  bodily  dis- 

Diseases,  brought  about  by  a  food  or  drink  composed 
of  incompatible  substances,  are  amenable  to  the  use  of 
purgatives,  emetics,  or  pacifying  (corrective  of  the 
deranged  humours)  medicines  ;  and  such  a  diet,  even 
when  found  unavoidable,  should  be  preceded  by  the  use 
of  drugs  or  substances  potent  enough  to  neutralise  its 
baneful  effect.* 

A  meat,  in  the  composition  of  which  substances  of 
incompatible  virtues  and  potencies  largely  enter,  fails  to 
develop  any  distressing  or  harmful  symptoms  in  subjects 
who  are  habitually   addicted  to  it,  or  who  takes   it   in 

*    This  couplet  occurs  also  in  the  Charaka  Samhita. 

192  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA'.         [  Chap.  xx. 

small  quantities,  as  well  as  in  persons  of  youthful  vigor 
and  strong  iappetite,  or  in  those  who  have  become 
invigorated  by  the  use  of  oily  and  albuminous  food  and 
healthful  physical  exercise.* 

The  effects  of  the  winds  :— Now  we  shall 
describe  the  effects  of  the  winds  on  the  body,  (as  they 
blow  from  the  dfferent  quarters  of  the  heaven) . 

The  East  wind  :— The  East  wind,  which  is  cool 
and  sweet  in  its  potency,  is  heavy  and  charged  with  salt; 
it  aggravates  blood  and  Pittam  and  gives  rise  to  an  acid 
digestive  reaction.  It  specially  aggravates  the  disease 
in  a  patient  suffering  from  a  wound  or  an  ulcer,  or  from 
the  effect  of  any  poison,  and  affects  persons  of  Shleshmdla 
temperament.  It  is  highly  efficacious  to  fatigued 
persons,  as  well  as  to  those  of  a  Vatala  (nervous)  tem- 
perament, or  who  are  afflicted  with  any  sort  of  Kaphaja 
disease  ;  though  it  increases  the  slimy  secretion  in  their 
ulcers  if  there  be  any. 

The  South  wind  : — The  South  wind  is  light, 
sweet  ('produces  the  same  soothing  effect  on  the 
organism  like  a  thing  of  sweet  taste)  and  is  followed  by 
an  astringent  after-taste  (Anurasa)  being  antacid  in  its 
reaction.  It  is  the  best  of  winds,  gives  vigour  to  the 
eyes,  increases  the  strength,  and  soothes  the  blood  and 
the  Pittam  without  aggravating  the  bodily  Vayu. 

'     Different  Reading—In  a  child  or  in  a  man  of  voracious  appelitc. 

Chap.  XX.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM. 


The  West  wind  :— The  West  wind  is  pure, 
non- slimy,  dry,  rough  to  the  perception,  and  keen.  It 
absorbs  the  albumen  or  oily  principle  of  the  body.  It 
absorbs  or  dries  up  fat  and  Kapham,  produces  a 
parched  condition  in  the  body  when  exposed  to  it, 
and  speedily  diminishes  the  strength  of  a  person. 

The  North  wind  :— The  North  wind  is  cold, 
crisp,  mild,  of  a  sweet  taste  terminating  in  an  astringent 
one.  It  does  not  in  any  way  enrage  or  agitate  the 
deranged  bodily  humours.  In  healthy  subjects  it 
increases  the  strength  and  the  running  secretions  from 
the  different  orfices  of  the  body  (such  as  the  nostrils 
etc.).  It  proves  extremely  salutary  to  patients  suffering 
from  consumption,  cachexia  and  the  effects  of  poison. 

Tims    ends  the  twentieth    Ch.ipter  of  (he    .Siitiasthanrtiii  in    the.Sushiuia 
sanihila  wliich  iieals  (if  snlutarx'  and  nonsnlutai^-  efiVrts  of  the  reginien. 



Now  we  shall  discuss  the  Chapter  which  investigates 
the  nature  of  bodily  humours,  as  exciting  causes  of 
ulcers  (Vrana-prashna-madhyayam). 

The  Vayu,  Pittam  and  Shleshma  should  be  considered 
as  the  primary  and  the  most  essential  factors  in  the  con- 
stitution of  human  organism.  These  fundamental  and 
vital  humours,  occupying  respectively  the  lower,  middle, 
and  upper  parts  of  the  body,  maintain  its  integrity.  The 
human  body  is  supported  by  the  three  fundamental 
humours  in  the  same  way  as  a  dwelling  house  is 
propped  up  by  three  supporting  poles  or  stays  ;  from 
which  fact,  the  body  is  called  the  three-supported  one 
(Tristhunam)  by  certain  authorities.  A  deranged  con- 
dition of  these  three  fundamental  humours  may  bring 
about  its  dissolution  or  death,  while  on  their  con- 
tinuance in  a  normal  state  depends  the  vitality  of  the 
organism.  These  three  humours,  in  combination  with  a 
fourth,  the  principle  of  blood,  determine  the  origin, 
preservation,  and  dissolution  of  animated  organism  and 
permeate  it  with  their  respective  properties  till  the 
moment  of  death. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — There  can  be  no  organism  without  Vdyu, 
Pittam,  Kapham    and   blood,   which   are   necessary  to 

Chap.  XXI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  195 

constantly  maintain  its  integrity.  The  terms  Vata 
(Vayu),  Pittam  and  Shleshma  (Kaphami  are  respec- 
tively derived  from  the  roots  'Va',  to  move  or  smell, 
'  Tapa,'  to  burn  or  to  heat,  and  "  Shlisha,"  to  embrace, 
with  the  suffix  'Ta'  thereto  added.* 

Seats   of  the  bodily  humours :— Now 

we  shall  describe  the  locations  of  the  foregoing  vital  hu- 
mours. The  Vaj'^u  may  be  briefly  described  as  located 
in  the  regions  of  the  pelvis  (Shroni),  and  the  rectum 
(Guda  .  The  Pittam  has  its  seat  in  the  region  between 
the  stomach  1  Amashaya)  and  the  intestines  (Pakvashaya) 
which  is  above  the  pelvis  and  the  rectum  and  below 
the  umbilicus,  while  the  Kapham  is  ensconced  within 
the  cavity  of  the  stomach  (Amashaya. j 

Xow  we  shall  divide  the  locations  of  each  of  the 
vital  humours  into  five  parts  : — The  five  localities  of 
the  Vayu  will  be  described  under  the  head  of  Vata- 
Vyadhis  (nervous  diseases),  while  those  of  Pittam  are  the 
liver  and  the  spleen,  the  heart,  the  pupils  of  the  eyes, 
the  skin  and  the  intestines  (Pakvashaya\  The  Kapham 
is  located  in  the  region  of  the  breast,  the  throat,  the 
head,  the  joints  and  the  stomach  (Amashaya).  The  fore- 
going regions  are  the  seats  of  the  vital  humours  in  their 
normal  state. 

*  From  this  shiiuld  he  infenetl  that  niotion  and  sim-ll  arc  ilic  nalural 
allriljutes  of  ihe  viud  \^yu,  heal  and  ImininL;  arc  lliosc  uf  I'iUam,  and 
union  and  inlegraliun  arc  of  Kapham. 

196  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  xxi. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— The  vital  humours  ^Vayu, 
Pittam  and  Kapham  maintain  the  integrity  of  the 
animated  organism  by  creating,  assimilating  and 
diffusing  strength  in  the  same  way  as  the  moon,  the  sun, 
and  the  winds  maintain  the  integrity  of  the  terrestrial 

The  Pittam  :— Now  it  may  be  asked  whether 
the  Pittam  is  identical  with  the  elemental  fire,  or  is  it 
something  other  than  that  ?  The  question  may  be 
answered  by  stating  that  the  Pittam  is  the  same  as 
fire.  Since  such  symptoms,  as  a  burning  sensation, 
digestion  (boiling ,  and  all  other  characteristics  of  fire 
can  never  exhibit  themselves  in  the  human  body  with- 
out the  intervention  of  Pittam.  Pittam  therefore  is  called 
internal  fire.t 

Consequently,  an  enfeebled  action  of  Pittam  is  re- 
medied by  the  administration  of  drugs  and  substances 
which  are  akin  to  the  elemental  fire  in  their  attributes, 
while  an  abnormal  or  excessive  action  (secretion)  of 
Pittam  is  subdued  by  cooling  measures  as  an  over- 
kindled  fire  is  subdued  by  moisture.  There  is  no  other 
fire  (heat  making  factor)  in  the  organism  than  Pittam. 

*  The  moon  laves  the  ea.rlh  and  imparls  lo  it  the  vitaHsing  principle 
with  her  own  ambrosial  lii^ht.  The  sun  draws  off  the  moisture  in  virtue 
of  his  own  attractive  force,  and  the  Vdyu  distributes  the  heal  and  moisture 
over  its  surface. 

t  The  analogy  is  based  on  the  healing  (and  metabolic)  actions  of 
Pittam,  and  does  not  extend  to  its  liquid  secreli<jn  ,'bile).  Bui  since  the 
former  attributes    permeate  in  its  entirety,  it  is  designated  the  Inlernal  fire- 

Chap.  XXI.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  1^7 

The  Pd'Chakygni  :— By  the  ordination  of  fate 
or  necessity  (unfathomable  natural  cause \  the  Pittam, 
located  in  the  region  between  the  stomach  (Am^shaya  < 
and  the  intestines  (Pakvashaya),  helps  the  digestion 
of  the  four  kinds  of  food  such  as  drink  and  edibles 
etc.  1  partaken  of  by  a  living  subject,  and  purges  off  the 
residue  or  impure  morbiferous  matter  in  the  shape  of 
urine  and  excreta  after  the  completion  of  the  process. 
Even  thus  located,  it  keeps  up  the  temperature  in 
its  other  distant  locations  (skin,  etc.)  in  virtue  of  its 
native  heat-giving  attribute.  Hence  this  Pittam  is 
called  the  Pachakagni  (digestive  fire  or  heat)  in  an 
animated  organism. 

The  Ranjaka'gni  :— The  function  of  the 
Pittam,  which  has  its  seats  in  the  liver  and  the  spleen, 
consists  in  imparting  its  characteristic  pigment  ( Ragakrit  i 
to  the  lymph-chyle  and  is  hence  known  as  Ranjakagni 
(lit  : — dyeing  fire  or  pigment  bile.) 

The  Sa'dhaka'gni  :— The  Pittam  seated  in  the 
heart  is  denominated  as  the  Sadhakagni  (performing 
or  operating  heat  or  fire;  inasmuch  as  its  action 
is  to  bring  about  the  fruition  or  realisation  of 
one's  desires. 

The  Alochaka'gni  :— The  Pittam,  which  is 
located  in  the  pupils  of  the  eyes,  is  called  the  Alocha- 
kagni  (the  Pittam  or  fire   of  sight)  as  its   office  is  to 

igS  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XXI. 

catch  the  image   of  any   external   object  presented  to 
the  e5'es. 

The  Bhrarjaka'gni  :-The  Pittam,  which  has 
its  seat  in  the  skin,  is  called  the  Bhrajakagni  (illuminat- 
ing or  irradiating  heat)  inasmuch  as  it  absorbs  the 
substances  used  in  the  shape  of  imguents.  lubrications, 
etc.  and  irradiates  the  glow  of  one's  natural  complexion. 

IVIetrical  texts  :-The  Pittam  is  a  keen,  sharp 
and  warm  liquid,  of  a  blue  colour  (in  its  normal  state), 
or  yellowish  (in  its  deranged  condition).  It  emits  a 
kind  of  fleshy  smell  and  is  possessed  of  a  pungent  taste 
which  is  transformed  into  an  acid  one  when  deranged  or 

Seats  of  Shiesh ma'  Kapham  :— Xow  we 
shall  describe  the  locations  of  Kapham.  The  stomach 
(Amashaya),  which  is  the  seat  of  Kapham,  occupies  the 
same  position  as  regards  its  location  to  that  of  Pittam 
as  the  sun  holds  in  relation  to  that  of  the  moon.  And 
since  the  stomach  (Amashaya;  is  situated  above  the 
pancreas  (Pittashaya^-,  and  is  endowed  with  a  property 
(cooling)  contrary  to  the  primary  virtue  (heating)  of  Pit- 
tam, and,  since  the  heat  emitted  by  the  receptacle  of  Pit- 
tam is  naturally  radiated  in  an  upward  direction,  the  four 
kinds  of  food,  brought  in  to  the  stomach  (Amashaya),  are 
boiled  and  transformed  into  a  soft  placid  mass  (chyme;, 
like  rice  boiled   in   a  bowl  full  of  water  placed  over  a 

Chap.  XXI.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  1 99 

burning  oven.  The  food,  thus  brought  down  into  the 
stomach,  is  easily  moistene'd,  disintegrated  and  digested 
by  coming  into  contact  with  the  oily  secretions  of  the 
stomach  (Amdshaya). 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— The  Kapham  is  originated 
through  the  sweet,  slimy,  watery,  exudating  character 
of  the  food  brought  into  the  stomach  (Amashaya)  ; 
and  hence  the  Kapham  becomes  endued  with  similar 

The  Kledakam  :— The  Kapham,  even  though 
principally  located  in  the  stomach,  permeates  its  four 
other  distant  localities  with  its  peculiar  watery  or 
humid  essence  in  virtue  of  its  inherent  attributes. 

The  Avalamvaka  :— The  Kapham,  located  in 
the  region  of  the  chest,  protects  the  joints  of  the  arms, 
the  neck  and  the  sternum,  and  enables  the  heart  to 
perform  its  natural  functions  with  the  help  of  the 
lymph-chyle  derived  from  the  assimilated  food  and  its 
own  intrinsic  potency. 

The  Vodhakam  :— The  Kapham,  situated  in 
the  throat  and  at  the  root  of  the  palate,  lends  its  aid  to 
the  perception  of  tastes  by  maintaining  the  moist  or 
humid  character  of  the  tongue. 

The  Tarpakam  :— The  Kapham,  situated  in 
the   head,  cools  and   bathes   the  different  sense  organs 

200  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  XXi. 

with   its   own   humid   essence,   in   virtue  of  its  natural 
humid  attributes. 

The  Shimcshakam  :— The  Kapham,  situated 
in  the  joints,  keeps  them  firmly  united,  protects 
their  articulation  and  opposes  their  separation  and 

Metrical  Texts  :— The  Kapham  is  white, 
heavy,  oily,  slimy  and  cool.  In  its  normal  state,  it 
is  possessed  of  a  sweet  taste,  which  is  followed  by 
a  saline  one  in  its  reactionary  transformation  (chemical 
reaction  when  deranged  or  vitiated. 

Seats  of  blood  :— The  seats  ot  blood  are 
in  the  liver  and  the  spleen,  as  stated  before,  whence 
it  helps  its  other  receptacles  to  serve  their  proper 

Metrical  Texts  :— The  blood  is  red,  oily  or 
glossy,  a  little  warm,  and  is  possessed  of  an  attribute 
similar  to  something  of  a  sweet  taste.  It  is  heav)',  and 
it  emits  a  fleshy  smell  and  resembles  the  Pittam  in  its 
reactionary  process,  or  in  other  words,  those  factors, 
which  derange  the  Pittam,  vitiate  the  blood  as  well. 

These  are  the  locations  of  the  deranged  humours, 
which  are  respectively  accumulated  in  them  on  account 
of  the  aforesaid  causes.  The  deranged  humours  exhibit 
such  symptoms  as,  fullness  and  stuffedness  of  the  abdo- 
men, or  of  any   of  the  viscera  (due  to  the  action  of  the 

Chap.  XXI.  ]  SUTRA8THANAM.  20I 

deranged  Vayu  ;  yellowness  of  the  affected  part  (due 
to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Pittam  ,  and  diminution 
of  the  bodily  heat,  heaviness  of  the  limbs,  and  a  sense 
of  languor  .^due  to  the  action  of  the  diseased  Kapham), 
and  a  natural  repugnance  for  causes  (factors)  which 
lead  to  their  respective  aggravations  or  accumulations. 
The  medical  treatment  should  be  commenced  as  soon 
as  the  symptoms,  peculiar  to  their  accumulation,  would 
become  manifest. 

Humours  and  their  aggravations  :— 

Xow  we  shall  enumerate  the  causes  which  agitate  and 
(aggravate)  the  deranged  humours.  The  bodily  Vayu 
is  aggravated  by  such  factors  (conduct,  practices  and 
diet,  etc.)  as,  wrestling  with  a  wrestler  of  superior 
strength,  violent  gymnastic  exercises,  sexual  excesses, 
excessive  study,  a  headlong  plunge  into  water  or  a  leap 
from  an  inordinate  height,  running,  a  violent  pressing 
blow,  leaping  over  a  ditch,  a  bounding  gait,  swimming, 
keeping  of  late  hours,  carrj'ing  of  heavy  loads,  excessive 
riding,  walking  a  long  distance  and  the  partaking 
of  a  food  into  the  composition  of  which  pungent, 
astringent,  bitter,  light  or  parchifying  articles,  or  sub- 
stances of  cool  potency,  largely  enter.  Diets  consisting 
of  dried  pot-herbs,  Vallura,  Varaka,  Uddalaka,  Kara- 
dusha,  Shyamaka,  Xiv^ra,  Mudga,  Masura,  Adhaki, 
Harenu,  Kalaya,  and  Nishpava  tend   to   aggravate   the 

bodily  V^yu. 

202  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.        [  Chap.  XXI. 

Fasting,  unequal  or  irregular  meals,  over-eating, 
voluntary  suppression  of  urine,  semen,  and  tears,  or  of 
the  mucous  secretions  from  the  nose  as  in  a  fluent 
coryza,  a  forced  stoppage  of  defecation,  eructation 
or  sneezing  are  the  factors,  which  may  be  set  down 
as  the  aggravating  causes  of  the  bodily  Vayu. 

Metrical  Text  :— The  bodily  Vayu  is  naturally 
aggravated  in  a  cold,  cloudy  or  windy  day,  in  winter, 
during  the  rains,  in  the  morning  and  evening  and 
especially  at  the  close  of  digestion. 

Symptoms  of  aggravated   Pittam  :— 

The  Pittam  is  aggravated  by  anger,  grief,  fear,  fatigue, 
fasting,  acid  transformation  (reaction)  of  the  assimilated 
food,  or  deficient  gastric  digestion,  unnatural  sexual 
indulgence,  partaking  of  a  food  consisting  of  pungent, 
acid  or  saline,  keen,  heat  making  or  light  substances,  as 
well  as  of  those  whose  digestion  is  followed  by  a 
reactionary  acidity.  It  is  aggravated  by  the  use  of 
sesamum  oil,  or  of  sesamum  paste.  Kulattha,  Sarshapa, 
Atashi,  the  pot-herbs  known  as  Haritaka,  fish,  the 
flesh  of  a  Godha  or  a  goat  or  mutton  may  lead  to 
its  aggravation,  if  taken  iniudiciously. 

Similarly,  the  use  of  curd,  whey,  Kurchika,  (in- 
spissated milk),  Sauviraka,  different  kinds  of  wine, 
Amla-phala  (sour  fruits),  or  Katvara  i.curd  mixed  with 
oil)  and  excessive  exposure  to  the  sun,  may  be  followed 
by  the  same  consequences. 

Chap.  XXI.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  203 

Metrical  Texts  :— In  addition  to  all  these, 
the  Pittam  is  spontaneously  and  abnormally  aggravated 
in  summer,  in  autumn,  at  noon,  at  mid-night  and 
during  the  process  of  digestion,  as  well  as  by  the 
partaking  of  hot  or  warm  substances. 

Symptoms  of  the  deranged  Ka- 
pham  : — The  deranged  Kapham  is  aggravated  by 
sleep  in  the  day  time,  or  b}'  the  following  of  lazy  or 
sedentary  habits.  The  partaking  of  food,  composed 
of  substances  which  are  heav)',  slimy,  sweet,  acid 
or  saline  in  their  taste,  or  of  one  consisting  of  substances 
which  increase  the  mucous  secretions  from  the  fissures 
of  the  body^  ma}'  be  likewise  set  down  as  aggra- 
vating factors.  The  use  of  food  grains,  which  are 
called  the  Hayanaka,  the  Yavaka,  the  Naishadha, 
the  Itcata,  the  Masha,  the  Mahamasha,  the  Godhuma, 
the  Tilam,  or  of  rice  cakes  ma}--  lead  to  its  aggravation. 
Curd,  milk,  the  Krishara,  the  Payasha  (sweetened  rice 
porridge^  the  various  preparations  of  cane-sugar  are 
things  which  produce  the  same  result.  The  flesh  of 
beasts  and  birds  that  are  aquatic  in  their  habits  or  live 
in  swampy  lands,  as  well  as  lard,  have  the  same  effect, 
if  used  as  food.  The  use  of  bulbs  and  lotus  stems 
or  of  Kasheruka,  Shringataka,  Madhura-phala,  Valli- 
phala  as  well  as  eating  before  digestion  or  the  par- 
taking of  food  consisting  of  both  wholesome  and  un- 
wholesome substances  may  aggravate  this  bodily  humour. 

204  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XXI. 

lYIetrlcal  Texts  :— The  Kapham  is  naturally 
and  spontaneoush'  aggravated  in  the  morning  and 
evening,  in  Hemanta,  and  specially  in  Spring,  and  just 
after  a  meal.  Likewise,  it  is  aggravated  by  the  use  of 
cold  food  or  drink,  etc. 

Symptoms  of  the  aggravated 
blood: — [Owing  to  a  natural  similarity  between  blood 
and  the  Pittam,  and  through  a  natural  affinity  between 
their  attributes],  causes,  which  tend  to  aggravate  the 
deranged  Pittam,  tend  to  aggravate  or  agitate  the  blood 
as  well.  Moreover,  frequent  meals  or  repeated  use  of 
food,  into  the  composition  of  which  cool,  liquid  and 
heavy  substances  largely  enter,  are  followed  by  a  dis- 
turbed or  aggravated  condition  of  the  blood.  Sleep  in 
the  day  time,  anger,  exposure  to  the  glare  of  the  sun 
or  fire,  over- fatiguing  labour,  an  external  blow,  ingestion 
of  indigestible  or  incompatible  substances,  and  eating 
before  the  full  digestion  of  a  previous  meal,  may  as 
well  be  set  down  as  causes  which  tend  to  aggravate 

IVIetrical  Texts:— As  the  bodily  humours  are 
never  aggravated  independently  of  the  blood,  their 
aggravation  goes  together  with  a  disturbed  or  agitated 
condition  of  the  blood.  The  aggravated  condition  of  the 
humours  gives  rise  to  pain  and  moves  the  wind  A'ayu) 
in  the  bowels  ;  it  further  occasions  acid  eructations, 
thirst,  burning  sensations,   aversion   to   food,   vomiting 



and  nausea.     Any  of  these  symptoms  should  be  regard- 
ed as  the  second  occasion  which  calls  for  medical  aid. 

Expansion  of  the  deranged  hu- 
mours : — Now  we  shall  describe  the  expansion 
(Prasaram)  of  the  deranged  humours.  The  deranged 
humours,  aggravated  b}-  the  above  mentioned  causes, 
expand  and  overflow  the  limits  of  their  respective 
localities  in  the  same  manner  as,  cakes,  soaked  in 
any  ferment  or  enzyme  and  kept  standing  over 
night,  ferment  and  rise  through  the  acquisition 
of  new  and  unseen  attributes.  The  V^yu,  which 
is  possessed  of  locomotion  or  extreme  mobility,  should 
be  looked  upon  as  the  cause  of  their  expansion 
or  over-flowing.  The  Vayu,  though  an  inanimate  thing, 
in  reality  is  possessed  of  the  quality  of  "Rajas" 
(creative  or  cohesive  energ}'),  and  the  qualit}'  of  the 
Rajas  is  the  only  essential  or  motive  principle  in  the 

As  a  vast  and  mighty  expanse  of  water,  which 
has  been  divided  into  two  expanses  by  a  dam  or 
barrier,  will  sweep  away  the  latter  and  unite  again 
to  form  one  sheet  of  water  ;  so  the  deranged  humours, 
sometimes  singly,  sometimes  in  combination  with  two 
or  all  of  their  species,  or  in  unison  with  blood,  expand 
and  over-run  the  organism  in  all  directions.  As  for 
example,  the  Vayu,  the  Pittam,  the  Kapham  and 
the    blood   are   singlv    expanded,   whereas  the   bi-hu- 

2o6  THE   SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  xxi. 

moural  expansions  involve  the  simultaneous  overflow 
of  the  two  deranged  humours,  or  of  any  deranged 
humour  and  blood,  as  the  Vayu  and  Pittam,  Vayu  and 
Kapham,  Vayu  and  blood,  Pittam  and  blood,  and 
Kapham  and  blood.  The  tri-humoural  expansions, 
which  involve  the  blood  and  any  two  of  the  deranged 
and  enraged  humours,  may  be  classified  as  the  expansion, 
of  fi)  the  Vayu,  Pittam  and  blood,  {2)  the  expansion  of 
the  Vayu,  Kapham  and  blood,  (3)  the  expansion  of 
Pittam,  Kapham  and  blood,  (4)  the  expansion  of  Vayu, 
Pittam  and  Kapham,  (5,1  the  expansion  of  Pittam, 
Kapham  and  blood,  the  different  types  of  expansion 
numbering  fifteen  in   all. 

Metrical  Texts:— The  aggravated,  or  the 
abnormally  irritated  deranged  humours,  whether  per- 
meating the  whole  or  half  of  the  system  or  restricted 
to  any  particular  part  or  member  of  the  body,  give  rise 
to  disease  in  the  place  of  their  incarceration,  like  rain 
clouds  pouring  down  in  the  quarter  of  the  sky  where 
they  are  formed.  The  deranged  humours,  not  excessively 
slightly;  aggravated,  lie  inoperative  coating  the  internal 
passages  (Margas)  of  the  body  and  thus  bring  about  a 
fresh  disease,  if  subsequent!}'  agitated  by  any  disturbing 

The  deranged  and  aggravated  Vayu,  ha\ing  moved 
into  any  specific  seat  of  Pittam,  should  be  medicinally 
treated  as  a  case  of  Pittaja  aggravation.     Similarly,- the 

[Chap.  XXI.  SUTRASTHANAM.  207 

deranged  and  aggravated  Pittam,  or  Kapham,  changing 
their  respective  places  with. each  other,  should  be  medi- 
cinally treated  as  the  humour  in  whose  location  it  is 
lound.  The  Vayu,  thus  aggravated  and  expanded,  tends 
to  deviate  from  its  right  passage  and  gives  rise  to  a 
swelling  or  distention  of  the  abdomen,  accompanied  by 
a  rumbling  sound  in  the  intestines.  The  Pittam,  under 
the  similar  condition,  gives  rise  to  heat,  and  a  sort  of 
sucking,  burning  pain  in  the  affected  part,  together  with 
a  sensation  of  radiation  or  evaporation  of  heat  from  its 
surface.  The  Kapham,  under  the  circumstance,  would 
usher  in  a  complete  aversion  to  food,  inertness  of  the 
limbs,  ^•omiting  and  impaired  digestion.  The  preceding 
symptoms,  caused  by  the  aggravation  and  expansion 
of  the  bodily  humours,  should  be  the  third  occasion 
for  medical  treatment 

Stha'na-Samshrayam  :— Now  we  shall 
enumerate  the  names  of  the  peculiar  diseases,  which  are 
originated  by  the  deranged  and  expanded  humours, 
incarcerated  in  the  different  parts  of  the  body. 
These  humours,  confined  in  the  abdomen,  give  rise  to 
Gulma  abdominal  glands)  tumours,  internal  abscesses 
(Vidradhi),  abdominal  dropsy,  impaired  digestion 
in  the  bowels,  constipation  (Anaha',  cholera  fVisu- 
chikai  and  dysentery. 

Lodged  in  the  bladder,  these  humours  usher  in 
Prameha  (morbid  urethral  discharges),  Ashman  (stone  in 

2o8  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XXI. 

the  bladder),  Mutrakrichchhra  (stricture  of  the  urethra) 
and  Mutraghata  'retention  of  urine),  and  diseases 
affecting  the  renal  secretion,  etc.  Restricted  to  the 
penis  they  tend  to  bring  in  syphilis,  Xirudha-prakasha 
(phymosis  and  the  local  inflammatory  diseases 
known   as   the  Shuka-dosha,  etc. 

Similarly,  lodged  in  the  region  of  the  anus,  these 
deranged  and  expanded  humours  beget  fistula  in  ano, 
hccmorrhoids  and  polypus  growths  about  that 
locality.  Confined  in  the  region  of  the  scrotum, 
they  give  rise  to  hydrocele  and  other  types  of  scrotal 
tumours,  etc.  Restricted  to  the  region  above  the 
clavicles,  these  humours  originate  diseases  peculiar  to 
that  locality,  while  erysipelas,  cutaneous  affections 
(Kushtha .  and  other  minor  diseases  supervene,  when  they 
restrict  themselves  to  the  flesh  and  the  skin  (lymph- 
chyle)  and  blood.  Affecting  only  the  fat,  these 
humours  tend  to  originate  Granthi  (Aneurism),  Apachi 
(scrofula),  Arvuda  (tumour',  Galaganda  (goitre)  and  Alaji 
(inflammation  of  the  eye  at  the   edge    of  the  cornea.* 

Lodged  in  the  lower  extremities,  they  bring  on 
elephantisis,  Vata-Rakta  (a  kind  of  leprosy ,  Vata- 
Kantaka,  etc.  Permeating  the  whole  organism,  they 
irive  rise  to  such  diseases  as  fever,  SarAangaroga,  etc. 
which  invade  the  entire  system. 

*  Additional  text:— Reaching  down  and  confined  in  the  bone -systems  of 
ihe  body,  ihey  produce  Vidradhi  (abscesses),  Anushayi,  cte. 

Chap.  XXI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  209 

The  aggravated  and  expanded  humours,  thus  firmly 
ensconced  in  the  different  parts  of  the  body,  exhibit 
the  premonitor}''  symptoms  of  diseases  which  will  be 
fully  dealt  with  under  their  respective  heads.  The 
manifestation  of  these  premonitory  symptoms  should 
be  considered  as  the  fourth  occasion  for  medical 

Disease- Its     Development  :— Now    we 

shall  deal  with  the  full  development  or  manifestation 
of  a  disease.  The  full  manifestation  of  a  disease,  such  as  a 
swelling,  tumour,  aneurism  (Granthi),  Vidradhi  (abscess) 
and  erysipelas  (Visarpa)  etc.,  fever  or  dysentery,  signifies 
the  complete  development  of  the  characteristic  symp- 
toms, which  should  be  regarded  as  the  fifth  occasion  for 
medical  treatment. 

The  sixth  occasion  for  the  calling  in  of  medical  aid 
should  be  considered  to  have  arisen  when  a  swelling 
(abscess,  tumour,  etc.)  would  burst  and  exhibit  the  charac- 
teristic symptoms  of  an  open  ulcer.  A  persistent 
lingering  or  continuance  of  a  fever  or  dysentery,  etc., 
should  be  considered  as  marking,  or  forming  one  of  its 
particular  stages,  and  which  may  run  into  one  of  an 
incurable  type,  if  neglected  or  not  sufficiently  cared  for 
at  the  outset. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  subject:— 

The  physician,  who  fully   knows   about   the  accumula- 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XXI. 

tion  (Sanchaya),  disturbance  or  aggravation  rPrakopa}, 
expansion  ( Prasaram),  and  differentiating  traits  of  the 
deranged  humours  (Bheda),  and  is  well  conversant  with 
the  specific  localities  in  which  they  are  respectively 
confined  in  the  course  of  their  expansion  (Sthana- 
samshrayam),  and  with  the  symptoms  which  they  respec- 
tively  exhibit  in  connection  with  the  incidental  disease 
(Vyakti),  is  alone  worthy  of  that  epithet. 

The  deranged  humours,  checked  or  subdued  in  their 
accumulating  stage,  fail  to  exhibit  any  further  or  subse- 
quent development,  but,  if  left  unremedied,  they  gain 
in  strength  and  intensity  in  the  course  of  their  further 
development.  The  humours,  deranged  either  singly,  or  in 
couples,  or  in  a  triple  combination  as  regards  one  or  two 
of  their  virtues,  push  on,  follow  and  blend  with  humours 
similarly  deranged  as  regards  their  qualities  and  com- 
binative numbers. 

The  medical  treatment  in  a  case,  where  two  or  all 
(three)  of  the  deranged  humours  are  involved,  consists 
in  conquering  the  strongest  one  in  the  combination,  but 
so  as  not  to  enrage  or  aggravate  the  minor  or  the  weaker 
humours  in  the  group  and  specially  so  in  a  case  of 

*  THl- cuniliinaiinii  nfany  iwnot  ihc  IkkIIIv  liuiiKiuis  wiih  the  viiiaied 
hlond  niav  liki'wisf  Uc  iiiicrpiL-tL-d  in  signify  a  SAnnip^tika  (tiihuninuial) 

Chap.  XXI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  211 

A  concourse  of  deranged  humours,  affecting  and  ap- 
pearing in  a  particular  part  of  the  body,  is  called  a  boil 
or  an  ulcer  (Vrana)  which  "is  derived  from  the  root 
"Vri"  to  cover  and  is  so  called  from  the  fact  of  its 
covering  a  particular  part  of  the  body  or  from  its 
leaving  a  cicatrix  which  remains  the  whole  life-time 
of  the  patient. 

Thus  ends  ihe  l\vcnl\-Hisl  chapter  uf  the  Sulraslh^nam  in  the  Sushnila 
Samhili  which  treats  of  investigation  into  the  nature  ol  the  humours  giving 
rise  to  an  ulcer. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  chapter,  which 
treats     of     secretions     from      boils      or      ulcers      of 

different    types.    (Vranasra'va-Vijna'niaya- 

A  boil  or  an  ulcer  has  its  seat  generally  in  one  of 
the  eight  following  components  or  principles  of  the 
body  such  as,  the  bone,  the  skin,  the  flesh,  the  veins, 
the  ligaments,  the  joints,  the  viscera  and  the  Marmas 
(vital  parts  of  the  body).  A  boil  or  an  ulcer  of  any 
type  may  crop  up  or  appear  in  any  one  of  the  above 
mentioned  localities. 

A  boil  or  an  ulcer,  which  is  confined  onl)'  to  the 
skin,  readily  yields  to  medical  treatment,  while  the 
remaining  types,  as  well  as  those,  which  spontaneoush' 
suppurate  and  bursty  are  hard  to  cure.  A  boil  or  an 
ulcer  usually  assumes  a  shape  which  is  either  diffused^ 
rectangular,  spheroidal  or  triangular ;  while  those, 
which  are  irregular  or  indefinite  in  shape,  (or  have  forms 
other  than  the  preceding  ones  ,  should  be  looked  upon 
as  belonging  to  types  which  can  be  cured  only  with 
the  utmost  difficulty.  Any  Vrana  (burst  or  incised 
abscess)  in  a  patient,  who  observes  a  strict  regimen,  and 
who,  from  the  outset,  is  placed  under  the  medical  treat- 
ment of  an  experienced  physician  (surgeon),  will  be 
speedily  healed  ;   while  an  ulcer,   affecting  a   person    of 

Chap.  XXII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  213 

irregular  habits  and  treated  by  a  quack  or  an  ignorant 
physician,  will  dcNelop  into  one  of  a  malignant  type, 
which  can  be  healed  only  with  the  greatest  difficulty, 
on  account  of  it  becoming  aggravated  b}'  the  deranged 
bodily  humours  involved  therein. 

Symptoms  of  Dushta-Vranas  :— Malig- 
nant ulcers  (Dushta  Vranas)  are  known  by  the  following 
indications  : — They  are  either  too  narrow  or  too  wide- 
mouthed.  They  feel  either  extremely  hard  or  soft  to  the 
touch  and  present  either  a  raised  elevated  or  a  de- 
pressed aspect.  They  are  of  either  a  black  or  red,  yellow 
or  white  colour,  and  are  characterised  by  extremes 
of  temperature.  Exhibiting  strange  and  unusual  fea- 
tures, they  are  checkered  with  networks  of  veins, 
hgaments,  etc.,  and  are  filled  with  putrid  and  sloughing 
flesh  and  fetid  pus.  Indefinite  and  irregular  in  shape, 
they  are  found  to  exude  a  sort  of  dirty,  fetid  pus, 
which  runs  into  fissures  and  cavities,  following  an 
oblique  or  upward  course.  They  have  a  cadaverous 
look  and  smell  and  are  characterised  by  extreme  pain 
and  burning  sensation,  attended  with  swelling,  redness, 
itching  and  suppuration.  Pustules  crop  up  round  these 
ulcers,  which  largely  secrete  vitiated  blood,  and  linger 
unhealed  for  an  inordinate  length  of  time. 

These  ulcers  may  be  divided  into  six  classes  [accord- 
ing as,  they  are  severally  caused  by  the  deranged 
bodily  humours   fVayu,   Pittam   and   Kapham),   or  are 

214  ^^^  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XXli. 

due  to  their  concerted  action  '^Sannip^ta),  or  to  the 
effects  of  a  blow  (traumatic)  or  to  vitiated  blood.], 
and  should  be  medically  treated  according  to  the  nature 
of  their  respective  exciting  factors. 

Secretions  from  ulcers  :— Now  we  shall 
describe  the  characteristic  secretions  from  all  types  of 
ulcers.  Secretions  from  a  contused  or  lacerated  skin, 
as  well  as  from  an  ulcer  confined  only  to  it),  whether 
spontaneously  bursting  or  surgically  opened,  are  thin 
and  watery  in  their  consistency.  They  are  character- 
ised by  a  raw  (fleshy)  smell  and  a  yellowish  colour. 
An  ulcer,  affecting  the  flesh,  exudes  a  slimy,  thick  and 
white  secretion  like  clarified-butter.  A  copious  quantity 
of  blood  flows  out  of  a  vein  recently  cut,  while  the 
incidental  ulcer,  in  its  suppurating  stage,  secretes  a 
copious  secretion,  like  water  flowing  out  of  a  hydrant, 
which  is  moreover  detached,  thin,  pendent  (ropy), 
and  slimy  in  its  character  and  has  a  brown  or  frosty 
hue.  An  ulcer,  confined  only  to  a  ligament,  secretes 
a  sort  of  cold  and  thick  secretion,  like  expectorated 
mucous,  though  sometimes  marked  with  streaks  of 

A  bone,  mjured,  tractured,  or  suddenly  cracked  by 
idiopathic  causes  (derangement  of  the  bodily  humours), 
loses  its  internal  marrow  and  appears  as  if  washed  (loses 
its  natural  gloss\  It  assumes  the  colour  of  an  oyster  shell, 
whereas  the  secretions  from  an  ulcer,  which  is  seated  in 

Chap.  XXII.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  215 

a  bone,  are  cold  and  marked  b}^  streaks  of  Mood  and 
lumps  of  marrow.  An  ulcer, 'situated  in  an}'  of  the  bone- 
joints,  does  not  exude  any  secretion  under  pressure, 
but  secretes  a  sort  of  slimy,  pendent,  frothy  and  blood- 
streaked  pus,  when  the  affected  limb  or  part  is  flexed, 
expanded,  raised  or  lowered,  as  in  running  (moving 
about),  sitting  or  standing  erect,  or  at  defecation. 

An  ulcer,  seated  in  the  abdominal  cavity  (Koshtha), 
exudes  a  secretion,  which  is  mixed  with  urine,  fecal 
matter,  pus  or  blood,  and  a  thin  or  watery  (serous) 
fluid.  The  secretions  from  an  ulcer,  affecting  any  vital 
part  of  the  body,  need  not  be  separately  described,  as 
such  a  part  naturally  involves  the  organic  principles  of 
skin,  flesh,  etc.  ;  and  hence  an  ulcer,  invading  it,  must 
necessarily  exude  a  secretion,  which  is  peculiar  to  any 
of  the  aforesaid  bodily  principles  (skin,  flesh,  etc.)  that 
has  become  affected. 

The  deranged  V^yu  makes  the  secretions  from  an 
ulcer,  seated  in  an}^  of  the  seven  abovesaid  principles 
such  as,  the  skin,  flesh,  veins,  ligaments,  bones,  joints 
and  the  abdomen,  respectively  coarse,  and  rough  to 
the  touch,  brown,  grey,  frosty,  or  white  like  the  cream 
of  curd,  and  coloured  like  the  washings  of  an  alkali,  like 
that  of  meat  or  paddy  husks.  Similarly,  the  action  of 
the  deranged  Pittam  should  be  inferred  from  the  secre- 
tions assuming  the  colours  of  a  Gomedha  (a  species 
of   bluish     yellow     agate;,   or  that    of    the     urine   of 

2,6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap.  XXII. 

a  cow,  or  that  of  water  saturated  with  the  burnt  ashes 
of  conch-shells  or  that  of  Kashaya  water  or  that 
of  the  wine  known  as  the  Madhvika  or  that  of  oil, 
according  as  the  skin,  flesh,  etc.  are  respectiveh^  affected. 
The  action  of  the  deranged  blood,  in  changing  the 
nature  of  the  secretions  of  ulcers  in  the  seven  above- 
sajd  locations,  is  identical  with  that  of  the  deranged 
Pittam  with  the  exception,  that  the  secretions  are 
characterised  by  an  extremel}''  fishy  smell. 

In  an  epidermic  (confined  onl}'  to  the  epidermis 
of  a  part)  or  superficial  ulcer  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Kapham  manifests  itself  by  imparting  a 
butter-like  or  a  Kasisha  (sulphate  of  iron)  colour 
to  the  secretions.  They  have  lard-like  hue  or  a 
colour  like  that  of  rice  paste,  or  that  of  water  tinged 
with  sesamum,  or  a  colour  like  that  of  the  internal 
juice  or  water  of  a  cocoanut,  or  a  colour  like  that  of 
hog's  lard,  according  as  the  flesh,  a  vein,  a  ligament, 
a  bone  or  a  joint  is  attacked.  On  the  other  hand, 
through  the  combined  action  of  all  the  three  deranged 
humours  of  the  body  (Sannipata),  those  secretions 
become  coloured  like  the  water  tinged  with  the 
soakings  of  sesamum  seeds,  or  the  internal  sap  or 
water  of  a  cocoanut,  or  the  juice  of  the  Ervaruka  or  the 
transparent  surface  layer  of  rice  gruel,  or  the  washings 
of  the  Aruka  fruit,  or  the  water  tinged  with  the  fruits 
of  the   Priy^ngu,  or  like   the  liver  or  the   Mudga  pulse. 

Chap.  XXII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  217 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — An  ulcer,  situated  in  the  cavity  of  the  ab- 
domen and  secreting  an  exudation  resembling  paddy 
husks  in  colour,  as  well  as  one  located  in  the  viscera 
of  blood  (spleen  or  liver — Raktasha^'am)  and  exuding 
a  secretion  like  alkaline  water,  should  be  deemed 
incurable.  Similarh',  an  ulcer  having  its  seat  in  the 
cavity  of  the  stomach  (Amashaya),  or  in  the  region 
of  the  Trika,  (articulation  of  the  clavicle  with  the 
intraclavicular  notch)  and  exuding  a  thin,  watery 
secretion,  coloured  like  the  washings  of  Kalaya  pulse, 
should  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  the  same  type 
(incurable).  A  physician  should  only  take  in  hand  the 
treatment  of  an  ulcer-patient  after  having  examined 
the  abovesaid  nature  of  the  discharges. 

Pain  and  its  character  :-  Now  we  shall 
describe  all  the  different  kinds  of  pain,  which  are 
experienced  in  the  several  types  of  Vrana  (ulcers) 
described  before. 

Vartaja  pain  : — Pains  of  pricking,  piercing, 
thrashing,  cutting,  expanding,  gnawing,  churning,  shoot- 
ing, tingling,  burning,  breaking,  bursting,  pinching, 
uprooting,  uplifting,  quivering,  aching  of  different 
types,  shifting,  stuffing,  benumbing,  indurating,  contract- 
ing, and  pains  of  a  spasmodic  character  are  usually 
felt  in  ulcers.     A   pain,  which   comes   on    or   vanishes 

without   any  apparent  cause,  or   is  varied   and   shifting 

2i8  'I'HE  SUSHKUTA  SAMHITA.      f  Chap.  XXII. 

in    its   character,  should    be     ascribed    to   the   effects 
of  the   deranged  Vayu. 

Pittaja  pain  : — A  sensation  of  burning  is  felt  in 
the  ulcer  accompanied  by  a  sort  of  sucking  pain.  A 
feeling  of  inhaling  heat  or  vapour,  and  a  burning  sensa- 
tion running  through  the  whole  body,  should  be  looked 
upon  as  the  resultant  of  the  deranged  Pittam.  At 
the  same  time  the  body  seems  as  if  it  had  been 
strewn  over  with  bits  of  glowing  charcoal.  The 
heat  or  (the  temperature  of  the  affected  locality) 
shows  a  steady  rise,  and  a  pain  like  the  one 
incidental  to  the  application  of  alkaline  water  (caustic 
solution   is  experienced  in  the  ulcer. 

Raktaja  pain  : — The  pain  and  other  specific 
features  of  an  ulcer  due  to  the  vitiated  condition 
of  the  blood  are  identical  with  those  developed  by 
one  of  the  Pittaja  type. 

Kaphaja  pain  : — An  ulcer,  characterised  by 
numbness,  heaviness,  coldness,  itching  and  a  slight  pain 
in  the  affected  part,  and  which  seems  as  if  it  has  been 
plastered  over  with  a  paste,  and  which  proves  insensible 
to  touch,  should  be  ascribed  to  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Kapham. 

Sannipai:ika  pain  -.—The  symptoms,  de- 
scribed under  the  head  of  each  of  the  preceding 
humoural     types     of    ulcer,     simultaneously     exhibit 

Chap.  XXII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  219 

themselves  in  the  one  brought  about  by  the   concerted 
action  of  all   the  deranged  ^  humours    1  Sannipatikam). 

Colours  of  Vranas  : — Now  we  shall  de- 
cribe  the  colours  assumed  by  the  several  types 
of  ulcers.  An  ulcer,  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 
\'ayu,  is  rough  and  black,  red,  or  ash- coloured,  or 
is  of  the  colour  of  a  bone,  or  a  pigeon.  An  ulcer,  caused 
by  the  action  of  the  deranged  blood  or  Pittam, 
is  coloured  either  blue,  yellow,  greenish-brown,  black, 
reddish-tawny  or  flame-coloured.  An  ulcer  due  to 
the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham  is  white,  grey 
and  gloss)'.  An  ulcer,  due  to  the  combined  action 
of  the  three  deranged  bodily  humours,  may  assume  any 
colour  peculiar  to  them. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Not  only  in  the  cases  of  Vrana,  but  in  all 
(inflammatory)  swellings  of  whatsoever  type,  the 
physician  should  carefully  observe  the  nature  of  the 
local  pain,  and  the  colour  of  the  epidermis. 

Thus    ends    the    t\vcnl_\--second    Chaplcr    of    the    SulraslliAnam    in     llic 
SushruUi  Sanihila  which  Heats  of  secretion  from  different  types  of  ulcers. 


Now  we  shall  discuss  the  chapter  which  deals 
with  the  Prognosis  of  an  ulcer  (Kritya'kritya- 

A  boil  or  an  ulcer  appearing  in  a  patient  who  is 
young,  muscular  (in  frame\  strong,  or  is  possessed  of  an 
indomitable  courage  and  fortitude,  proves  readily  amen- 
able to  healing  measures  and  applications  ;  how  much 
more  so  when  one  appears  in  a  patient  in  whom  all 
these  four  conditions  simultaneously  obtain. 

An  ulcer  in  a  young  patient  is  speedily  healed 
owing  to  the  fresh  and  vigorous  vitalizing  principles 
of  the  body  ;  whereas  the  one,  which  appears  in  a  person 
of  strong  and  muscular  build,  finds  a  speedy  and  success- 
ful termination  owing  to  the  inability  of  the  incising 
instrument  to  cut  deep  into  the  hard  and  tough  muscles 
of  the  affected  part  and  to  reach  down,  or  in  any  way 
destro}"  the  underl3nng  veins  and  nerves,  etc.  A  strong 
and  vigorous  patient  can  easily  endure  a  considerable 
amount  of  burning  pain,  etc.  and  does  not  feel  distressed 
b)'  a  strict  regimen  of  diet.  A  man  of  stupendous 
endurance  and  fortitude  can  sustain  the  fatigue  and 
worry  of  even  the  most  painful  surgical  operation. 
Accordingly,  a  boil  or  an  ulcer,  appearing  in  a  patient  of 
the  above  said  description,  is  easily  and  speedil)'  healed  ; 

Chap.  XXIII.  1  SUTRASTHANAM.  221 

whereas  the  one,  which  affects  either  an  old,  emaciated, 
or  timid  person  or  one  of  small  strength  and  endurance, 
takes  time  to  heal. 

Boils  or  ulcers,  which  appear  in  the  regions  of  the 
buttocks  (Sphik),  or  about  the  anus,  and  the  organs  of 
of  generation,  or  on  the  back,  forehead,  cheek,  or 
lips,  or  in  the  region  of  the  external  ears,  or  on 
the  testes  or  the  abdomen,  or  in  the  cavity  of  the 
mouth,  or  about  the  nape  of  the  neck,  or  above 
the  clavicles,  can  be  easily  healed.  Those,  that  are 
seated  in  the  eyes,  or  in  the  gums,  the  nostrils  or  the 
exterior  angle  of  the  e3^e,  or  in  the  cavity  of  the  ears, 
abdomen  or  the  umbilicus,  or  about  any  suture  of  the 
body,  hips,  ribs,  arm-pits,  chest,  breasts,  sides,  or  the 
joints,  as  well  as  those,  that  secrete  frothy  blood  or  pus 
with  a  gurgling  sound,  or  contain  any  foreign  matter  em- 
bedded in  their  inside,  are  healed  only  with  the  greatest 

Similarl}^  an  abscess  or  an  ulcer  appearing  in  the 
nether  region  of  the  body  and  pointing  upward,  or 
the  one  appearing  on  the  extremity  of  scalp  (Romanta) 
or  about  the  end  of  a  finger-nail,  or  in  an)"  of  the 
vulnerable  parts  of  the  body,  as  well  as  the  one 
affecting  either  of  the  thigh  bones  (femurs),  should  be 
looked  upon  as  equally  hard  to  cure.  Likewise  an 
abscess  or  an  ulcer  affecting  a  bone  of  the  pelvis 
'Shronikanda- Acetabulum),      as    well      as     a      fistula 

222  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap,  xxill. 

in   ano   opening   inward   should   be   regarded   as   hard 
to  cure. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — An  ulcer  (Vrana)  appearing  in  a  leper  (Kushthi 
or  in  a  person  suffering  from  diabetes  iMadhu- 
meha  ,  or  from  Shosha  (lit  :  pulmonary- consumption) 
or  from  the  effects  of  poison,  as  well  as  the  one 
appearing  in  a  pre-existing  ulcer,  should  be  looked  upon 
as  curable  only  with  the  greatest  difficulty. 

Ya'pya  ulcers  :--An  ulcer  incidental  to,  and 
affecting  the  seat  of  any  of  the  following  diseases, 
viz.  Avap^thika  (  paraphimosis  ,  or  Niruddha-Prakash 
(phimosis),  or  Sanniruddha-guda  (constriction  of 
the  anus),  or  Jathara  abdominal-dropsy),  or  Granthi 
(glandular  inflammation),  and  characterised  by  the 
germination  of  parasites  in  its  interior,  as  well  as 
the  one  appearing  in  the  cavity  of  the  abdomen _,  or 
affecting  the  mucous  linings  of  the  intestines,  or  brought 
about  by  the  corrosi>'e  secretions  of  a  nasal  catarrh 
(Pratishyaya),  and  infested  with  parasites,  should  be 
considered  as  onh-  admitting  of  a  palliative  treatment. 
Similarly  palliation  is  the  only  remedy  in  the  case  of 
an  ulcer  which  appears  in  a  patient  suffering  from  any 
morbid  secretion  from  the  urethra  (Prameha)  or  from 
any  form  of  cutaneous  affections,  marked  by  worms  in 
its  inside. 

Likewise    a   case   of  gravel    Sharkara  ,    or    urinary 

Chap.  XXIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  223 

calculi  ■  Shikata )  in  which  the  urine  is  found  to  be 
charged  with  concretions,  or  leaves  a  deposit  of  sandy 
sediment,  can  not  be  radicalh'  cured  by  medicine  alone. 
A  case  of  V^ta-kundalika,  Asthila,  Upakusha,  Kantha- 
saluka,  Danta-sharkar^,  Danta-veshta,  ^'isarpa,  Asthi- 
kshata,  Uru-kshata,  or  Vrana-Granthi,  may  not  perfectly 
yield  to  medicine  alone.  In  an  inflammation  of  the  gums 
resulting  from  the  use  of  poisonous  twigs  as  brushes 
for  teeth  Xishkoshana)  a  temporary  amelioration  is  all 
that  can  be  expected  from  a  good  and  efficient 

IVIetrical  texts  :— In  a  patient  neglecting  a 
disease  at  its  preliminary  stage,  (or  otherwise  not 
observing  a  strict  regimen)  even  a  curable  malady  ma}' 
speedily  develop  into  one  which  admits  only  of  pallia- 
tive measures,  while  a  disease  of  the  last  named  type  is 
soon  transformed  into  an  incurable  one.  An  in- 
curable disease  under  the  circumstances  speedily  finds 
a  fatal  termination.  A  patient  laid  up  with  a  disease, 
which  only  admits  of  a  palliative  treatment,  lives  so  long 
as  the  course  of  the  medical  treatment  is  continued,  and 
will  die  almost  simultaneously  with  its  discontinuance. 
Just  as  a  prop  or  a  pillar  can  prevent  the  collapse  of 
a  tumbling  edifice,  so  palliative  measures,  judiciously^ 
applied  by  a  skilful  physician,  may  keep  off  the 
inevitable  in  a  disease  which  knows  no  radical  cure. 

Incurable   diseases  :— Now  we   shall  de- 

224  '^^^  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap,  xxili. 

scribe  the  types  of  diseases  which  are  usually  held  as  in- 
curable. An  ulcer  (\'rana)  cropping  up  like  a  fleshy 
tumour,  painful  and  containing  pus  in  its  inside,  and 
which  is  characterised  by  a  copious  secretion,  with  its 
edges  raised  like  those  of  the  genital  of  a  mare,  should 
be  understood  as  belonging  to  the  incurable  type.  A 
condylomatous  (papillomatous  )  ulcer  which  is  soft  and 
raised  like  the  horn  of  a  cow,  or  the  one  which  is 
moderately  raised  or  elevated  at  its  base,  and  secretes 
an  exudation  of  vitiated  blood,  or  a  thin  slimy  secretion, 
should  be  likewise  regarded  as  incurable.  An  ulcer 
with  an  embossed  or  heaved  up  centre,  and  one  dipped  or 
fissured  at  its  extremity  should  be  regarded  as  past  all 
remedy.  An  ulcer  covered  over  with  shreds  of  ligaments, 
and  looking  as  if  studded  with  loose  shreds  of  hemp, 
should  be  given  up  as  incurable.  Similarly,  an 
ulcer  due  to  the  deranged  condition  of  any  of  the  funda- 
mental humours,  and  secreting  an  exudation  composed 
of  coagulated  blood,  fat,  marrow  and  brain-matter 
should  be  deemed  incurable. 

Likewise,  an  ulcer,  in  a  weak  and  emaciated  person, 
which  is  located  within  the  cavity  of  the  abdomen, 
(Koshtha:  and  which  assumes  either  a  black  or  yellow- 
ish colour,  and  exudes  a  secretion  composed  of  urine, 
pus,  blood  and  fecal  matter,  which  finds  its  outlet  both 
through  the  upward  and  downward  fissures  of  the  body 
(the  mouth  and  the  anus)  making  a  rumbling,   gurgling 


Chap.  XXIII.  ]  SUTKASTHANAM.  225 

sound,  or  which  simultaneously  secretes  pus  and  blood 
through  both  the  channels,  should  be  regarded  as  belong- 
ing to  the  incurable  class.  An  ulcer  in  an  emaciated 
patient,  which  is  situated  either  on  the  head  or  in  the 
throat,  and  which  is  narrow-mouthed  and  is  tra\ersed 
by  a  network  of  capillaries,  and  studded  with 
fleshy  or  papillomatous  eruptions,  should  be  regarded 
as  incurable.  A  distinctly  audible  sound  or  report  is 
heard  in  these  ulcers  which  are  found  to  be  charged 
with  wind. 

An  ulcer  in  an  emaciated  patient,  which  secretes 
blood  and  pus,  and  is  attended  with  indigestion,  cough, 
painful  respiration  and  non-relish  for  food,  as  well  as  a 
case  of  fractured  skull,  attended  with  cough,  dyspnoea, 
secretion  of  brain-matter,  and  symptoms  peculiar  to  the 
concerted  action  of  the  three  deranged  humours  of  the 
body,  should  be  given    up  as  past  all  remedy. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  traumatic  ulcer,  which  exudes  a  secretion 
of  fat,  marrow  or  brain- matter,  may  prove  amenable 
to  medical  treatment,  whereas  a  humoural  ulcer  under 
the  circumstance  will  prove  incurable.  • 

An   ulcer   appearing    at   an}'  part  of  the  body  other 

than  a  vital  one  (Marma),  and  which  is  found  to  invade 

its   successive    elements  though  without   affecting  any 

vein,  bone,  joint,  etc.  should  be   regarded   as  incurable. 


226  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap,  xxili. 

Just  as  a  tree,  that  has  grown  old  and  that  has  spread  its 
roots  deep  into  the  soil,  can  not  be  uprooted,  so  a  disease 
can  not  be  eradicated  that  has  gained  in  strength  and 
maturity  with  the  process  of  time,  and  that  has  gradually 
invaded  the  different  essential  principles  of  the  body. 
A  disease,  which,  having  been  neglected  at  the  outset, 
has  run  on  to  one  of  a  lingering  or  persistent  type 
by  invading  the  successive  elements  of  the  bod}', 
and  has  thereby  gained  in  strength  and  intensity, 
baffles  medicines,  (of  tested  and  marked  eflicac)^, 
just  as  malignant  astral  combinations  tend  to  nullify 
potent  incantations. 

Symptoms     of     cleansed       Fiealthy 

ulcers  : — An  ulcer,  not  belonging  to  any  of  the 
above  said  types,  may  prove  easily  amenable  to  the 
curative  efficacies  of  medicines.  In  other  words,  an  ulcer 
of  recent  origin  is  easily  uprooted  like  a  tender  sapling 
of  recent  gi^owth.  An  ulcer,  which  is  unaffected  by  any 
of  the  three  deranged  bodily  humours,  and  which  assumes 
a  dark  brown  hue  along  its  edges,  and  is  characterised 
by  the  absence  of  any  pain,  pustular  eruptions  or 
secretions,  and  which  is  of  an  even  or  of  an  equal 
elevation  throughout  its  length,  should  be  regarded  as 
cleansed  (asepsised  or  healthy),  and  divested  of  all 
morbid  matter  or  principle  (Shuddha-Vrana). 

Symptoms    of    Healing    Ulcers:— An 

ulcer,   which   is  dove-coloured  (yellowish  dusky),  and  is 

Chap.  XXIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  227 

not  lardaceous  at  its  base,  and  is  further  characterised  by 
the  absence  of  any  muco-piirulent  secretion  along  its 
margin,  and  which  has  become  hard  and  surrounded 
b}'  shreds  of  dead  skin,  and  presents  symptoms  of 
healthy  granulation,  should  be  looked  upon  as  in 
course  of  healing. 

Symptoms  of  Healed  Ulcers:— An  ulcer, 
with  its  edges  firmly  adhered  and  characterised  by  the 
absence  of  any  pain  and  swelling  and  not  appearing 
knotty  or  glandular  to  the  touch  and  that  has  left  a 
cicatrix  of  the  same  hue  with  the  surrounding  skin, 
should  be  considered  as  perfectly  healed. 

Causes,  such  as  mental  excitements,  as  excessive  grief 
and  ecstacies  of  joy,  anger  or  fright,  as  well  as  an  exter- 
nal blow,  or  excessive  physical  exercise,  or  an  abnormal 
excitation  of  any  of  the  deranged  humours,  or  an 
impaired  digestion,  may  tend  to  reopen  an  ulcer 
recently  adhered  and  healed.  Accordingly  such  acts 
and  conditions  should  be  avoided  by  an  ulcer-patient. 

Thus   ends    the   twenty-third    Chapter    of    the    Sutrasth^nam     in    the 
Sushruta  Samhita,  which  treats  of  the  prognosis  of  ulcers. 

C  H  A  P  i  E  R     XXIV. 

Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter^  which  deals 
with  the  classification  of  diseases  according  to  their 
specific  nature  (Vya'dhi-Samudcihcshiya- 

Diseases  may  be  grouped  under  two  broad  sub- 
divisions, such  as  Surgical,  and  Medical,  that  is  those 
that  yield  to  the  administration  of  purgatives,  emetics, 
oils,  diaphoretics,  and  unguents. 

The  use  or  administration  of  medicated  oils  and 
unguents,  etc.,  is  not  prohibited  in  a  surgical  disease, 
while  a  case,  which  is  exclusively  medicinal  in  its 
character,  does  not  admit  of  the  adoption  of  any  surgical 
remedy.  Onl}^  a  general  outline  of  the  nature 
and  S3miptoms  of  all  diseases  will  be  found  to  have 
been  briefly  laid  down  in  the  present  work.  This  work 
includes  within  its  scope  subject  matters  which  have 
been  fully  dealt  with  in  other  books  (having  only  a 
general  bearing  upon  all  the  several  branches  of  the 
science  of  medicine). 

It  has  been  stated  before  that  anj^thing  that  afflicts 
either  the  body  or  the  living  personality— self,  or 
both,    is     called     disease.       This     pain     or     affliction 

Chap.  XXIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  229 

ma}^  be  either  physical*  in  its  character  (Adhyat- 
mikam),  or  due  to  an}'-  disturbance  in  the  physical 
environments  of  a  man  (Adhibhautikam),  or  to  the 
acts  of  God  (Adhidaivikam)  etc.  This  three- fold 
pain  may  be  ultimately  transformed  into  an)'  of 
the  seven  kinds  of  diseases  such  as,  the  Adi-vala-pravritta, 
Janma-vala-pravritta,  Dosha- vala-pravritta,  Sanghata- 
vala-pravritta,  Kala- vala-pravritta,  Daiva-vala-pravritta 
and  Svabhava- vala-pravritta. 

A'di -vala-pravritta  :— The  disease  termed 
Adi-vala-pravritta  is  ascribed  to  any  inherent  defect 
in  the  semen  or  the  ovum  of  one's  parent,  which  forms 
one  of  the  original  and  primary  factors  of  "  being  "  and 
includes  leprosy  (Kushtham),  hemorrhoids,  phthisis  etc. 
This  type  may  be  divided  into  two  subdivisions, 
according  as  the  disease  is  generated  by  the  deranged 
paternal  or  maternal  factor  at  the  time  of  incubation. 

J  an  ma -vala-pravritta  :— The  Congenital 
or  the  Janma-vala-pravritta  type  usually  follows 
such  causes  as  an  improper  conduct  on  the  part 
of  the  mother  during  the  period  of  gestation,  etc.,  and 
embraces  such  defects  or  maladies  as  (congenital) 
blindness,  deafness,  dumbness,  nasal-voice,  and  such 
monstrous  aberrations  of  nature  as  congenital  cretinism, 

*  Certain  commentators  interpret  the  term  "Atman"  in  "AdhyStmikam" 
to  mean  body  only,  and  accordingly  designate  all  phenomena  that  may  be 
manifest  in  the  body  as  AdhyAtmikam, 

230  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXIV. 

and  the  births  of  dwarfs  and  pigmies.  This  type, 
in  its  turn,  admits  of  two  sub-divisions,  according  as 
the  disease  is  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  lymph- 
chyle  (Rasa-krita),  or  to  an  ungratified  desire  of  the 
mother  during  gestation,  or  to  her  gratification  •  of 
any  improper  longing  or  conduct  during  pregnancy 

Dosha-vala-pravritta  -.—The  Dosha-vala- 
pravritta  (idiopathic)  type  is  due  to  the  action  of 
any  of  the  fundamental  bodily  humours  deranged  by  an 
improper  diet,  or  resulting  from  the  dynamical  energies 
of  the  mind,  such  as  (Rajas  and  Tamas,  etc).  This 
type  may  be  classified  under  two  sub-heads,  according 
as  the  disease  is  found  to  have  its  origin  in  the  Amashaya 
(stomach),  or  in  the  Pakvashaya  (intestines),  and  each  of 
these  again  may  be  further  divided  into  two  main 
sub-divisions  such  as  the  physical  and  the  mental.  The 
three  preceding  kinds  of  diseases  include  within  their 
category  disorders  which  are  called  mental  or  psychical 

Samghala-vala-Pravritta  :— The  Trau- 
matic type  (Samghatha-vala-pravritta)  includes  diseases 
that  are  caused  by  an  external  blow  or  are  due 
to  wrestling  with  an  antagonist  of  superior  strength. 
They  may  be  sub-divided  into  minor  divisions, 
according  as  the  disease  is  due  to  an  external 
wound,   or     to    the     bite  from    any  fierce   beast    or 



poisonous  reptile,  etc.  These  types  belong  to  the  Adhi- 
bhautikam  t5'pe,  i.  e.  (brought  about  by  physical 

Ka'Ia-vala-pravritta:— The  Periodical  type 
(K^la-vala-pravritta)  includes  diseases  that  are  brought 
about  by  the  variation  of  atmospheric  heat  or  humidity 
with  the  change  of  the  seasons,  and  admits  of  being 
grouped  under  two  different  sub-heads,  according  as  the 
seasons,  which  usher  these  changes  in,  exhibit  natural 
or  contrary  features. 

Daiva-vala-pravritta  :— The  Providential 
('Daiva-vala-pravritta^  type  includes  diseases  that  are  the 
embodiments  of  curses,  divine  wrath  or  displeasure,  or 
are  brought  about  through  the  mystic  potencies  of  charms 
and  spells,  as  described  in  the  Atharva-Veda.  This 
type  may  be  divided  into  two  minor  divisions  according 
as  the  disease  is  due  to  such  acts  of  God  as  when  a 
man  is  struck  by  lightning,  etc.,  or  to  the  malignant 
influences  of  demons  and  monsters,  and  these  may  be 
further  grouped  under  two  main  sub-heads,  according  as 
the  disease  assumes  a  contagious  character  (epidemic),  or 
is  purely  accidental,  and  restricts  itself  to  isolated 
cases  (sporadic). 

Svabha'va-vala-pravritta:— The  Natural 

or  the  Spontaneous  (Svabhava-vala-pravritta)  type 
includes       such       natural      organic     phenomena      as, 



decrepitude,  death,  *  hunger,  thirst,  sleep,  etc. 
These  phenomena  are  either  Kalakrita  (timely)  or 
Akalakrita  (untimely).  They  are  called  Kalakrita  when 
the}^  occur  at  the  proper  time  in  persons  who  strictly 
observe  the  rules  of  health,  and  Akalakrita,  when  they 
appear  at  the  improper  time  (morbid  or  premature) 
as  the  effects  of  unhealthy  living.  These  diseases  belong 
to  the  Providential  or  Adhi-daivikam  typet.  Thus  we 
have  classified  diseases  into  their  several  types. 

The  deranged  bodily  humours  such  as,  Vayu,  Pittam 
and  Kapham  should  be  looked  upon  as  the  primary 
sources  of  all  diseases,  inasmuch  as  symptoms  charac- 
teristic of  each  of  them  may  be  detected  in  the  case  of 
a  disease  of  whatsoever  type,  (which  usually  abates 
with  their  corresponding  subsidence),  and  also  because 
the  Shastras  have  ascribed  to  them  the  fatherhood 
of  all  maladies  that  assail  the  human  frame. 

As  the  three  qualities  of  Sattva,  Rajas  and  Tamasi 

are  inherent  in,  and  inseparable  from,  all  the  pheno- 
menal appearances  in  the  universe  whicli  are,  in  reality, 

*  Accord. ng  lo  certain  aulhorilies  "Death"  may  also  mean  death 
of  tissues. 

+  Several  authorities  on  the  other  hand  include  such  diseases  as  thirst, 
hunger  etc.,  within  the  Adhy^tmika  class  inasmuch  as  they  are  but  the 
indications  of  the  want  of  certain  vital  principles  in  the  body  and 
appear  in  the  mental  plane  (Adhy^tmika)  only  as  longings  for 
water,  food,  ttc 

X  The  Sattva  :— Illuminating  or  psychic  principle.  Rajas  : — Prin- 
ciple of  Action  and  Co-hesion.  Tanias  -.—Principle  of  Nescience  or  Illusion. 

Chap.  XXIV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  233 

but  modifications  of  their  own  qualities,  so  the  three 
fundamental  bodily  hum'ours  underlie  at  the  root 
of,  and  run  through,  the  course  of  all  known  forms  of 
bodily  distemper. 

The  deranged  bodily   humours   (Dosha"   in   contact 
with  the  different   elements,    Dhathu)   and   excrements 
(Mala)   of  the   body,  together   with   the   difference   of 
their     locations  and    pathological    effects,   give   rise   to 
the  different  forms  of  disease.* 

The  nomenclature  of  a  disease  depends  upon  where 
the  affection  of  the  several  elementary  principles  of  the 
body  by  the  deranged  bodily  humours  lies,  and  which  is 
accordingly  styled  as  it  is  seated  in  the  lymph- chyle,  or  in 
the  blood  or  the  flesh,  or  it  is  in  fat,  bone,  or  in  the  semen. 

Rasaja  Distempers  :— Distempers  such  as 
aversion  to,  and  loss  of  relish  for '  food_,  indigestion, 
aching  in  the  limbs,  fever,  nausea  and  a  sense  of  reple- 
tion even  without  food,  heaviness  of  the  limbs,  diseases 
affecting  the  heart,  jaundice,  constriction  of  any  in- 
ternal passage  of  the  body  (Margo-parodha),  emaciation 
of  the  body  ^cachexia),  bad  taste  in  the  mouth,  weak 
feelings  in  the  limbs,  premature  whiteness  and  falling  off 
of  the  hair,  and  s)^mptoms  indicative  of  senile  decay, 
should  be  regarded  as  having  their  seat  in  the  deranged 
l5"mph- chyle  (Rasa). 

*  This  answers  the  question,  "how  can  the  deranged  bodily  hmnours 
bring  about  a  disease  of  the  Adhi-vala-type — a  disease  which  is  specifically 
due  to  the    derangement  of  the  innate  and  primary  factors  of  life." 


234  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap.  XXIV. 

Raktaja  Diseases  :  — Maladies  such  as  Kush- 
tha  (cutaneous  affections  in  general ,  Visarpa  (erysipe- 
las), Pidaka  (pustular  eruptions,  Mashaka,  Nilika, 
Tilakalaka  (specks),  Nachhya  (tans),  Vyanga  (stains), 
Indralupta  alopecia),  enlarged- spleen,  Vidradhi  (ab- 
scess*, Gulma  abdominal  glands),  Vata-shonita  (a  kind 
of  leprosy),  Arsha  (piles),  Arvuda  (tumours),  aching  of 
the  hmbs^  menorrhagia,  h£emopt3'sis,  etc.  as  well  as 
suppuration  in  the  regions  of  the  anus  and  the  penis 
should  be  deemed  as  having  their  origin  in  the 
blood  Raktaja  contaminated  by  the  deranged  bodily 

IVSa'nsaj a- Diseases  :— Similarly  Adhi-mansa, 
Arvuda,  Arsha,  Adhi-jihva,  Upa-jihva,  Upakusha, 
Gala-sunthika,  Alaji,  Mansha-sanghata  (condylomatous 
growth),  Astha-prakopa,  Gala-ganda,  Garjda-mala 
(scrofula),  etc.  should  be  regarded  as  diseases  having 
their  seat  in  the  flesh,  vitiated  by  the  deranged  bodily 

IVledaja- Distempers  :— Diseases,  such  as 
Granthi,  \'riddhi,  Gala-ganda,  Arvuda,  and  Ostha-prakopa 
are  due  to  tlie  action  of  the  deranged  fat.  Madhu-meha 
(diabetes),  obesitv  and  abnormal  diaphoresis,  etc.  should 
be  regarded  as  having  their  origin  in  the  humour- 
deranged  fat  of  the  body. 

Asthija- Disease  :— Adhyasthi,  Adhi-danta, 
Asthi-toda,    Asthi-shula    and    Ku-nakha,    etc.    are   the 

Chap.  XXIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  235 

diseases  which  should  be  regarded  as  the  outcome  of 
the  deranged  bodily  humours  affecting  the  bones. 

IVIaJJadoshaJa  Diseases  :— The  vanishing 

of  sight,  epileps}';  vertigo,  conjunctivitis  and  the  appear- 
ance of  a  broad-based  ulcer  about  the  Parva- 
sthanam  and  a  sense  of  heaviness  in  the  thighs  and 
knee-joints  should  be  regarded  as  having  their  seat  in 
the  deranged  marrow. 

Shukra-doshaja  :— Diseases  such  as,  im- 
potency,  entire  aversion  to  sexual  intercourse,  Shukra- 
shmari  fseminal  concretions).  Spermatorrhoea,  and  other 
seminal  affections,  should  be  regarded  as  having  their 
seat  in  the  deranged  semen. 

Cutaneous  affections,  constipation  or  looseness  of  the 
bowels,  and  diseases  impeding  or  arresting  the  proper 
functions  of  the  sense-organs  or  in  an}"  wa}"  bringing 
about  their  aberrations,  should  be  regarded  as  respec- 
tively located  in  the  receptacle  of  the  faeces  and  the 
sense  organs. 

Thus  we  have  briefl}'  enumerated  the  names  of 
diseases,  the  specific  nature  and  symptoms  of  which 
will  be  full)'  discussed  later  on  under  their  respective 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  Sub- 
ject :— The  deranged  and  aggravated  humours,  freely 
coursing  through  the  body,  give  rise  to  a  disease    at  the 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  xxiv. 

place   in   which     they   are   incarcerated   owing   to  an 
obstruction  in  their  natural  passage. 

Now  it  may  be  again  asked,  whether  the  relation 
of  a  disease,  such  as  fever,  etc.  with  the  deranged  bodily 
humours  is  constant  and  inseparable,  or  otherwise.  All 
human  beings  would  be  in  danger  of  perpetually 
falhng ill  in  the  event  of  the  said  connection  relation; 
being  constant  and  unseparable  ;  but  in  case  of  their 
separate  existence,  it  is  but  natural  that  their  charac- 
terstic  symptoms  should  separately  manifest  them- 
selves instead  of  being  simultaneously  present  with 
fever,  etc.  as  they  are  found  to  be  in  reality.  And 
accordingly  the  theor)',  that  diseases  (such  as,  fever,  etc.) 
and  the  deranged  bodily  humours  have  a  separate 
existence,  and  are  not  pritna  facie  intimately  co-related 
with  one  another  falls  to  the  ground.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  assumption  of  their  separate  existence 
invalidates  the  incontestable  conclusion,  that  diseases 
such  as,  fever,  etc.  are  fathered  by  the  deranged  humours 
of  the  body. 

Hence  it  may  be  safely  asserted  that  no  disease  can 
occur  without  the  direct  mediation  or  intervention  of 
the  deranged  bodily  humours.  Yet  the  connection 
(relation)  which  exists  between  the  two  is  neither 
constant  nor  separable.  As  the  physical  phenomena  of 
lightning,  storm,  thunder  and  rain  can  not  happen 
independently     of    the     sky   (cloud) ;    and     yet   they 

Chap.  XXIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  237 

sometimes  do  or  do  not  occur  with  the  presence  of  a 
cloud ;  again  as  bubbles^  though  in  reality  but  the 
modifications  of  the  underlying  water,  do  not  swell 
up  on  its  surface  at  all  times,  so  the  connection 
between  a  disease  and  the  bodily  humours  is  neither 
universally  separable  or  inseparable. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject :  —We  shall  describe  the  nature,  intensity  and 
quality  of  diseases  with  their  complications  and  give 
the  number  of  their  different  t3'pes.  Diseases 
[omitted  to  be  mentioned  in  the  chapter  on  Xidanam 
(aetiology)]  will  be  found  fully  dealt  with  in  the  sup- 
plementary part  of  the  present  work  (Uttara-tantram). 

Thus  ends  the  Iwenty-fourlh  Chapter  of  the  SulrasthSnam  in  the 
Sushruta  SamhitA  which  treats  of  the  classification  of  diseases  according 
to  their  specific  nature. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  deals 
with   the   eight   different  forms    of  surgical    operations 

(Ashtavidha-Shastra-  Karmanya  -  ma- 

Metrical  Texts  :— Bhagandara,  Shlaishmika 
Granthi,  Tilakalaka,  Arvuda,  Arsha,  Charma-Kila, 
Jatumani,  Mansa-Samgh^ta,  Gala-Sunthik^,  Valmika, 
Vrana-Vartma,  Shataponaka,  Adhrusha,  Upadansha, 
Mansakandha,  Adhimansaka,  as  well  as  ailments  due  to 
the  lodgment  of  a  foreign  body  in  the  flesh  or  a  bone, 
and  a  sloughing  of  ligaments,  flesh  or  veins  are  the 
diseases  in  which  incision  i  Chhed)^am  should  be  made. 

Bhedyam  : -Excision  (Bhedyam)  should  be 
resorted  to  in  the  following  diseases,  viz.,  Vidradhis,  the 
three  types  of  Granthi  other  than  the  Sannipatika  one, 
Visarpa  due  either  to  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam  or 
Kapham,  Vriddhi,  Vidarika,  Prameha-pidaka,  swellings 
in  general,  diseases  affecting  the  mammary  organs, 
Avamanthaka,  Kumbhika,  Anushayi^  Nadi,  the  two 
types  of  Vrinda,  Pushkarika,  Alaji,  Kshudra-roga  (all 
minor  cutaneous  or  pustular  diseases),  the  three 
types  of  Puppata,  Talu-puppata,  and  Danta-puppata ; 
Tundukeri,  Gil^Cyu,  and  the  diseases  which  are  caused 
by  suppuration  in  the  local  flesh  or  any  soft  part  of  the 

[Chap.  XXV.  SUTRASTHANAM.  239 

body  ^siich  as  fistula  in  ano),    as   well   as   stone  ni   the 
bladder  and  diseases  due  to  a  derangement  of  fat.* 

Lekhyam  : — The  surgical  operation  known  as 
scarification  Lekhya;  should  be  resorted  to  in  the  follow^- 
ing  diseases,  viz,  the  four  types  of  Rohini,  Kilasa,  Upaji- 
hva,  diseases  having  their  seat  in  the  deranged  fat, 
Danta-Vaidarbha,  Granthi,  Vrana-Vartma,  Adhi-Jihva, 
Arshah,  Mandala,  Mansa-kandi,  and  Mansonnati. 

Vyadhanam  : — The  Surgical  operation  known 
as  Vyadhanam  (aspiration;  should  be  made  use  of 
in  connection  with  a  vein,  or  a  case  of  Dakodaram 
(abdominal  dropsy),  or  Mutra-Vriddhi  (hydrocele). 
Diseases,  in  connection  witli  which  the  probe  or  the 
director  should  be  used,  are  Nadis  ( sinus)  and  ulcers 
wMth  an}^  extraneous  or  foreign  body  lodged  in  their 
inside,  and  those  which  follow  abnormal  (lateral  or 
oblique'  directions. 

A'harryam  :— The  process  known  as  Aharanam 
(extraction  or  drawing  out)  should  be  adopted  in  the 
three  types  of  Sharkar^,t  in  drawing  out  anj^  morbid 
matter  from  between  the  teeth  or  from  the  cavity 
of  the  ears,  or  in  extracting  any  foreign  matter  from  its 
seat  of  lodgment   in   the   body,  or  a   stone   from   the 

*  Granthi  (gland),  Galaganda  (goitre),  \'riddhi  (scrotal  tumour)  Apachi 
(scrofula)  and  Arvuda  (tumour)  are  the  fat-origined  diseases  contemplated 
as  instances. 

t  Such  as  urinary  calculi,  calcareous  deposits  on  the  teeth,  and  P5da- 

240  THE  SUSHRUTA    SAMHITA'.       [  Chap.  XXV. 

bladder,  or  in  drawing  out  feces  from  the  constricted 
anus,  or  a  foetus  from  the  uterus,  (as  in  the  case  of  a 
false  presentation  or  difficult  labour). 

Srarvyam  :— Secreting  or  evacuating  measures 
(Srav5'^am)  should  be  adopted  in  the  following 
diseases,  viz,  the  five  types  of  Vidradhi  excepting  the 
Sannipatika  one,  Kustha  of  whatsoever  type,  derange- 
ment of  the  bodily  V^yu  with  pain  in  the  affected 
region,  inflammatory  swellings  restricted  to  any  particu- 
lar part  of  the  body,  diseases  affecting  the  ear-lobes, 
Shleepada  (elephantiasis^  blood  poisoning,  Arvuda 
(tumours),  Visarpa  Terysipelas),  Granthi  (glands  due 
to  any  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam,  or  Kapham)  the 
three  types  of  Upadansha  (syphilis),  Stana-roga  (in- 
flammation! of  the  mammae),  Vidarika,  Shaushira,  Gala- 
Shaluka,  Kantaka,  Krimi-dantaka  worm-eaten  teeth), 
Danta-veshta  (inflammation  of  the  gums),  Upakusha, 
Shit^da,  Danta-puppata,  diseases  of  the  lips  originated 
through  the  action  of  the  deranged  blood,  Pittam  or 
Kapham,  and  a  variety  of  other  diseases  passing  under 
the  denomination  of  Kshudra-Roga  (minor  ailments\ 

Sccvyam  : — Suturing  rSeevya*  should  be 
resorted  to  in  the  case  of  an  open  ulcer  due  to 
the  action  of  the  deranged  fat  after  its  vitiated 
contents  (morbid  matter)  had  been  fully  scraped  out,  as 
well  as  in  the  case  of  an  uncomplicated  (curable"^  Sadya- 
Vrana   (wound   or   instant  ulcer)  at   any   of  the   joints 

Chap.  x.w.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  24  r 

which  are  connected  with  the  acts  of  movement  or  loco- 

Conditions  of  Suturing:— An  ulcer  in- 
cidental to  the  application  of  fire  (canter}'),  or  any  al- 
kaline preparation  (caustic),  or  treated  with  any  poison- 
ous drug  or  substance,  or  from  whose  inside  the  em- 
bedded Shalyam  (foreign  matter)  has  not  been  removed, 
should  not  be  sewed  up  without  being  thoroughly 
cleansed  and  purified  asepsised  =  inasmuch  as  any  foreign 
matter,  whether  a  hair,  nail  or  a  particle  of  dust  or  bone, 
lying  embedded  in  its  cavity,  might  set  up  an  abnormal 
suppuration,  accompanied  by  extreme  pain  and  excessive 
secretion.  Hence  such  ulcers  should  be  thoroughly 
cleansed  (and  all  foreign  or  indigenous  morbid  matter 
should  be  extracted  therefrom)  before  being  sewed  up. 

Mode  of  Suturing  :— Then  having  pressed 
the  ulcer  up  into  its  proper  position,  it  should  be 
sutured  with  strings  of  any  of  the  following  kinds,  viz. 
of  thin  cotton  thread,  of  the  fibres  of  the  Ashman- 
taka  tree  or  hemp  plants,  or  of  the  Atasi,  Murva  or 
Guduchi,  or  with  strips  of  leather,  plaited  horse- 
hair or  animal  sinews,  into  any  of  the  officinal 
shapes  (of  suturing)  known  as  the  Gophana,  Tunna- 
Sevani  and  Riju-Granthi,  etc.  or  as  suited  to  the 
shape  and  position  of  the  ulcerated  part.  The  margin 
of  the  ulcer  should  be  gently  pressed  close  with 
the    fingers     during     suturing.      A     round   needle     to 

242  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XXV. 

the  length  of  two  fingers'  width  should  be  used  in  sew- 
ing up  an  ulcer  occurring  about  any  joint  or  in  a  part  of 
the  body  where  the  flesh  is  thin  and  scanty.  A  needle 
of  a  triangular  body  tri-hedral),  and  measuring  three 
fingers'  width  in  length,  is  recommended  in  the  case  of 
an  ulcer  appearing  at  any  flesh}'  part  of  the  body. 
A  semi-circular  or  bow-shaped  needle  should  be  used 
in  a  case  where  the  seat  of  the  ulcer  would  be  found 
to  be  on  the  scrotum,  or  on  the  skin  of  the  abdomen,  or 
about  any   of  the  Marmas  (vital  parts). 

Needles  of  these  three  shapes  should  be  so  construc- 
ted as  to  be  fitted  with  sharp  points  capable  of  being 
handled  with  the  greatest  ease,  having  a  girth  equal 
that  of  the  stem  of  a  Malati  flower. 

The  needle  should  not  be  pricked  into  a  part  too  near, 
or  too  remote  from  the  fissure,  or  the  mouth  of  an  ulcer, 
as  there  might  be  the  danger  of  the  suture  being  broken 
off  (at  the  least  pressure  or  movement)  in  the  first 
instance  and  of  genesis  of  pain  in  the  second.  xAn 
ulcer,  thus  properly  sutured,  should  be  covered 
over  with  cotton  and  dusted  over  with  a  pulverised 
compound  consisting  of  the  powders  of  Priyangu, 
Anjanam,  Yasthyahva  and  Rodhra,  or  with  the  ashes 
of  a  burnt  piece  of  Kshauma  cloth,  or  with  the  powders 
of  the  Shallaki  fruit.  Then  the  ulcer  should  be  properly 
bandaged,  and  measures  and  rules  regarding  the  regimen 
of  diet,  and  conduct  previously  laid  down  in  the  chapter 

Chap.  XXV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  243 

on  the  nursing  of  an  ulcer- patient  (Ch.  XIX. )  should 
be  adopted  and  observed. 

The  eight  kinds  of  surgical  operations  have  thus  been 
briefly  described.  They  will  be  dealt  with  later  on  in 
the  Chikitsitam. 

Defective  Surgical  Operations:— These 

eight  forms  of  operations  may  be  attended  with  dangers 
of  four  different  kinds  such  as  those  arising  from  an 
insufficient  or  over  performance,  or  from  the  slanting 
or  oblique  deviation  (of  the  knife  or  the  instrument), 
or  from  an  act  of  self-injury  on  the  part  of  the 

A  physician  (  surgeon  ;  making  a  wrong  operation  on 
the  body  of  his  patient  either  through  mistake,  or 
through  the  want  of  necessary  skill  or  knowledge,  or 
out  of  greed,  fear,  nervousness  or  haste,  or  in  conse- 
quence of  being  spurned  or  abused,  should  be  condemned 
as  the  direct  cause  of  many  new  and  unforeseen  maladies. 
A  patient,  with  any  instinct  of  self-preservation,  would 
do  well  to  keep  aloof  from  such  a  ph\sician,  or  from  one 
who  makes  a  wrong  or  injudicious  application  of  the 
cautery,  and  should  shun  his  presence  just  as  he  would 
shun  a  conflagration  or  a  cup  of  fatal  poison. 

On  the  other  hand,  a  surgical  operation,  carried  to 
excess,  (or  a  surgical  instrument  inserted  deeper  than 
what    is   necessary  ,    is   attended    with    the   danger   of 

244  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAiMHlTA.       L  Chap.  xxv. 

cutting  or  destroying  a  vein,  ligament,  bone,  joint,  or 
any  vital  part  of  the  body.  '  A  surgical  operation  by 
an  ignorant  surgeon  brings  about,  in  most  cases,  the 
instantaneous  death  of  the  patient,  or  consigns  him  to 
the  pangs  of  a  life-long  death. 

The  symptoms  which  generally  manifest  themselves 
in  connection  with  the  injudicious  hurting  of  any  of  the 
five  vital  parts  or  principles  of  the  body  (such  as  the 
joints,  bones,  veins,  ligaments,  etc.)  are  vertigo,  delirium, 
loss  of  bodily  functions,  semi-insensibility  (  comatose 
state),  incapacity  of  supporting  oneself,  cessation  of 
mental  functions,  heat,  fainting,  looseness  of  the  limbs, 
difficult  respiration,  excruciating  pain  or  pain  peculiar  to 
the  deranged  Vayu,  secretion  of  blood  or  a  thin  watery 
secretion  like  the  washings  of  meat  from  the  injured 
part,  or  the  organ,  with  coma  or  inoperativeness  of  all 
the  senses.  A  vein*  iShira)  any  wa}'  severed  or  injured  is 
attended  with  a  copious  flow  (haemorrhage  of  deep  red 
blood,  resembling  the  hue  of  the  cochineal  insect,  from 
the  ulcer  ;  and  the  deranged  local  Vayu  readil}'  exhibits 
all  its  essential  characteristics,  and  ushers  in  diseases 
which  have  been  enumerated  under  that  head  in  the 
chapter  on  the  description  of  blood.) 

Similarly,  an  injured  ligament  gives  rise  to  a  crooked- 
ness or  bending  of,  as  well  as  to  a    gone   feeling   in   the 

*  Other  than  ihc  one    silualcd  in    any  of  the   abovesaid  vital    parts   of 
the  body. 

Chap.  XXV.  ]  SUTRASIHA'NAM.  245 

injured  limb  or  organ,  attended  with  pain  and  loss  of 
function,  and  the  incidental  ulcer  takes  a  long  time 
to  heal. 

An  abnormal  increase  in  the  local  swelling,  together 
with  an  excruciating  pain,  loss  ol  strength,  breaking 
pain  in  the  joints,  and  in-operativeness  of  the  affected 
part,  mark  the  wounding  of  a  flexible  or  immovable 
joint.  Similarly,  in  the  case  where  a  bone  is  hurt  or 
injured  in  the  course  of  a  surgical  operation,  the  patient 
is  tormented  with  indescribable  pain,  da}'  and 
night,  and  finds  no  comfort  in  any  position  what- 
soever. Pain  and  swelling  specifically  mark  the  affected 
locality,  and  thirst  and  inertness  of  the  limbs  add  to 
the  list  of  his  sufferings. 

A  case  of  any  injured  Sira-Marma  (  vital  venal  or 
arterial  combination  or  plexus  exhibits  the  same 
symptoms  which  characterise  the  hurting  of  a  single 
vein,  as  previously  described.  Loss  of  actual  perception 
(anaesthesia^  and  a  yellowish  colour  of  the  skin  mark 
the  case  where  the  injury  is  confined  to  the  vital 
principle  of  the  flesh. 

A  patient,  who  is  discreet,  and  is  not  in  a  special 
hurry  to  end  his  earthly  sojourn,  would  do  well  to 
shun  the  presence  of  a  bungling,  unskilful  surgeon, 
who  can  not  even  keep  himself  unhurt  in  the 
course  of  a  surgical  operation. 

246  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      LChap.  xxv. 

The  evils,  which  attend  the  obhque  insertion  of  a 
surgical  instrument,  have  been  described  before  ;  and 
accordingly  care  should  be  taken  not  to  leave  any  room 
for  the  occurence  of  those  evils  in  connection  with  a 
surgical  operation. 

The  patient,  who  may  mistrust  his  own  parents,  sons 
and  relations,  should  repose  an  implicit  faith  in  his  own 
physician,  and  put  his  own  life  into  his  hands  without 
the  least  apprehension  of  danger  ;  hence  a  ph5'sician 
should  protect  his  patient  as  his  own  begotten  child.  A 
surgical  case  may  yield  to  a  single  incision,  or  may 
require  two,  three,  four  or  more  than  that  number  to 
effect  a  cure.  By  doing  good  to  humanity  with  his  pro- 
fessional skill,  a  physician  achieves  glory,  and  acquires  the 
plaudits  of  the  good  and  the  wise  in  this  life,  and  shall 
live  in  Paradise  in  the  next. 

Thus  ends  the  twenly-fiflh  Chapter  of  the  Sulrasthimim  in  the  Sushruta 
Samhita  which  tieats  of  the  eight  forms  of  Surgical  operations. 



Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  the  exploration  of  splinters  lost  or  deep-seated  in  the 
organism  (Pranashta-Shalya-Vijna'niya'- 

Definition  : — The  term  Shalyam  is  derived 
from  the  root  "Shala"  or  Shvala"  (to  go  swiftly)  joined 
to  the  Unadi  affix  "Yat."  Shalyas  may  be  divided  into 
two  kinds  according  as  they  are  extrinsic  Agantuka) 
or  idiopathic  (Sharira)  in  their  origin. 

A  Shalyam  usually  serves  to  act  as  an  impeding  or 
obstructing  agent  to  the  entire  organism,  and,  hence,  the 
science  which  deals  with  its  nature  and  characteristics 
is  called  the  Shalya-Shastram  (Surgery).  An  idiopathic 
(Sharira)  Shalyam  may  be  either  a  hair,  nail,  embohsed 
blood  (Dhatus)*,  etc.,  excrements  (Mala),  or  deranged 
humours  of  the  body  (Dosha),  while  an  extrinsic 
Shal3'am  should  be  regarded  as  one  which  afflicts  the 
body  and  is  originated  from  a  source  other  than  any 
of  the  preceding  ones,  including  particles  of  iron  and 
bone,  stems  of  grass,  scrapings  of  bamboo,  and  bits 
of  horns,  etc.  But  an  Agantuka  (extrinsic)  Shalyam 
specifically   denotes  an    article   of  iron,   inasmuch  as  it 

*  Embolism    and   Thrombosis   have   been  included  within    Shalyam  by 
the  Ayurvedic  Pathologists. 


ITHE   SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     1  Chap  xxvi. 

pre-eminently  sqvvqs  the  purpose  of  killing  and  is  the 
most  irresistible  of  all  metals.  Since  any  amount  of 
sharpness  can  be  imparted  to  the  point  of  an  article 
made  of  iron  and  since  it  can  be  easily  discharged 
from  a  distance,  iron  is  the  metal  exclusively  chosen 
in  the  construction  of  darts  or  arrows. 

Classification  of  Shafts  :  — Arrows  (Shara) 
may  be  divided  into  two  classes  according  as  they  are 
feathered  or  unfeathered  ;  and  their  barbs  are  usually 
constructed  in  the  shape  of  trees,  leaves,  flowers,  or 
fruits,  or  are  made  to  resemble  the  mouths  of  birds  and 
wild  and  ferocious  animals. 

Flights  of  arrows: — The  flights  or  direc- 
tions of  an  arrow  (Shalyam)  may  be  divided  into  five 
different  kinds,  such  as  the  upward,  the  downward,  the 
backward  (coming  from  the  back),  the  oblique  and  the 
straight.  Either  through  its  diminished  momentum,  or 
through  any  external  resistance,  an  arrow  may  drop 
down  and  penetrate  into  the  skin,  arteries,  or  any 
internal  channel  of  the  body,  or  into  any  bone  or  its 
cavity,  causing  a  wound  or  an  ulcer  (Vrana)  at  the  spot 
of  its  penetration. 

Symptoms  : — Now  hear  me  describe  the  symp- 
toms which  are  exhibited  in  connection  with  an  arrow- 
wound    (Shalya*-Vrana).    These     symptoms     may   be 

*  An  arrow  or  an  iron  barb,  from  "Shala"  to  kill. 

Chap.  XXVI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  249 

grouped  under  two  sub-heads,  such  as  the  specific  and 
the  general.  The  general  characteristics  are  as 
follows  : — The  ulcer,  which  is  marked  by  pain  and 
swelling  and  presents  a  raised  or  bloated  aspect  like 
a  water  bubble,  assumes  a  dark  brown  hue  and  appears 
soft  to  the  touch.  The  seat  of  the  ulcer  is  seen  to  be 
studded  over  with  pustular  eruptions  and  a  constant 
bleeding  sets  in  from  its  inside.  The  specific  symptoms, 
which  mark  a  Shalyam  lodged  in  the  skin,  are  the  hard- 
ness and  extended  character  of  the  local  swelling  and 
the  darkness  (discolouring)  of  its  skin. 

In  a  case  where  the  arrow  Shalyam)  is  lodged  in  the 
flesh,  the  swelling  increases  in  size  and  the  incidental 
ulcer  refuses  to  be  healed  and  cannot  bear  the  least 
pressure.  Suppuration  sets  in  and  the  ulcer  is  charac- 
terised by  a  sort  of  sucking  pain.* 

All  the  preceding  symptoms,  with  the  exception 
of  swelling  and  sucking  pain  fthirst  according  to 
others),  manifest  themselves  in  a  case  where  the  arrow 
(Shalyam)  has  penetrated  into  a  muscle.  Similarly,  the 
distension,  aching  and  swelhng  of  a  vein  mark  a  case 
of  an  arrow-lodged  vein.  An  upheaval  and  swelling 
of  its  fibres  together  with  intense  pain  characterise 
a  case  where  the  shaft  (Shalyam)  has  lodged  in  a 
ligament.     The  internal  passages  or  channels  (Srota)   of 

*  According  to  certain  authorities    the  patient  is    tormented  with  a    sort 
of  unquenchable  thirst. 


250  THE  SUSHRUT.A  SAMHITA'.       [  Chap,  xxvi, 

the  body  are  choked  up  and  become  inoperative,  when 
the  shaft  is  lodged  in  any  one  of  them.  A  flow  of  red 
and  frothy  blood  with  a  gurghng  sound,  accompanied 
by  thirst,  nausea,  and  aching  of  the  limbs,  sets  in 
when  the  arrow  is  lodged  in  an  artery  (Dhamani). 
Similarly,  pain  and  swelling  of  diverse  kinds  mark  a 
case  where  the  shaft  is  embedded  in  a  bone.  The 
appearance  of  goose  flesh  on  the  skin,  a  stuffed 
sensation  inside  the  cavity  of  the  affected  bone,  and 
a  violent  piercing  bone-ache,  mark  a  case  where  the 
shaft  has  found  a  lodgment  inside  the  cavity  of  a 
bone.  A  pierced  joint  exhibits  the  same  symptoms 
as  described  in  connection  with  an  arrow-lodged 
bone,  with  the  exception  that  the  patient  is  incapable 
of  flexing  and  expanding  the  affected  joint.  In  a 
case  where  the  shaft  (Shalyam)  has  lodged  in  the 
abdomen  (Koshtha),  the  bowels  become  constipated ;  the 
abdomen  becomes  distended  with  a  rumbling  in  the  in- 
testines and  the  suppression  of  flatus  and  urine  ;  and 
ingested  food  matter,  as  well  as  urine  and  feces  are 
found  to  ooze  out  of  the  fissure  or  mouth  of  the  ulcer. 
Symptoms,  similar  to  those  above  described,  manifest 
themselves  when  the  arrow  is  lodged  in  any  of  the 
vital  parts  (Marmas'i  of  the  body.  The  preceding 
symptoms  are  but  faintly  exhibited  in  a  case  of  super- 
ficial penetration. 

An  ulcer  incidental  to  the  penetration   of  an   arrow 

Chap.  XXVI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  25 1 

(Shalyam"),  along  the  direction  of  the  local  hair,  in*  the 
throat,  in  any  internal  channel  of  the  body,  or  in  a  vein, 
the  skin,  or  a  muscle,  or  into  a  cavity  of  the  bone,  and 
not  in  any  way  affected  by  the  action  of  the  deranged 
bodily  humours,  may  speedily  and  spontaneously  heal ; 
but  it  may  break  open  and  become  painful  afresh  if  the 
bodily  humours  become  deranged  and  aggravated  by  a 
blow  or  physical  exercise. 

Localisation  :— The  exact  position  of  a  shaft 
(Shalyam)  embedded  in  the  skin  should  be  ascertained 
by  applying  a  plaster  composed  of  clay,  Masha-pulse, 
Yava,  Godhuma  and  cow-dung  over  the  injured  limb 
or  part.  The  part  (hmb)  should  be  duly  lubricated 
with  oil,  and  diaphorised  (by  fomenting  or  applying 
heat  to  its  surface)  before  the  plaster  is  applied.  The 
shaft  (Shalyam)  should  be  considered  as  lodged  in  that 
part  which  would  be  marked  by  pain,  redness,  or  swelling 
(Samrambha)  after  such  application.  x\s  an  alterna- 
tive, the  affected  part  should  be  plastered  with  clarified 
butter,  common  clay  and  sandal  paste.  The  embedded 
shaft  (Shalyam)  is  then  exactly  located  at  the  spot 
where,  owing  to  the  heat  of  the  affected  part,  the 
clarified  butter,  or  earth,  or  sandal  paste  would  be 
found  to  have  melted,  or  dried  up. 

Similarly,  the  mode  of  localising  a  shaft  (Shalyam), 

*     So  as  not  to  obstruct  the   coursing   of  the    blood   or   serum   in    the 

252  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       ;  Chap.  XXVI. 

embedded  in  the  flesh  is  as  follows  : — First,  the  patient 
should  be  duly  lubricated  and  diaphorised  with  medi- 
cinal agents  suited  to  the  requirements  of  his  case. 
Then,  the  part  or  the  limb  having  been  thus  reduced 
with  depletive  measures,  the  shaft  would  be  found  to 
have  been  dislodged  from  its  seat  and  to  be  moving 
about  (^within  the  deeper  tissues  of  the  affected  part , 
giving  rise  to  pain,  redness  and  swelling.  In  such  a  case 
the  exact  location  of  the  shaft  should  be  fixed  at  the 
spot  where  the  pain  and  swelling,  etc.  would  occur. 
The  same  measures  should  be  adopted  in  the  case  of  a 
shaft  (Shalyam)  which  lies  embedded  in  the  cavity  of 
the  abdomen  (Kostha),  or  in  a  bone,  or  joint,  or  muscle 

In  the  case  of  a  Shalyam  lodged  in  a  vein,  in  an 
artery,  in  any  external  channel  (Srota)  of  the  body,  or 
in  a  ligament,  the  patient  should  be  made  to  ride  in  a 
carriage  with  a  broken  or  lopped  oif  wheel  and  dragged 
up  and  down  in  it  on  an  undulating  road  The  pain  and 
swelling,  etc.  incidental  to  the  jolting,  would  occur  at 
that  part  of  his  body,  where  the  shaft  (Shalyam}  is 

In  the  case  of  a  shaft  Shalyam)  lodged  in  a 
bone,  the  affected  bone  should  be  lubricated  and 
diaphorised  with  oil  and  heat  respectively,  after  which 
it  should  be  firmly  pressed  and  bound  up.  The  seat  of 
the  pain  or  swelling,  caused  by  such  a  procedure,  would 
mark   the   exact   locality   of    the  embedded   Shalyam. 

Chap.  XXVI.  I  SUTRASTHANAM.  253 

Similarly,  in  the  case  of  a  shaft  (Shalyam)  lodged  in  a 
joint,  the  same  lubricating,  diaphorising,  compressing, 
and  expanding  measures  should  be  adopted,  and  the 
painful  swelling  caused  thereby  would  indicate  its  exact 
locality.  No  definite  method  can  be  laid  down  as 
regards  ascertaining  the  exact  location  of  a  Shalyam 
lodged  in  any  of  the  vital  parts  of  the  body  (Marma ', 
inasmuch  as  they  are  co- existing  with  (the  eight  different 
locations  of  ulcers,  such  as,  the  skin_,  the  flesh,  the 
bone,  etc.)* 

General  rule  : — A  painful  swelling,  occurring 
at  any  part  of  the  body  and  incidental  to  such  physical 
or  natural  endeavours  of  the  patient,  as  riding  on  an 
elephant  or  on  horse-back,  climbing  a  steep  hill,  bendr 
ing  of  a  bow,  gymnastic  exercises,  running,  wrestling, 
walking,  leaping,  swimming,  high -jumping,  yawning, 
coughing,  singing,  expectorating,  eructating,  laughing, 
practising  of  Pranay^ma  (regulating  the  breath  prelimi- 
nary to  the  practice  of  Yoga),  or  an  emission  of  semen, 
urine  or  flatus,  or  defecation,  would  clearly  indicate 
the  exact  location  of  the  embedded  shaft  (Shalyam). 

Authoritative  Verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject : — The  part  of  the  body,  which  is  marked  by 
pain  and  swelling,  or  which  seems  heavy  and  is  marked 

*  Accordingly  measures  enjoined  to  be  adopted  in  connection  with  a 
shaft  (Shalyam)  lodged  in  any  one  of  them  should  be  applied  wufati.-: 
mutandis  to  cases  in  which  these  Marmas  would  be  found  to  be  similarly 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [Chap.  XXVi, 

by  complete  anaesthesia,  or  the  part  which  the  patient 
repeatedly  handles,  or  constantly  presses  with  his  own 
hand,  or  which  exudes  any  sort  of  secretion,  and  is 
marked  by  a  sort  of  excruciating  pain,  or  which  he 
involuntarily  withdraws  from,  or  constantly  guards 
against  (an  imaginary  painful  contact),  should  be 
regarded  as  clearly  indicative  of  the  exact  location  of 
the  embedded  Shalyam. 

A  physician,  having  tested  with  a  probe  the  cavity 
of  the  incidental  ulcer  or  the  interior  of  the  affected 
locality,  and  found  it  to  be  characterised  by  little  pain 
and  absence  of  any  aching  discomfort  or  unfavour- 
able symptoms  and  swelling,  after  a  course  of  proper 
treatment,  and  after  having  been  satisfied  as  to  its 
healthy  look  and  the  softness  of  its  margin,  and  after 
having  ascertained  that  any  remnant  of  the  embedded 
arrow  can  not  be  perceived  with  the  end  of  the  director 
by  moving  it  to  and  fro,  should  pronounce  it  free  from 
any  embedded  foreign  matter  (Shalyam),  which  would 
be  further  confirmed  by  the  full  flexion  and  expansion 
of  the  affected  limb  or  organ. 

A  particle  of  soft  bone,  horn  or  iron,  in  an}' wise 
lodged  in  the  body,  assumes  an  arched  shape  ;  whereas 
bits  of  wood,  grass-stems,  or  chips  of  bamboo-bark, 
under  the  same  circumstances,  putrify  the  blood  and 
the  local  flesh,  if  not  speedily  extracted  from  their  seats 
of  1  odgment.     Bits  of  gold,  silver,  copper,  brass,  zinc,  or 

Chap.  XXVI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  255 

lead,  anj'how  inserted  into  a  human  organism,  are  soon 
melted  by  the  heat  of  the  Pittam  and  are  assimilated 
and  transformed  into  the  fundamental  principles  of  the 
body.  Metals  or  substances  of  kindred  softness,  and 
which  are  naturally  cold,  are  melted  and  become  amal- 
gamated, under  such  circumstances,  with  the  elements 
of  the  organism.  A  hair,  or  a  particle  of  hard  bone, 
wood,  stone,  bamboo  scraping,  or  cla}^  which  remains 
lodged  in  the  body  as  a  Shalyam,  does  not  melt,  nor 
undergo  any  change  or  deterioration. 

The  physician,  who  is  fully  conversant  with  the 
five  different  courses  or  flights  of  an  arrow  'Shalyam), 
whether  feathered  or  unfeathered,  and  has  minutely 
observed  and  studied  the  symptoms  due  to  its  lodg- 
ment in  any  of  the  eight  different  seats  of  ulcers  (Vrana) 
in  the  human  organism  such  as,  the  skin,  etc.),  is  alone 
worthy  of  attending  on  kings  and  nobles. 

Thus   ends    the    twenly-sixth    Chapter    of   the     Sulrasth^nam    in     the 
Sushruta  Samhit^  which  treats  of  exploration  of  spHnters. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which 
deals  with  the  modes  of  extracting  sphnters  (Shalyar- 

pa  n  iya- mad  hyaryam) . 

There  are  two  kinds  of  Shalyas.  A  Shalya  is 
either  loose  or  firmly  fixed  to  its  seat  within  the  body. 
We  shall  presently  speak  of  the  fifteen  different  modes 
of  extracting  a  loose  Shalyam,  which  are  as  follows,  viz. : 
Extraction  by  natural  expulsive  functions  of  the  body 
(Svabhaba),  by  suppuration  or  putrefication  (Pachanam), 
by  excising  (Bhedanam),  by  bursting  Daranam),  by 
pressing  ■  Pidanam),  by  rubbing  i^Pramarjananr,  b)''  blow- 
ing with  the  mouth  of  medicinal  powders  into  the  affect- 
ed part  (Nirdhmapanam),  by  the  administration  of 
emetics  (Vamanam),  by  an  exhibition  of  purgatives 
(Virechanam)  by  washing  (Prakshalanam  ,  by  friction 
with  the  fingers  (Pratimarsha),  by  straining  as  at 
the  time  of  defecation  (Pravahanam),  by  sucking 
(Achushanam),  by  applying  a  magnet  (Ayaskanta)  and 
by  exhilarating  ;  Harsham). 

An  embedded  foreign  matter  is  usually  expelled 
from  the  eyes,  etc,  by  inducing  lachrymation,  sneezing, 
eructation,  coughing,  micturition,  defecation,  and 
the  emission  of  flatus. 

A   Shalyam,   or  any  other  foreign  matter  which  has 

Chap,  xxvii.^  SUTRASTH/VNAM.  257 

penetrated  into  the  deeper  tissues  of  flesh,  should  be 
extracted  b}'  setting  up  suppuration  in  the  affected 
locah'ty.  The  putrid  flesh  would  loosen  the  fixture  of  the 
Shalyam,  the  weight  of  the  secreted  pus  and  blood 
causing  it  to  drop  down. 

The  seat  or  the  locality  of  a  fixed  Shalyam 
should  be  opened  by  an  incision  in  the  event  of 
its  not  being  ejected  even  after  the  establishment  of 
the  local  suppuration.  If  the  Shalyam  fails  to  come  out 
even  after  the  incision,  the  affected  part  should  be 
pressed  with  the  fingers,  or  medicines,  endued  with 
the  virtue  of  exerting  pressure,  should  be  applied 
over  its  surface.  A  particle  of  an}-  fine  matter, 
accidentally  dropped  into  the  eye,  should  be  removed 
with  sprays  of  cold  water,  or  by  blowing  into  it  with 
the  mouth,  or  by  rubbing  it  with  hair  or  the  fingers. 

A  residue  of  digested  food  or  mucous,  a  remnant 
of  any  food  matter  (Ahdrashesha)  misdirected  into 
the  nostrils,  or  any  small  splinter  loosely  pricking  thereto 
CAnu-shalyam),  should  be  expelled  by  breathing  hard, 
or  by  coughing  upward  through  the  nostrils  (Utk^sha), 
or  by  blowing  through  the  nose.  A  morsel  of  food, 
acting  as  an  obstructing  Shalyam  in  the  cavity  of 
the  stomach  (Am^shaya),  should  be  ejected  by 
rubbing  (Pratimarsha)  the  fingers  against  the  lining 
of  the  throat,  or  against  the  region  of  the  epiglottis, 
while  such  a  morsel  brought  down   into  the  intestines, 


258  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap,  xxvil. 

should    be     evacuated     by     administering     purgatives 

The  pus  or  any  other  morbid  matter  found  within 
the  cavity  of  an  ulcer  should  be  removed  by  washing 
it,  while  incarcerated  flatus,  or  obstructed  scybala 
or  retained  urine,  or  obstructed  foetus,  should  be  borne 
down  and  expelled  by  means  of  straining. 

Any  deranged  Vayu  or  watery  secretion  incarcerated 
in  anv  part  of  the  body,  as  well  as  poisoned  blood 
or  vitiated  breast-milk,  should  be  sucked  off  with  the 
mouth,  or  with  a  horn. 

A  loose,  unbarbed  arrow,  lodged  in  a  wound  with 
a  broad  mouth  and  lying  in  an  Anuloma  direction, 
should  be  withdrawn  by  applying  a  magnet  to  its 
end.  A  shaft  of  grief,  driven  into  the  heart  by  any 
of  the  multifarious  emotional  causes,  should  be  removed 
by  exhilaration  and  merry-making. 

A  shaft  (Shalyam),  whether  large  or  small,  may 
be  withdrawn  from  its  place  in  either  of  the  two 
ways  known  as  the  Anuloma  and  Pratiloma.  The 
Anuloma  consists  in  withdrawing  a  Shalyam  through 
a  way  other  than  that  of  its  penetration,  while  the 
contrary  is  called  the  Pratiloma. 

A  Shalyam  lodged  in  a  place  lying  close  to  the 
spot  of  its  penetration  (Arvacheenam)  should  be 
extracted  through  the    wav  bv    which    it   has   entered 



(Pratiloma).  On  the  other  hand,  a  shaft  or  Shalyam, 
piercing  deep  into  any  part  of  the  body,  but  not 
coming  out  by  the  other  side  (Par^cheenam),  should 
be  drawn  out  through  a  way  other  than  that  of  its 
penetration  (Anuloma). 

A  shaft,  piercing  deep  into  any  part  of  the  body 
so  as  to  reach  the  other  side  of  the  wounded  hmb 
or  part,  (but  not  cutting  out  clean  through  it  owing 
to  the  diminution  of  its  original  momentum),  and 
remaining  protruded  in  the  heaved  up  flesh,  should 
be  extracted  through  a  channel  other  than  that  by 
which  it  has  originally  penetrated  (Anuloma),  and  by 
stirring  or  striking  it  with  the  hand  or  a  hammer. 
The  heaved  up  flesh  should  be  opened  with  an  incision, 
when  found  possible  of  being  so  opened,  and  the 
embedded  Shalyam  should  be  drawn  out  by  stirring  or 
striking  it  with  the  hand  as  laid  down  before. 

A  Shalyam,  lodged  in  any  soft  part  of  the  abdomen, 
chest,  arm-pits,  inguinal  regions  or  ribs,  should  not  be 
cut  open  or  struck  with  hammer,  but  should  be  tried  to 
be  removed  with  the  hands  through  the  wa)-  of  its 
penetration  (Pratiloma),  in  failure  whereof  the  Shalyam 
should  be  extracted  with  surgical  appliances  (Shastra) 
or  any  other  surgical  instruments  ( Yantras), 

Authoritative  Verse  on  the  Sub- 
ject : — A  patient,  fainting  away  (during  the  course 
of  such  a   surgical  operation),  should  be  enlivened  by 

26o  THR  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.     :  Chap.  XXVli. 

dashing  cold  water  over  his  face.  He  should  be  solaced 
with  many  a  hopeful  and  cheering  word,  and  a  nourish- 
ing diet  such  as,  milk,  etc.  should  be  given  him,  and 
his   vital  parts  should  be  protected. 

Then  having  extracted  the  Shalyam,  the  incidental 
wound  or  ulcer,  the  blood  having  been  wiped  of,  should 
be  fomented  with  lieat  or  by  apph'ing  warm  clarified 
butter  to  its  surface  in  the  event  of  it  being  found  fit  to 
be  so  treated  i.e.,  'devoid  of  pain  and  unattended  with 
further  bleeding).  Cauterisation  should  be  resorted  to 
where  the  condition  of  the  wound  would  indicate  such  a 
measure.  After  tliat,  the  wound  should  be  plastered 
(Pradeha)  with  honey  and  clarified  butter,  and  bandaged 
with  a  piece  of  clean  linen  ;  and  directions  as  to  the 
diet  and  nursing  of  the  patient  should  be  given  (as 
previously  laid  down). 

A  Shalyam,  lodged  in  a  vein  or  a  ligament  (Snayu), 
should  be  extracted  with  the  help  of  a  probe.  The 
shaft  (Shalyam),  lodged  in  the  body  and  lying  buried 
under  the  incidental  swelling,  should  be  extracted  hy 
firmly  tying  blades  of  Kuslia  grass  around  its  body. 
A  shaft  (Shalyam;,  lodged  in  a  spot  situated  anywhere 
close  to  the  heart,  should  be  withdrawn  by  the  way 
by  which  it  has  entered ;  and  the  patient  should  be 
enlivened  with  sprat's  of  cold  water,  etc.  during  the 

Chap.  XXVII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'N'AM.  261 

A  Shalyam,  lodged  in  any  other  part  of  the  body 
and  that  is  difficult  to  extract,  and  that  produces  pain 
and  local  inflammation,  should  be  removed  by  cutting 
the  part  open.  In  the  case  of  a  shaft  1  Shalyam)  which 
has  pierced  into  the  cavity  of  a  bone,  the  surgeon  should 
firmly  press  the  affected  bone  with  his  legs,  and  pull 
out  the  embedded  shaft  with  all  his  might  by  gripping 
it  with  a  surgical  instrument,  in  failure  whereof  a 
strong  man  should  be  asked  to  firmly  catch  hold  of 
the  patient,  and  the  Shalyam  should  be  pulled  out 
with  the  help  of  a  gripping  surgical  instrument  as  before. 

As  an  alternative,  the  bottom  of  the  shaft  should 
be  tied  to  the  string  of  a  bow,  strung  and  fully  bent 
down  ;  and  the  Shalyam  should  be  ejected  with  the 
means  of  a  full  twang.  As  an  alternative,  a  horse 
should  be  harnessed  in  the  fashion  known  as  the 
Panch^ngi-vandhanam  (lit.  bound  in  the  five  parts  of  the 
body),  and  the  end  of  the  Shalyam  should  be  bent  down 
and  tied  to  the  bridle.  Then  the  horse  should  be 
so  whipped  as  to  raise  its  head  first,  thus  pulling  out 
the  embedded  shaft  .Shalyam)  from  its  seat  of  lodg- 
ment by  the  jerk  of  its  head.  As  an  alternative,  a 
high  and  tough  bough  of  a  tree  should  be  lowered  down 
and  tied  to  the  bent  end  of  the  shaft  as  in  the 
preceding  case.  The  bough  should  be  then  let  loose, 
thus  pulling  out  the  shaft  (Shalyam /  with  its  rebounding 

262  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [Chap.  XXVII. 

A  shaft  (Shalyam),  lodged  in  a  bone  and  lying  pro- 
truded in  the  heaved  up  local  flesh  (situated  in  a  place 
other  than  the  inguinal  regions,  abdomen,  or  arm-pits, 
etc.),  should  be  stirred  by  striking  it  on  the  head  with 
an  Asthila  a  round  stone, — a  short  hammer  according 
to  certain  authorities),  or  with  a  stone  or  hammer,  and 
should  be  taken  out  by  the  way  of  its  penetration. 

The  feather  of  a  barbed  shaft,  lying  embedded  in  a 
bone  situated  at  a  part  of  the  organism  where  the 
existence  of  such  a  foreign  matter  is  calculated  not 
to  create  any  special  discomfort,  should  be  first  crushed 
by  putting  pressure  on  the  heaved  up  or  protruded 
flesh,  and  the  shaft  then  should  be  gently  pulled  out 
of  its  seat  of  lodgment. 

In  the  case  of  a  bit  of  shellac  being  accidentally 
pricked  into  the  pharynx,  a  metal  tube  should  be  first 
inserted  into  the  passage,  and  then  a  heated  metallic 
rod  should  be  reached  down  to  the  obstructing  shellac 
through  its  inside.  The  shellac,  thus  melted  by  the 
heat  of  the  inserted  rod,  would  naturally  stick  fast  to 
it,  which  should  be  then  condensed  by  an  injection  of 
cold  water  poured  down  through  the  aforesaid  tube  ; 
after  that  the  rod  should  be  withdrawn  thus  carrying 
away  the  melted  shellac  at  its  end. 

According  to  certain  authorities,  any  other  obstruct- 
ing foreign  matter  accidentally  introduced  into  the 
pharynx  should  be  withdrawn  with  the  help   of  a   rod, 

Chap.  XXVII.  1  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  263 

soaked  in  melted  wax  or  shellac,  and  then  inserted  into 
that  passage,  all  other  procedure  being  the  same  as  in 
the  preceding  instance. 

In  the  case  of  a  bone  Shalyam  (such  as  the  bone 
of  fish  etc.)  having  accidentally  stuck  fast  in  the 
throat,  a  bundle  of  hair,  tied  to  a  string  of  thread, 
should  be  inserted  into  the  gullet  of  the  patient,  the 
physician  holding  the  other  end  of  the  string  in  his 
hand.  Then  a  copious  quantity  of  water,  or  of  any 
other  liquid  substance,  should  be  poured  down  into  his 
throat,  so  as  to  entirely  fill  his  stomach.  After  that 
some  kind  of  emetic  should  be  given  to  the  patient, 
and  the  string  should  be  pulled  out  as  soon  as  the 
bundle  of  hair  would  be  felt  to  have  struck  below  the 
obstructing  bone  or  Shalyam,  which  would  naturally 
come  out  with  the  pull.  As  an  alternative,  the  top 
end  of  a  soft  twig,  as  is  generally  used  in  cleansing 
the  teeth,  should  be  bruised  into  the  shape  of  a  brush, 
and  the  thorn  or  the  Shalyam  should  be  removed  with 
its  help.  The  incidental  wound  should  be  treated  by 
making  the  patient  lick  a  compound  of  clarified 
butter  and  honey,  or  of  the  powders  of  the  Triphal^, 
saturated  with  honey  and  sugar. 

The  body  of  the  patient  should  be  pressed  or  rubbed, 
or  he  should  be  whirled  round  by  the  ankles,  or  general- 
ly measures,  calculated  to  induce  vomiting,  should  be 
adopted   in  a   case  where  he    would  be  found   to   have 

264  THE  SUSHRUTA    SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXVIt. 

swallowed  a  stomachful  of  water  (as  in  a  case  of  drown- 
ing). As  an  alternative,  he  should  be  buried  under  the 
ashes  up  to  his  chin. 

Strong  wine  should  be  given  to  the  patient,  or  he 
should  be  slapped  on  the  shoulders,  so  as  to  cause  him 
to  suddenly  start  in  a  case  where  a  morsel  of  food  would 
be  found  to  have  obstructed  and  stuck  fast  in  his  gullet. 
A  tight  gripe  about  the  throat  of  a  person  with  a  creeper, 
rope  or  the  arm  of  an  antagonist,  tends  to  enrage  the 
local  (Kapham),  which  obstructs  the  cavity  of  the 
passage  (Srota)  producing  salivation,  foaming  at  the 
mouth  and  loss  of  consciousness.  The  remedy  in  such 
cases  consists  in  lubricating  and  diaphorising  the  body 
of  the  patient  with  oil  and  heat,  and  in  administering 
strong  errhines  (Shiro-Virechanam),  and  the  juice  or 
extract  of  meat  which  is  possessed  of  the  virtue  of 
subduing  the  deranged  Vayu. 

Authoritative  Verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject:— An  intelligent  physician  should  remove  a 
Shalvam  with  due  regard  to  its  shape,  location  and  the 
adaptability  of  the  different  types  of  surgical  instru- 
ments to  the  case  under  treatment.  A  physician  should 
exercise  his  own  discretion  in  extracting  feathered 
shafts  (Shalyas)  from  their  seats  of  lodgment,  as  well 
as  those  that  are  difficult  of  extraction. 

A  physician  is  at  liberty  to  exercise  his  own  skill 
and  wisdom,  and  to  devise  his  own  original   means  for 

Chap.  XXVII.  ]  SUTR.ASTHA'NAM.  265 

the  extraction  of  a  Shalyam  with  the  help  of  any 
surgical  instruments  when  the  abovesaid  measures 
would  prove  abortive.  A  Shalyam,  not  removed  from 
the  bod}'-  and  left  in  its  place  of  lodgment,  brings  on 
swelling,  suppuration,  mortification  of  the  affected  part, 
and  a  sort  of  excruciating  pain,  and  may  ultimately 
lead  to  death.  Hence  a  physician  should  spare  no  pain 
to  extract  a  Shalyam  from  its  seat  of  lodgment. 

Thus    ends    the    twenty-seventh  Chapter    of  ihe    Sutraslh^nain    in    the 
Sushruta  SamhitS,  which  treats  of  extraction  nf  Shalvam. 



Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which  deals 
with  the  fa\ourable  or  unfavourable  prognosis  of  an  ulcer. 
( Viparitarviparita  -  Vrana  -  Vijna^niya  - 
madhyaryam ). 

IVIetrical  Text  :— Certain  fatal  or  unfavourable 
symptoms  (Arishtas)*  unmistakably  presage  the  death 
of  an  ulcer-patient,  as  a  flower,  smoke  and  cloud 
respectively  herald  a  fruit,  fire  and  rain.  In  most  cases, 
the  ignorant  cannot  interpret  aright  these  fatal  symp- 
toms owing  to  their  extremely  subtile  nature,  or  out  of 
ignorance  or  stupidity,  or  because  such  symptoms  are 
very  closely  followed  by  the  death  of  the  patient. 

These  fatal  indications  serve  as  sure  precursors 
of  death  in  a  patient,  unless  warded  off  by  the 
blessings  of  hoi}'  Brahmanas,  who  are  free  from 
low  desires  or  animal  propensities,  and  are  also 
accustomed  to  practise  the  Yo^a  and  other  religious 
penances  ;  or  death  may  be  averted  with  the  help  of 
men  who  are  initiated  into  the  mystery  of  concocting 
life-giving  elixirs  (Rasayanam". 

*  The  symptoms  which  are  developed  by  the  deranj^ed  bodily  humours 
in  the  organism  of  a  man  at  a  time  when  they  have  passed  beyond  all 
medical  cure,  and  when  the  body  serves  as  a  mere  passive  back-ground 
for  those  phenomena,  awaiting  its  impending  dissolution,  are  called 

Chap.  XXVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  267 

Man}''  such  indications  do  not  prove  instantly  fatal 
but  bring  on  death  in  course  of  time,  just  as  diseases, 
supposed  b}'  some  to  be  due  to  the  influence  of  malig- 
nant planets,  take  time  before  they  become  patent  out 
of  their  incubative  stages.  An  attempt  to  cure  a  doomed 
patient  is  only  repaid  by  failure  and  the  ridicule  of  the 
world,  and  hence  an  intelligent  physician  should  make 
it  worth  his  while  to  carefully  observe  and  study  these 
fatal  indications.  A  contrariety  of  the  natural  smell, 
colour,  taste,  (sensation,  sound,  touch,  etc.)  of  an  ulcer 
indicates  a  near  and  fatal  termination  of  the  disease. 

An  ulcer  emits  a  pungent,  sharp,  or  fishy  smell  under 
the  respective  influences  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  Pittam 
and  Kapham.  An  ulcer,  deranged  by  the  action  of 
the  vitiated  blood,  emits  a  smell  like  that  of  iron 
(Loha-gandhi),  while  one,  originated  through  the 
concerted  action  of  the  deranged  humours,  emits  a 
smell  characterised  by  the  distinctive  features  of  each 
of  them.  On  the  other  hand,  an  ulcer,  due  to  the  joint 
action  '^of  the  deranged  Vayu  and 'Pittam),  emits  a  smell 
like  that  of  fried  paddy  ;  one,  due  to  the  action  of 
the  deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham,  emits  a  smell  like 
that  of  linseed  oil ;  whereas  one,  brought  about  by 
the  action  of  the  deranged  Pittam  and  Kapham,  smells 
like  sesamum  oil.  All  those  odours,  marked  by  a 
somewhat  fishy  character,  should  be  deemed  the  natural 
odours  of  ulcers,  and  any  other  smell  should  be  held  as 
a  contrary  or  unnatural  one. 

268  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap.  XX\  111. 

An  ulcer  emitting  a  sweet  smell  like  that  of  wine, 
or  fragrant  aloe  wood  (Aguru),  clarified-butter,  Jati 
flower,  Champaka,  sandal,  lotus  or  any  celestial  flower 
(Divyagandha),  should  be  regarded  as  the  precursor  of 
death.  Similarly,  a  smell  like  the  one  which  character- 
ises a  dog,  horse,  mole,  crow  or  a  bug,  or  like  the  one 
emitted  by  dry,  putrid  meat,  or  resembling  the  smell  of 
earth  or  slime,  should  be  likewise  deemed  unfavourable 
or  fatal  in  an  ulcer. 

A  physician  should  give  up  a  case  where  an  ulcer, 
though  it  has  assumed  a  blackish,  saffron  or  Kankustha 
colour  (a  sort  of  mountain  earth)  through  the  action 
of  the  aggravated  Pittam,  is  divested  of  the  burning, 
sucking  and  drawing  pain,  which  is  peculiar  to  that 
morbiferous  diathesis.  Similarly,  an  ulcer,  which,  though 
brought  about  through  the  action  of  the  deranged 
Kapham,  has  become  cold,  hard  and  whitish  as  natural 
in  one  of  the  Kaphaja  type,  should  be  given  up  as  soon 
as  it  is  marked  by  a  burning  pain.  Likewise  an  ulcer, 
due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  V^iyu,  and  characterised 
by  a  blackish  hue  and  a  thin  secretion,  and  which  is 
found  to  invade  the  vital  principles  of  the  body,  should 
be  abandoned  by  a  physician,  whenever  found  to  be 
entirely  devoid  of  pain. 

An  ulcer,  which  makes  a  gurgling  or  groaning  sound, 
or  one  which  is  characterised  by  an  extreme  burn- 
ing  sensation,   oris   confined  to  the  skin  and  the  flesh, 

Chap.  XXVIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  269 

and  is  marked  by  the  emission  of  wind  with  a  loud 
report,  is  sure  to  have  a  fatal  termination.  Likewise, 
one,  which  is  characterised  by  extreme  pain,  though 
not  otherwise  seated  about  any  of  the  vital  parts  of  the 
body,  or  which  is  cold  on  the  surface,  though  attended 
with  an  extremely  burning  sensation  in  its  inside  and 
vice  versa,  should  be  deemed  the  precursor  of  death. 
Similarly,  an  ulcer  should  be  regarded  as  fatal,  that  is 
shaped  like  the  barb  of  a  spear,  or  a  Kunta  (a  kind 
of  barbed  dart  or  spear),  or  like  a  banner,  chariot, 
horse,  or  an  elephant,  or  like  a  cow,  an  ox,  a  temple, 
or  a  palace. 

A  wise  physician,  witli  any  regard  to  his  own  repu- 
tation, should  abandon  a  patient  laid  up  with  an  ulcer 
which  appears  to  have  been  dusted  over  with  a  sort  of 
pulverised  crust,  or  who  has  been  suffering  from  one  ac- 
companied by  loss  of  flesh  and  strength,  cough,  difficult 
respiration  and  aversion  to  food.  An  ulcer,  which 
occurring  at  any  of  the  vital  parts  of  the  body  secretes 
a  copious  quantity  of  pus  and  blood,  and  refuses  to 
be  healed  even  after  a  course  of  proper  and  persistent 
medical  treatment,  is  sure  to  have  a  fatal  termination. 

Thus  ends  the  twenty-eighth  Chapter  of  the  SutrasthSnam  in  the 
Sushruta  SamhitS,  which  deals  with  the  favourable  and  unfavourable 
prognosis  of  ulcers. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
treats  of  favourable  or  unfavourable  prognosis  in 
diseases,  as  known  from  messengers,  omens  and  dreams 
etc.  (Viparitarviparita-Duta-Shakuna- 
Svapna-  Nidarshaniya-madhyaryam). 

IVIctrical  Texts:— The  favourable  or  unfavour- 
able termination  of  a  disease  may  be  predicted  from 
the  appearance,  speech,  dress  and  demeanour  of  the 
messenger  sent  to  call  in  a  physician,  or  from  the 
nature  of  the  asterism  and  the  lunar  phase  marking 
the  time  of  his  arrival,  or  from  the  direction  of  the 
wind  (Anila)  blowing  at  the  time,  or  from  the  nature 
of  omens  (Shakuna)  seen  by  him  on  the  road,  or  from 
the  posture,  temperament  or  speech  of  the  physician 

A  messenger  belonging  to  the  same  caste  as  the 
patient*  should  be  regarded  as  an  auspicious  omen, 
whereas  one  from  a  different  caste  would  indicate  a 
fatal  or  an  unfavourable  termination  of  the  disease, 

A   eunuch,   a   husband  of  many  wives,  a  messenger 

*  A  P^shanda   messenger   should   be   despatched  to   call  in  a  physician 

where   a   member   of  the   same   community  would  fall  ill ;   a  householder, 

in  the  case  of  a  patient  of  the  same  social  order  ;  a  BrShmana,  in    the  case 

of  a   BrShmana   patient,   and   so   on  ;  while   an   infringement   of  the  rule 

would  be  looked  upon  as  an  evil  omen. 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  StJTRAStHANAM.  ^fl 

sent  on  a  different  errand  and  incidentally  calling  at  a 
physician's  house,  or  one  who  has  quarrelled  on  the  road, 
or  messengers  who  come  riding  on  camels,  donkeys  or 
in  carts,  or  on  foot  in  one  unbroken  line,  should  be 
looked  upon  as  inauspicious  messengers. 

Similarly,  messengers,  who  call  at  the  house  of  a 
physician,  holding  in  their  hands  a  rope,  club,  or 
any  other  weapon,  or  who  come  dressed  in  blacky  red, 
yellow,  wet,  dirty  or  torn  garments,  or  with  the  upper 
sheets  placed  or  arranged  on  their  right  shoulders 
(Apasavya),  or  clad  in  single  cloths  without  such  upper 
sheets  on,  as  well  as  those,  who  are  possessed  of  addi- 
tional or  smaller  number  of  limbs,  or  look  disturbed  and 
agitated,  or  whose  bodies  are  in  any  way  mutilated  or 
such,  as  look  fierce  and  haughty,  or  speak  in  a  rough 
and  harsh  tone,  or  utter  any  term  implying  death, 
should  be  regarded  as  augurs  of  evil. 

Likewise^  a  messenger,  tearing  off  a  blade  of  grass  or 
a  chip  of  wood  with  his  fingers,  or  handling  the  tip 
of  his  nose  or  the  nipples  of  his  breast,  or  pulling  the 
ends  of  his  cloth  or  hair,  or  the  ring-finger  of  his 
hand,  or  brushing  his  nails  and  hair,  or  standing 
with  his  fingers  in  his  ears  or  nostrils,  or  waiting 
with  his  hands  placed  on  his  cheeks,  chest  or  head, 
or  about  the  regions  of  the  arm-pits,  as  well  as 
one,  who  has  arrived  at  the  house  of  the  physician 
with  bits  of  human  skull  or  stone,  or  with  ashes,  bones, 

272         "     THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XXIX. 

paddy  husks  or  charcoal  in  the  palms  of  his  hands,  or 
one,  who  digs  into  the  earth  with  his  toe-nails,  or 
wantonly  breaks  stones  or  brickbats,  while  waiting 
at  the  physician's  house,  should  be  regarded  as  a 
messenger  of  evil  augury. 

A  messenger,  who  at  the  time  of  visiting  a  physician 
for  his  professional  help  comes  smeared  with  oil,  or  with 
red  sandal  paste  or  mud,  and  carries  a  red  garland  or  a 
ripe  but  sapless  fruit,  or  any  other  thing  of  like  nature 
in  his  hand,  or  brushes  together  the  nails  of  his  fingers 
or  touches  his  legs  with  the  hand,  or  carries  a  shoe 
in  his  hand,  or  who  appears  to  have  been  suffering  from 
a  foul  or  loathsome  disease,  further  one,  who  breathes 
heavily,  or  weeps  or  behaves  contrarily,  or  stands  with 
the  palms  of  his  hands  united  and  his  face  turned  to- 
waids  the  south,  or  waits  on  one  leg  on  an  uneven 
ground  with  the  other  raised  and  placed  on  a  higher 
support,  should  be  looked  upon  as  the  precursor  of 

A  messenger,  reporting  his  errand  to  the  physician 
while  he  is  facing  the  south,  or  who  is  in  an  unclean 
state  of  the  body,  or  engaged  in  kindling  a  fire  or  in 
killing  an  animal,  or  is  remaining  in  a  nude  state,  or  is 
found  to  be  lying  on  the  bare  floor  of  his  chamber,  or 
performing  an  afiection  after  attending  to  a  call  of 
nature,  or  anointing  himself  with  oil,  or  perspiring,  or 
sitting  with  his  hair  dishevelled,  or  in  a  state  of  mental 

[Chap.  XXIX.  sOtrasthanam.  27; 

perturbation,   is  to  be  looked  upon  as  a  messenger  fore- 
boding evil. 

A  messenger,  seeking  the  interview  of  a  physician 
M'hile  he  is  engaged  in  offering  oblations  to  his  departed 
manes,  or  to  the  gods,  or  one  who  calls  on  him  at  noon 
or  at  midnight,  at  morning  or  at  evening,  or  during  the 
happening  of  any  abnormal  physical  phenomenon,  or  at 
an  hour  under  the  influence  of  any  of  the  following 
asterisms  (lunar  mansions),  viz.  the  Ardra,  the  Ashlesa, 
the  Maghd,  the  Mula,  the  two  Purvas,  and  the  Bharani, 
or  on  the  day  of  the  fourth,  ninth,  or  the  sixth  phase 
of  the  moon  (whether  on  the  wane  or  on  the  increase), 
as  well  as  on  the  last  days  of  months  and  fortnights, 
should  be  considered  as  a  messenger  of  evil  augury. 

A  messenger,  hot  and  perspiring  from  being  seated 
near  a  blazing  fire,  and  calling  upon  a  physician  in  the 
midday,  should  be  deemed  as  an  inauspicious  one 
in  the  case  of  a  Pittaja  distemper  ;  whereas  a 
messenger  of  similar  description  should  be  looked  upon 
as  foreboding  the  favourable  termination  of  a  disease,  if 
due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham.  The  favour- 
able character  of  a  messenger  should  be  likewise  deter- 
mined in  diseases  originated  through  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Vayu,*  etc.  ;  and  an   intelligent   physician    is 

*  A  messenger,  visitin;;  a  |)liy.sician  in  ihe  afternoon  or  during  a  hea\}' 
rain  or  storm,  or  at  a  time  when  the  vital  wind  is  naturally  disturijed  and 
agitated,  indicates  an  unfavouraljlc  prognosis. 



at  liberty  to  exercise  his  own  discretion  in  determining 
the  omen.  Similarly  in  a  case  of  haemoptysis,  dysentery 
or  any  morbid  discharge  from  the  urethra  (Prameha  j, 
the  first  interview  between  a  messenger  and  a  physician 
near  a  reservoir  of  water  is  an  omen  of  happy  augury, 
A  learned  physician  shall  tluis  determine  the  ominous 
character  of  a  messenger  in  connection  with  other 
diseases  as  well. 

IVIessengers  of  happy  augury  :— A  fair 

and  handsome  messenger,  who  is  clad  in  clean  and  white 
garments,  and  belongs  to  the  same  caste  or  spiritual 
clan  (Svagotraj  as  the  patient  himself,  forebodes  the  suc- 
cessful termination  of  the  disease  (for  which  the  medical 
aid  is  needed).  A  messenger,  calling  on  a  physician  either 
on  foot  or  in  a  bullock  cart,  and  who  is  contented, 
intelligent,  capable  of  acting  according  to  the  rules  of 
decorum,  time  and  circumstances,  and  is  independent  and 
original  in  his  thoughts  and  ideas,  and  carries  ornaments, 
and  other  auspicious  articles  about  his  person,  is  alone 
capable  of  rendering  the  best  services  in  connection 
with  the  calling  in  of  a  physician.  A  messenger,  for  the 
first  time,  interviewing  a  physician,  when  the  latter  is 
complacently  seated  with  his  face  towards  the  east,  and 
on  a  clean  and  even  ground,  should  be  regarded  as  a 
messenger  of  happy  augury. 

Raw    meat,   a    pitcher   full    of  water,    an  umbrella, 
a  Bramhana,  an  elephant,  a  cow,  an  ox   and   an   article 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  SUTKASTHANAM.  275 

of  a  white  colour,  should  be  deemed  auspicious  sights  by 
a  physician  on  his  way  ]to  the  house  of  a  patient.  A 
mother,  a  cow  with  her  calf,  a  small  pitcher  of  water,  a 
decorated  virgin,  fish,  unripe  fruits,  a  Svastika  (a  cross 
shaped  religious  insignia),  sweetmeat,  curd,  gold,  a 
vessel  full  of  sun-dried  rice,  gems,  flowers  (according 
to  certain  commentators  a  well  disposed  king),  a  blazing 
fire,  a  horse,  a  swan,  a  peacock,  a  bird  of  the  Chasha 
species,  chantings  of  Vedic  verses,  claps  of  thunder, 
blowings  of  conch-shells,  notes  of  lutes,  sounds  of 
chariot  wheels,  roar  of  lions,  lowings  of  cows  and 
bullocks,  neighings  of  horses,  trumpeting  of  elephants, 
cacklings  of  geese,  hootings  of  owls,  and  the  pleasant 
conversation  of  persons  going  to  the  palace  of  a  king, 
should  be  regarded  as  lucky  sights  and  sounds  by  a 
physician  on  his  way  (to  the  house  of  a  patient). 

Similarly,  harmonious  melodies  of  birds  chirping 
on  the  boughs  of  healthy  Kshira  trees,  bent  under 
the  weight  of  fruit,  and  looking  gladsome  with  their 
dowry  of  beautiful  blossoms  and  foliage,  or  notes  of 
birds  perched  on  the  terraces  of  palace  towers  or  on 
the  tops  of  banner  poles  singing  melodiously,  or  birds 
following  the  messenger  with  their  songs  or  singing 
seated  from  the  auspicious  quarters  of  the  heavens,  or 
following  him  on  his  left,  should  be  equally  regarded 
as  sights  and  notes  of  happy  foreboding. 

A   bird,   seated  on  the  withered  trunk  of  a  blighted 


THR  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA      1  Chap.  xxix. 

or  thunder-blasted  tree,  or  on  a  thorny  knoll  covered 
over  with  creepers,  or  on  ashes  or  stones,  or  amidst 
ordure  or  husks  of  grain,  or  on  dried  skeletons, 
and  singing  in  a  harsh  voice  with  its  head  turned 
towards  the  blazing  or  inauspicious  quarter  of  the 
sky,  should  be  deemed  as  portending  evil. 

Similarly,  birds,  which  are  possessed  of  names  of 
masculine  terminations  are  happy  omens  if  seen  on 
the  left  by  a  physician  on  his  way  to  the  house  of 
a  patient,  while  birds,  on  a  similar  occasion,  whose 
names  have  feminine  endings,  are  auspicious  if  seen 
bv  him  on  the  right.  A  dog  or  a  jackal,  seen  run- 
ning from  the  right  to  the  left,  is  a  hapjn-  omen, 
and  so  is  a  mongoose  or  a  Chasha  bird  if  seen  on  the 
left.  A  hare,  a  serpent,  or  an  owl,  seen  on  either  side 
of  the  road,  is  an  inauspicious  sight.  The  sight  and 
the  sound  of  a  Godha  or  a  Krikal^sha  an  animal  of 
of  the  lizard  species)  are  both  inauspicious. 

If  a  man,  other  than  a  messenger  of  inauspicious 
character  but  possessed  of  features  alike  unfavourable, 
should  happen  to  cross  the  way  of  a  physician,  just 
starting  on  a  professional  call,  he  should  be  regarded 
as  equallv  indicative  of  evil.  The  sight  of  a  vessel 
full  of  Kulutha  pulse,  or  of  husks  of  grain,  or  of  stone, 
ashes,  clay  or  charcoal,  or  of  oil,  is  inauspicious. 
Similarly,  the  sight  of  a  vessel  filled  with  red  mustard 
or   witli    wine   other   than    whicli    is     clear    and   mild 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  277 

(Prasanna)    should    be     deemed    an     omen     of    evil 

Similarly,  the  sight  of  a  parched  corpse,  or  of  a 
withered  tree  or  Pal^sha  branch,  is  equally  inauspicious. 
A  physician,  meeting  a  member  of  any  of  the  vile  or 
degraded  castes  or  a  blind  or  indigent  person,  or  a  man 
inimically  disposed  towards  him,  should  consider  the 
character  of  the  disease  to  be  unfavourable. 

A  gentle,  cool  and  fragrant  breeze,  blowing  from 
the  direction  of  his  destination,  should  be  regarded  as 
an  auspicious  omen  by  a  physician.  A  wind,  which 
is  hot,  dry,  and  is  charged  with  the  fetid  exalations 
of  putrid  matter,  and  which  blows  from  the  direction 
of  his  starting  point,  should  be  regarded  as  an  evil 

The  word  "cut,"  used  by  another  and  accidentallv 
heard  by  a  physician  fon  his  wa^O  to  the  bed-side  of  a 
patient  laid  up  with  Granthi  (aneurism)  or  Arvuda 
(tumour),  should  be  regarded  as  a  good  omen  ;  while  the 
term  "open",  heard  under  similar  circumstances  and  in 
connection  with  a  case  of  Vidradhi  (abscess),  or  Gulma 
(abdominal  gland\  or  Udara  (ascites),  should  be  regarded 
as  an  equally  auspicious  portent.  Similarly,  the  term 
"stopped"  is  commended  in  a  case  of  dysenter}'  or 
haemoptysis.  Thus  the  physician  should  interpret 
the  auguries  according  to  the  nature  of  each  individual 

278  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XXIX 

A  curse,  imprecation,  or  wailing  like  "woe  to  me", 
as  well  as  sobs,  groans,  reports  of  defecation  or  vomit- 
ing, the  brayings  of  an  ass,  the  frightened  sound  of 
a  camel,  an  obstacle  or  impediment  in  the  path  of 
a  physician,  or  a  sudden  breakage,  collapse,  or  the 
falling  of  any  article  from  a  cupboard,  and  a  sad 
or  dejected  spirit  of  the  physician  without  any  assign- 
able cause,  should  be  regarded  as  evil  omens  at  the 
time  of  his  starting. 

These  omens  should  be  observed  or  attended  to 
at  the  time  of  first  entering  the  house  of  a  patient, 
or  at  the  threshold  or  within  its  walls,  but  not  after 
the  physician  has  once  commenced  the  medical  treat- 
ment. The  sight  of  a  knot  of  torn  hairs,  ashes,  bones, 
wood,  stone,  husks  of  grain,  cotton,  thorns,  a  bedstead 
with  its  legs  upturned,  wine,  water,  fat,  oil,  sesamum, 
dried  grass,  straw,  a  eunuch,  a  deformed  person  or  one 
with  a  broken  limb,  a  nude  man,  or  one  with  a  clean 
shaved  head,  or  clad  in  a  black  garment,  should  be 
regarded  as  evil  omens  by  a  physician,  whether  noticed 
b}'  him  at  the  time  of  starting  or  after  getting  into 
a  sick  room.  Pots  or  utensils  placed  in  pendent  brackets, 
and  found  to  be  spontaneously  moving  about  without 
any  definite  cause,  as  well  as  any  other  fallen  articles 
digged  in,  smashed  in  or  thrown  out  of  the 
sick-room  ;  a  ph3^sician  sitting  dejected  and  gathered 
up  in  his  seat,  and  the  patient  sitting  with  a  down- 
cast face,   or  pricking  his  body  or   at   the  bed  clothes 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  SUTRASFHANAM.  279 

while  talking  with  the  physician,  or  shaking  his  hands, 
back  or  head,  or  taking  hold  of  or  placing  the  hands 
of  the  physician  in  his  own,  or  on  his  breast,  or  interro- 
gating the  physician  with  an  up-turned  face,  or 
pressing  his  own  limbs,  when  he  is  interrogated  by 
the  physician  in  return,  should  be  considered  as 
unfavourable  signs. 

The  patient,  in  whose  house  a  physician  is  not 
duly  honoured,  can  never  rally.  The  due  honouring  of 
a  physician  leads  to  a  speedy  recoAery.  A  messenger 
of  good  omen  forebodes  the  favourable  termination 
of  a  disease,  while  the  contrary  is  indicated  by  a 
messenger  of  the  opposite  type.  Hence  a  physician 
shall  carefully  observe  the  ominous  character  of  a 
messenger  (despatched  to  seek  his  aid  . 

Dreams  : — Now  I  shall  describe  the  dreams, 
which  either  being  dreamt  by  the  patient,  or  by  his 
relations,  portend  fatal  or  a  successful  close  of  the 
malady.  The  patient,  who  dreams  of  going  towards 
the  south  on  the  back  of  an  elephant,  or  on  that  of 
any  carnivorous  animal,  or  of  riding  on  a  boar  or 
on  a  buffalo,  or  sees  himself  carried  towards  the 
quarter  by  a  dark  woman  with  dishevelled  hair  and 
clad  in  a  blood- red  garment — laughing  and  dancing,  soon 
meets  his  doom.  A  dream  by  a  patient  that  members  of 
vile  castes  have  been  drawing  him  southward,  or  that 
ghosts  or  anchorites  have  been   embracing  him,  or  that 

28o  THE  SUSHRUtA  SAMHITA.       Chap.  xxix. 

savage  beasts  with  diabolical  faces  have  been  smelling 
his  head,  predicts  that  his  earthly  days  are  numbered, 
while  such  dreams  occurring  in  a  healthy  subject 
indicate  an  impending  disease. 

Similarly,  the  patient,  who  dreams  of  drinking  oil  or 
honey,  or  of  diving  into  a  bed  of  dank  or  oozy  slime, 
or  of  laughing  and  dancing  mud-besplattered,  is  at  the 
threshold  of  death.  A  dream  of  ha^*ing  entwined  a 
wreath  of  red  iiowers  round  one's  head,  though  other- 
wise nude  or  stripped  of  clothes,  or  of  seeing  reeds, 
bamboos,  or  palm  trees  growing  on  his  chest,  portends 
the  impending  death  of  a  patient.  On  the  other 
hand,  such  dreams,  occurring  in  a  healthy  subject,, 
forebode  the  advent  of  disease.  I.ikewise,  the  patient, 
who  dreams  of  being  eaten  up  b}'  fish,  or  who  fancies 
himself  again  entering  into  the  womb  of  his  mother, 
or  thinks  he  is  falling  from  the  summit  of  a  mountain  or 
into  a  dark  and  dismal  cave,  or  as  being  carried  away  by 
the  current  of  a  river,  or  assailed  and  overwhelmed  by  a 
pack  of  crows,  is  already  a  doomed  being.  The  dream 
of  a  clean  shaved  head,  or  of  falling  stars,  or  of  dying 
lamp  light,  or  of  the  extraction  of  one's  own  eyes,  or  of 
shaking  divine  images,  or  of  earthquakes,  purgings,  vomit- 
ings or  falling  out  of  one's  own  teeth,  is  always  fatal. 
The  patient,  who  dreams  of  climbing  a  Shalmali,  Kinsuka, 
or  Pari-bhadra  tree,  or  of  ascending  an  ant-hill  or  a 
funeral  pyre,  or  of  witnessing  himself  bound  to   a   sacri- 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  281 

ficical  stake,  or  of  receiving  or  eating,  cotton, 
levigated  sesamum  paste, .  iron,  salt,  sesamum,  boiled 
rice,  or  drinking  oil  or  wine  (Sura),  as  the  case  may  be, 
should  consider  himself  as  a  doomed  being,  while  such 
dreams  in  a  healthy  subject  indicate  the  impending 
attack  of  a  disease. 

A  dream  should  be  regarded  as  ineffectual  which 
is  quite  in  conformity  with  the  physical  temperament  of 
the  dreamer  (such  as,  one  of  scaling  the  heavens 
by  a  person  of  Vataja  temperament  ;  one  of  seeing 
a  blazing  fire,  a  flash  of  lightning,  or  a  meteor-fall 
by  a  man  of  Pittaja  temperament  ;  and  one  of  wit- 
nessing reservoirs  of  water,  etc.  by  a  man  of  Kaphaja 
temperamentj  as  well  as  one  which  has  been  forgotten 
or  followed  by  another  of  an  auspicious  type  or  is  the 
outcome  of  premeditated  thought  like  one  dreamt  in 
the  da}'  time. 

A  fever  patient  dreaming  of  friendship  with  a  dog, 
a  consumptive  one  dreaming  of  making  friends  with  a 
monkey  or  a  monster  ;  a  hysteric  patient  who  dreams  of 
making  friendship  with  a  ghost ;  a  Prameha  or  dj'sentery 
patient  dreaming  of  drinking  water  ;  a  leper  dreaming  of 
drinking  oil,  or  a  Gulma  patient  dreaming  of  a  tree  grow- 
on  his  belly,  should  count  his  days  as  numbered.  A  person 
afflicted  with  any  disease  of  the  head,  and  dreaming 
of  a  tree  growing  on  his  head,  or  one  suffering  from 
vomiting  and  dreaming  of  eating   sesamum   cakes  ;  or 


282  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap.  XXIX. 

an  asthma  patient,  or  a  person,  afflicted  with  thirst, 
dreaming  of  making  a  journey  on  foot  ;  or  a  jaundice 
patient  dreaming  of  eating  a  food  prepared  with 
turmeric  ;  or  a  person  suffering  from  hecmoptysis  and 
dreaming  of  drinking  blood,  should  be  considered  as  about 
to  depart  this  life.  A  patient  having  had  any  of  the 
aforesaid  dreams,  under  the  circumstances,  should  get 
up  in  the  morning  and  make  a  gift  of  Masha-pulse, 
sesamum,  iron  and  gold  to  the  Brahmanas,  and  repeat 
the  blessed  Tripada  Gayatri  (Mantras J 

Having  dreamt  a  bad  dream  in  the  first  watch  of  the 
night,  a  person  should  meditate  upon  a  holy  or  auspicious 
subject,  and  then  lie  down  again  with  all  his  senses  fully 
controlled,  and  repeat  the  Mantras  sacred  to  any  of  the 
gods.  An  evil  dream  should  not  be  related  to  another. 
The  dreamer  of  the  dream  should  reside  in  a  holy 
temple  for  three  consecutive  nights,,  and  worship  the 
deity  with  the  most  fervent  devotion,  whereby  its  evil 
effects  would  become  nullified. 

Now  we  shall  describe  the  dreams,  which  are 
of  auspicious  nature.  Members  of  the  twice  born 
castes,  gods,  cows,  bullocks,  kings,  one's  own  living 
friends  and  relations,  a  blazing  fire,  a  Brahmana,  or  a 
sheet  of  clear  water  seen  in  a  dream  by  a  healthy  person 
predict  or  predicts  to  him  a  pecuniary  gain  in  the  near 
future,  while  such  dreams  occurring  in  a  diseased  person 
indicate    a  speed}'   recovery  of  the  disease  he   has  been 

Chap.  XXIX.  ]  SUTKASTHANAM.  28" 

suffering  from.  Similarly,  dreams  of  meat,  fish,  garlands 
of  white  flowers,  cloths  and  fruit  predict  a  gain  or  a 
speedy  cure,  as  the  case  may  be. 

Dreams  of  ascending  the  terrace  of  a  royal 
palace,  of  climbing  a  tree  or  a  hill,  or  of  riding  an 
elephant  predict  similar  results  as  above.  A  dream  of 
one's  sailing  over  a  river,  pool  or  sea  of  turbid  water 
predicts  a  money  gain  or  cure,  according  as  one  is 
healthy  or  diseased.  A  dream  of  having  been  bit 
or  stung  by  a  serpent,  by  leeches,  or  by  a  bee,  indicates 
bliss  or  cure,  according  to  one's  good  or  bad  health 
at  the  time.  The  man,  who  usually  gets  such  auspicious 
dreams,  should  be  looked  upon  as  a  long-lived  man, 
and  may  be  unhesitatingly  taken  under  medical 
treatment   by  a  physician. 

Thus  ends  the  Uventy-nintli  Chapter  of  the  Sutiasthinam  in  the 
Sushruta  SamhitS,  which  deals  with  favourable  or  unfavourable  prognosis 
from  messengers,  birds,  omens  etc. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 

of  the  prognosis  that  can  be  obtained  from  the  perverted 

functions   of  the     five     sense    organs     ( Pane  he  n- 

d  riyartha- Vi  prati  pattf  -  madhyaryam) . 

Metrical  texts  ; — A  perversion  or  contrariety 
of  the  functions  of  the  mind  or  brain  (Shilam),  and 
of  the  organs  of  sense-perception,  is  called  Arishtam 
(an  unfavourable  symptom  foreboding  death).  Now 
hear  me  describe,  in  brief  detail,  the  symptoms  which 
are  called  Arishta  (fatal  indications). 

The  man,  who  hears  a  variety  of  divine  sounds 
even  in  tlie  absence  of  any  of  the  celestial  beings, 
(such  as,  the  Siddhas,  the  Gandharvas  etc.),  or  thinks 
that  he  is  hearing  the  uproar  of  a  city,  or  the 
moanings  of  the  sea,  or  the  rumbling  of  a  rain 
cloud,  without  their  actual  presence  or  proximity,  or 
who  is  incapable  of  catching  their  sounds  even  when 
they  are  actually  present  and  sounding,  or  assigns  to 
them  causes  other  than  the  actual  ones,  should  be 
regarded  as  a  doomed  being.  The  person,  who  interprets 
the  uproar  of  a  city  or  the  rustling  forest  as  sounds 
emanating  from  other  sources,  or  rejoices  at  the  voice 
of  his  enemies,  and  is  annoyed  at  that  of  his  own 
devoted   friends,    or   who   suddenly   loses    the    faculty 

Chap.  XXX.  J  SUTRASTHANAM.  285 

of  hearing   without   any   manifest  or  tangible   reason, 
should  be  deemed  as  already  on  the  threshold  of  death. 

The  man,  who  feels  cold  when  touching  a  hot 
or  warm  substance,  and,  vice  versa,  complains  of 
a  burning  sensation  even  when  suffering  from  a  boil, 
or  a  postule  of  the  Kaphaja  type  (characterised  by 
numbness,  shivering,  etc,  or  shivers  when  the  tem- 
perature of  his  body  is  felt  to  be  considerably  high, 
should  be  looked  upon  as  already  on  the  point  of 
death.  The  person,  who  has  lost  the  faculty  of  touch, 
and  does  not  feel  any  pain  in  any  part  of  the  body 
when  it  is  struck  or  amputated,  or  feels  as  if  his 
body  had  been  strewn  over  with  particles  of  dust, 
or  suffers  from  discoloration  of  the  skin  which  becomes 
marked  with  blue  or  red  stripes,  and  who  is  harassed 
by  hosts  of  blue  flies  after  a  bath  or  an  anointment, 
should  be  regarded  as  one  who  has  already  passed  the 
confines  of  life. 

Similarly,  the  man  whose  body  emits  a  fragrant  smell 
without  having  been  rubbed  with  any  kind  of  perfume, 
or  to  whom  a  sweet  thing  tastes  acid,  and  an  acid  tastes 
sweet,  or  who  exhibits  symptoms  of  a  general  per- 
version of  the  faculty  of  taste,  or  in  whom  (articles 
of)  different  tastes  (administered  in  their  officinal 
order  of  enumeration')  tend  to  aggravate  the  deranged 
bodily  humours,  or  bring  about  their  pacification  and 
a  dulness   of  appetite  if  partaken  of  in  the  inverted 

286  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  XXX. 

order,   should   be   regarded   as   a   departed    soul,    like 
the  one  who  has  lost  the  faculty  of  taste. 

The  man,  who  deems  a  fetid  odour  to  be  a  fragrant 
perfume,  or  one  fragi'ant  to  be  fetid,  or  one  who  does 
not  feel  any  discomfort  even  at  the  smell  of  a  burning 
lamp  wick  that  has  just  been  extinguished,  or  who  has 
entirely  lost  the  faculty  of  smell,  should  be  looked 
upon  as  a  dead  man. 

The  man,  to  whom  the  twin  attributes  of  heat  and 
cold,  pleasure  and  pain,  as  well  as  the  peculiarities  of 
weather  (as  storm,  drought,  snowfall,  etc.),  and  the 
different  quarters  of  the  sky  appear  to  be  reversed  or 
inverted  ;  one  who  has  lost  all  distinctions  (of  joy  and 
misery,  storm  and  sunshine,  heat  and  cold,  etc.),  or  to 
whom  the  specific  attributes  of  things  appear  to  be 
contrary  and  reversed,  should  be  regarded  as  on  the 
point  of  death.  The  man,  who  sees  stars  ablaze  in  the 
broad  day-light  or  fancies  seeing  the  fiery  orb  of 
the  sun  by  night  an.d  the  mellow  disc  of  the  moon 
by  day,  or  who  seems  to  witness  the  phenomena  of 
rainbow  and  lightning  even  in  the  absence  of  any 
rain  cloud,  or  the  formation  of  a  lightning-spangled 
rain-cloud  even  in  a  clear  blue  sky,  is  sure  to  be 
speedily  gathered  to  his  rest.  The  man,  who  observes 
the  reflected  images  of  chariots,  palaces  and  aerial 
cars  in  the  heavens,  or  sees  the  embodied  images  of 
the   fire   and    sky     gods,     or    to     whom     the     earth 

Chap.  XXX.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  287 

appears  to  be  enveloped  in  frost  or  smoke,  or 
enshrouded  in  a  sheet  of  fine  linen,  or  chequered 
with  cross  lines,  or  blazing  with  fire,  or  flooded  with 
water,  or  to  whose  sight  the  Pole  Star  and  the  asterism 
Arundhati  (one  of  the  Pliades)  and  the  Milky  Way 
remain  invisible,  should  be  reckoned  as  already  with 
the  dead. 

The  man,  who  foils  to  see  his  own  image  reflected 
in  a  mirror,  in  the  moonlight,  or  in  hot  water,  or  sees 
but  distorted  reflections  of  himself  or  of  any  other 
animal,  or  of  dogs,  cows,  storks,  vultures,  ghosts, 
Yakshas,  Rakshas,  Pishachas  and  Nagas,  should  be 
regarded  as  about  to  depart  this  life.  The  man,  to 
whom  fire  appears  to  be  free  of  its  natural  accom 
paniment  of  smoke,  or  that  it  is  possessed  of  a  colour 
resembling  the  hue  of  the  breast  feathers  of  a 
peacock,  should  be  regarded  as  doomed,  (if  happening 
to  be  suffering  from  any  disease).  On  the  other  hand, 
these  phenomena  indicate  the  approach  of  a  disease 
in  one,  who  is  found  to  be  as  yet  in  the  enjoyment 
of  apparent  health. 

Thus  ends  the  thirtieth  Chapter  of  the  Sulrasthdnam  in  the  Sushriita 
Samhitd  which  deals  with  prognosis  from  the  perverted  functions  of  the 
live  sense  ortrans. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
deals  with  the  prognosis  to  be  gathered  from  the 
altered  condition  of  features  (Chhd'yar-Viprati- 
patti  madhy^yam).* 

IVIetrical  Text: — The  man,  whose  complexion 
suddenly  assumes  a  brown,  red,  blue  or  yellow  shade, 
should  be  regarded  as  already  gathered  to  his  rest.  The 
man,  who  has  lost  all  sense  of  modesty  or  propriety, 
and  whose  complexion,  and  whose  strength  (ojah)  and 
memory  have  suddenly  undergone  discolouration  or 
extreme  deterioration,  should  be  counted  with  the  dead. 
Little  chance  there  is  of  the  life  of  a  patient  whose 
lower  lip  hangs  down  while  the  upper  one  is  drawn  or 
turned  up,  and  both  of  them  have  assumed  a  black 
colour  like  that  of  a  jamboline  fruit.  The  patient, 
whose   teeth   fall   out  or  which  have  assumed  a  reddish 

*  Physicians  of  the  Ayurvedic  School,  however,  observe  a  dislinclion 
between  Chhiyd  (shade  of  complexion),  PrabhA  (healthful  glow  of  the 
complexion),  and  Varna  (natural  colour  of  the  complexion)  itself.  The 
Chh%d  or  the  shade  of  one's  complexion  may  be  easily  distinguished 
as  clear,  rough  or  cool,  etc.  and  can  be  detected  only  on  a  close  view. 
The  Prabhd,  on  the  other  hand,  is  visible  from  a  distance  and  admits  of 
of  being  divided  into  seven  different  types,  such  as  red,  yellow,  while, 
brown,  greenish,  pale,  and  black.  The  Varna  or  the  natural  colour  of 
the  complexion  of  a  man  is  found  to  be  either  fair,  black,  dusky  leaning 
towards  the  fair,  according  to  his  race  and  habitation.  The  term  also 
includes  natural  modestv,  look  and  ease. 

Chap.  XXXI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  289 

or  a  dark  brown  colour,  or  a  colour  like  that  of  a 
Khanjana  bird  (dark  blue),  should  be  reckoned  as  already- 
gathered  to  his  fathers. 

The  patient,  whose  tongue  has  become  furred, 
swollen,  or  inert,  or  is  of  a  black  colour,  should  be 
considered  as  already  at  the  gate  of  death.  The  patient, 
whose  nose  has  sunk  or  become  bent,  cracked,  dried, 
or  who  when  breathing  makes  a  gurgling  sound  through 
the  nostrils,  should  be  given  up  as  lost.  A  patient 
is  certainly  quitting  this  life  whose  eyes  appear  to  be 
contracted,  or  unequal,  oblique,  or  inert,  insensitive  to 
light  or  touch,  sunk  in  their  sockets,  or  bloody,  or 
marked  by  a  copious  lachrymation.  The  patient  whose 
hair  appears  to  have  been  glued  to  his  head  whose 
eyebrows  are  contracted  and  hang  down,  and  whose 
eyelashes  are  listless  should  be  considered  as  about  to 
leave  his  mortal  frame. 

The  patient,  who  is  incapable  of  swallowing  any  food 
or  of  holding  up  his  head,  and  who  looks  with  a  kind  of 
fixed  stare,  with  all  memories  of  life  fully  obliterated, 
should  be  deemed  as  d3'ing  on  that  very  day.  A  wise 
or  prudent  physician  should  give  up  the  medical 
treatment  of  a  patient,  no  matter  whether  strong 
or  weak,  who  is  found  to  be  fainting  away  every 
time  he  is  lifted  up  or  seated.  The  patient,  who 
constantly-  extends  or  draws  up  his  lower  extremities, 
or  keeps  them    in   a  gathered  up  posture,  should  be 


290  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXXI. 

looked  upon  as  rapidly  succumbing.  A  wise  physician 
should  abandon  a  patient,  characterised  by  the  cold- 
ness of  his  breath  and  extremities  and  a  hurried  and 
intermittent  respiration,  or  who  is  found  breathing  with 
his  mouth  open,  or  lips  separated. 

Similarly,  a  patient  affected  with  a  kind  of  stupor 
or  insomnia  and  remaining  drowsy,  all  day  long,  or 
fainting  at  the  least  attempt  of  speaking,  should  be 
counted  with  the  dead.  The  patient,  who  licks  his  upper 
lip,  or  is  troubled  with  eructations,  or  holds  conversa- 
tions with  the  departed,  should  be  deemed  as  already 
entered  into  the  region  of  the  dead.  A  man,  spontane- 
ously bleeding  through  the  roots  of  his  hairs  (pores  of  the 
skin)  otherwise  than  in  a  case  of  poisoning,  should  be 
deemed  as  dying  on  that  day. 

A  patient,  affected  with  an  up-coursing  pain  about 
the  cardiac  region,  like  the  one  which  distinguishes  a 
case  of  V^tashtila  (^appearance  of  a  stone-like  lump 
rising  or  seated  within  the  thorax  and  ascribed  to  the 
action  of  the  deranged  Vayu),  accompanied  by  an 
aversion  to  food,  etc.,  should  be  already  reckoned  among 
the  dead. 

An  idiopathic  swelling  (Shopha)  first  occurring  in 
either  of  the  lower  extremities  in  a  male  patient  not  as  a 
complication  of  an}'  other  disease*,  as  well  as  a  similar 
swelling  first  appearing  at  the  face,  or  about  the   region 

*     Such  as  Chlorosis,  Ascites,  lioemorrhoids. 

Chap.  XXXI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  291 

of  the  anus   in   a   male   or  a  female  patient,  is  sure  to 
have  a  fatal  termination.     • 

A  patient,  suffering  ■  from  cough  or  asthma 
attended  with  dysentery,  fever,  hic-cough,  vomiting 
and  swelling  of  the  penis  and  the  scrotum,  should 
be  given  up  as  lost.  Excessive  perspiration,  burning, 
hic-cough,  dyspnoea  and  hyperpyrexia  with  a  burning 
sensation  of  the  body,  are  undoubtedl)'  capable  of 
extinguishing  the  vital  spark  even  in  a  strong  patient. 
Similarl}^  a  patient,  with  a  black  coated  tongue  and  the 
left  eye  sunk  in  its  socket  and  a  foul  smell  from  the 
mouth,  should  be  given  up  as  lost. 

The  mouth  of  a  man,  who  is  on  his  way  to  the 
mansions  of  the  god  of  death,  becomes  filled  v^ith  tears, 
the  legs  are  wet  with  perspiration,  and  the  pupils 
of  the  eyes  roll  about  or  become  listless. 

The  patient,  whose  limbs  become  all  of  a  sudden 
abnormally  light  or  heavy,  is  sure  to  go  to  the  region  of 
the  son  of  the  da5''-god  (Yama.i  The  patient,  whose 
body  emits  a  fishy,  dirty  or  a  fragrant  smell,  or  smells 
like  fat,  oil,  or  clarified-butter,  is  on  the  way  to  the 
mansions  of  Death. 

The  patient  on  whose  forehead  lice  freely  move 
about,  or  whose  offerings  the  crows  do  not  eat,  or  who 
does  not  find  comfort  in  any  position  or  place,  goes  to 
the  mansions  of  the  god  of  death.    A  patient,  who  has 

2g2  ''^HE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA',      [Chap.  xxxi. 

become  emaciated  and  enfeebled,  or  has  been  suffering 
from  a  complication  of  such  diseases  as  fever,  dysentery, 
oedema,  etc.,  one  supervening  another  pre-existing 
malady,  should  be  deemed  as  beyond  the  pale 
of  medicine.  A  ravenous  hunger  or  an  unquench- 
able thirst  in  a  weak  patient,  who  refuses 
to  be  appeased  or  satisfied  with  sweet,  whole- 
some and  ]ialatable  food  or  drink,  should  be  re- 
garded as  a  fatal  indication.  A  patient  exhibiting 
such  symptoms  as  diarrhoea,  an  excruciating  headache, 
colic  in  the  intestines,  thirst  and  gradual  faihng  of 
strength,  stands  in  danger  of  imminent  death. 
Death  is  due  to  the  transitory  character  of  life, 
or  it  may  be  attributed  to  irregular  conduct,  or 
to  the  deeds  of  one's  previous  existence  transformed 
into  the  dynamics  of  fate. 

Ghosts,  evil  spirits,  Pishachas  and  monsters  of 
various  shapes  and  denomination,  constanth^  lead  men 
to  death.  These  evil  spirits,  owing  to  their  natural 
killing  propensities,  nullify  the  efficacies  of  medicines ; 
and  hence  it  is  futile  to  take  in  hand  the  medical  treat- 
ment of  a  man  who  exhibits  any  of  the  abovesaid  fatal 
symptoms,  and  thereby  testifies  that  lie  has  fallen  into 
the  clutches  of  such  evil  spirits. 

Thus  ends  the  Thirty-first  Chapter  of  the  SutrasthSnam  in  the  Sushruta- 
SamhitA  which  deals  with  prognosis  from  perverted  features. 

Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  the  prognosis  based  on  the  perversion  of  the  external 
appearances   of   the  body    (Svabha'va-viprati- 
patti  -  madhyaryam) . 

A  contrariety  of  the  natural  features  of  any  part  or 
member  of  the  body  should  be  looked  upon  as  a  fatal 
indication.  The  blackness  of  a  limb  or  a  part  which 
is  naturally  white,*  or  the  whiteness  of  a  blackf  part, 
or  a  naturally  red|  part,  or  member,  etc.  assuming  any 
other  colour,  or  a  hard§  part  becoming  soft,  and 
vice  versaW,  or  a  movableU  part  suddenly  becoming 
fixed,  and  vice  versa**  or  the  contraction  (flexion)  of  an 
extended  part,  or  the  extension  or  expansion  of  a 
contracted  (flexible;  part,  or  a  shorttt  part  suddenly 
becoming  elongatedji,  and  vice  versa,  or  a  sudden 
hanging  down  of  a  part  or  member  of  the  body  which 
does  not  naturally §§  hang  down,  and  vice  versa\\\\, 
or  a  sudden  increase  or  decrease  of  natural  temperature 
of  any  part,  member,  or  organ  of  the  body,  as  well 
as  its  sudden  glossiness,  roughness,  numbness,  discolour- 
ation, weakness,  or  weariness,  should  be  looked  upon  as 
fatal  symptoms. 

*  The  teeth  and  the  cornea,  f  The  iris,  J  The  tongue  and  the 
palate,  etc.  §  Bones,  teeth,  etc.  |i  Soft  parts  such  as  the  flesh,  fat,  etc. 
H  Joints,  etc.  **  Nose,  ears  and  flesh,  etc.  ft  Head  and  forehead,  etc. 
XX  Pupils,  etc.     §§  Hair,  nails,  etc.     |i||  Perspiration,  urine  and  feces,  etc. 



(Similarly)  a  limb  or  a  part  of  the  body,  hanging 
down  from  its  natural  position,  or  becoming  raised  or 
twisted  round,  or  cast  obliquely  from  its  natural  seat,  or 
dislocated,  or  protruded,  or  drawn  inward,  or  suddenly 
becoming  light  or  heavy  without  any  definite  or 
assignable  cause,  or  a  sudden  eruption  of  a  coral- 
coloured  rash  or  Vyanga,  should  be  regarded  as  indicat- 
ing a  speedy  dissolution  of  the  patient  in  whom  they 
are  exhibited. 

Likewise,  the  appearance  of  veins  in  the  region  of 
the  forehead,  or  an  eruption  of  postules  on  the  ridge  of 
the  nose,  perspiration  on  the  forehead  in  the  morning, 
copious  lachrymation  without  any  ocular  complaint, 
a  sense  of  being  dusted  with  dried  and  pulverised 
cowdung  over  the  face,  or  the  flying  of  pigeons,  Kankas, 
etc,  over  one's  head,  or  excessive  micturitions  or 
motions  of  the  bowels  from  an  empty  stomach,  or  a 
suppression  of  urine  or  feces  even  after  a  hearty  meal 
or  draught,  is  fatal.  So  also,  pain  and  aching  about  the 
breast  and  the  chest,  emaciation  of  the  extremities 
and  an  oedema  of  the  middle  part  of  the  trunk,  and 
vice  versa  ;  or  an  oedema  of  the  upper  trunk  and 
emaciation  of  the  lower  part,  and  vice  versa  ;  or  an 
oedema  of  the  left  half  of  the  body  and  emaciation 
of  the  right,  and  vice  versa  ;  or  hoarseness,  huskiness,  or 
loss  of  voice,  discolouring  of  the  teeth,  nails  or  of  the 
skin,  eruption  of  white  patches  on  the  chest,  etc,  of  the 

Chap.  XXXII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  295 

body,  should  be  deemed   as   signs  which   forebode   the 
approaching  dissolution  of  an  individual. 

Moreover  the  patient,  whose  semen,  or  expectorated 
or  fecal  matter  does  not  float  on  water,  or  who  sees  the 
distorted  or  bifurcated  images  of  objects,  or  whose  hair 
shines  with  a  gloss  as  if  anointed  with  oil,  finds  his 
relief  in  death.  A  weak  dysentery  patient  with 
a  complete  aversion  to  food,  or  one  who  is 
tormented  with  thirst  even  when  suffering  from 
a  cough,  or  a  man  suffering  from  chronic  catarrh 
with  a  complete  loathing  for  food,  or  from 
gastritis  ^Sula)  with  aphonia,  and  vomiting  frothy 
blood  and  pus,  should  be  regarded  as  past  all  cure.  A 
patient,  enfeebled  and  emaciated  through  fever,  cough 
and  an  oedematous  swelling  of  the  face  and  the  extre- 
mities, and  showing  the  greatest  aversion  to  food, 
and  the  muscles  of  whose  calves,  shoulders  and  thighs 
have  grown  loose  and  flabby,  should  be  considered  as 
awaiting  the  call  of  death. 

A  patient,  suffering  from  fever,  cough,  and  vomiting, 
or  passing  with  the  stool,  in  the  evening,  undigested 
food  matter  eaten  in  the  morning,  would  die  of  asthma. 
The  patient,  who  falls  to  the  ground  bleating  hke  a 
goat,  and  exhibits  such  symptoms  as  a  rupture  of  the 
testes,  numbness  of  the  penis,  drooping  of  the  neck 
and  introsusception  of  the  penis,  should  be  considered 
as  past  all  cure.     The  patient,  whose  heart   is   first  felt 

296  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXXII. 

dry  followed  by  becoming  covered  with  a  slimy 
moisture  of  the  whole  body,  as  well  as  one  who  strikes 
a  stone  with  a  stone,  or  a  piece  of  wood  with  a 
piece  of  wood,  or  who  cleaves  in  two  blades  of 
dried  grass,  or  one  who  bites  his  lower  lip  and  licks  the 
upper  one,  or  draws  his  ears  and  tears  his  hair,  or  dis- 
honours the  gods  and  the  Brahmanas,  as  well  as  his 
own  physician,  friends  and  relations,  should  be  regarded 
as  beyond  the  pale  of  medicine. 

Similarl}',  a  disease,  due  to  the  influence  of  a  malig- 
nant planet  occupying,  either  through  its  retrogade  or 
zigzag  movement,  an  inauspicious  position  in  relation  to 
the  natal  asterism  of  the  patients,  is  sure  to  terminate 
in  death.  A  man,  struck  by  lightning  or  a  falling  meteor, 
baffles  all  medicinal  skill.  Similarly,  a  disease  due  to 
the  fact  of  one's  own  house,  wife,  bed,  seat,  con- 
veyance, or  riding-animal  assuming  any  ill-omened 
features,  or  a  disease  originated  through  the  use  of  gems, 
utensils,   garments,   etc.    of    forbidden   or   inauspicious 

character  usuall}^  ends  in  death  (Aristam). 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject : — A  disease,  appearing  in  an  enfeebled  and 
emaciated  subject  and  refusing  to  yield  to  a  course  of 
proper  medicinal  treatment,  and  which  becomes  rather 
aggravated  by  the  administraticn  of  proper  medicinal 
remedies  or  antidotes,  necessarily  portends  the  death  of 
the  patient. 

Chap.  XXXII.    ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  297 

A  Mahavyadhi*  (lit : — a  deep  seated  disease)  sud- 
denly abating  in  a  person  in  whom  nourishment 
fails  to  produce  any  perceptible  effect  forebodes  a  fatal 
termination.  The  ph3'sician,  who  can  detect  and  full}^ 
interpret  these  fatal  indications,  is  honoured  by  the  king 
for  determining  the  curable  or  incurable  nature  of  a 

*  Any  deep  seated  disease,  which  seriously  affects  the  vital  principles 
of  a  man,  is  called  MahAvj-^dhi.  Diseases  such  as  Prameha,  V^tavyadhi, 
Shosha,  etc.  have  also  been  included  within  the  category  in  the  Chapter  on 
ICciya-chikitsh^.  A  general  amelioration  or  recovery  in  these  cases  being 
natural,  on  account  of  their  deep-seated  character,  a  sudden  abatement 
is  usually  fraught  with  fatal    consequences.     (Arishtattl.) 

Thus  ends  the  thirty-second  Chapter  of  Sutrasthanam  in  the  Sushrula- 
S^mhita  which  deals  with  the  prognosis  based  on  perversion  of  the 
natural  appearances  of  the  body. 



Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which  treats  of 
incurable  diseases  (A'varaniya-madhyayam). 

IVIetrical  texts  :— Hear  me  describe,  Oh  child, 
the  diseases  which  being  attended  with  many  a 
distressing  and  supervenient  symptom,  and  being 
treated  without  rejuvenating  and  restorative  medicines, 
speedily  assume  incurable  character.  The  following 
eight  diseases,  viz  : — Maha-Vata-vyadhi  (paralysis 
or  diseases  affecting  the  nervous  system  in  general), 
Prameha  morbid  discharges  from  the  urethra) ,  Kushtha, 
Arsha  (piles),  Vagandara  fistula  in  ano\  Ashmari 
(stone  in  the  bladder),  Mudha-garbha  (false  presen- 
tations) and  the  eight  kinds  of  Udari  (abdominal  drops)'-) 
are,  by  their  very  nature,  extremely  hard  to  cure.  A  phy- 
sician with  any  regard  to  professional  success  should  aban- 
don a  patient  laid  up  with  any  of  the  preceding  diseases, 
marked  by  complications  such  as,  emaciation  of  the 
body,  loss  of  strength,  dyspnoea,  palpitation,  wasting, 
vomiting,  dysentery  and  hie- cough,  fever  and  swoon. 
A  case  of  Vatavyadhi  developing  symptoms,  such  as 
oedematous  swelling,  complete  anesthesia  of  the  affected 
part,  breaking  and  palsy  shaking)  of  the  affected  limbs, 
distention  of  the  abdomen,  with  aching  and  colic  pain, 
usually  ends  in  death. 



A  case  of  Prameha,  attended  with  indications 
as  are  to  be  found  under  the  head  of  that  disease, 
as  well  as  an  increased  secretion  of  urine  charged 
with  semen,  albumen,  etc.  and  eruptions  of  specific 
abcesses  (.known  as  Sharavika  etc.)  is  sure  to  have 
a  fatal  termination. 

A  case  of  Kushtha  (leprosy)  characterised  by  sponta- 
neous bursting  of  the  affected  parts,  hoarse  voice, 
and  blood-shot  eyes,  and  not  proving  itself  amen- 
able to  the  five-fold  appliances  of  emetics,  purga- 
tives, etc.  (Pancha-Karma),  usuall)^  ends  in  death. 
A  case  of  piles  attended  with  thirst,  aversion  to  food, 
colic  pain,  excessive  haemorrhage,  anasarca  (Shopha) 
of  the  locality,  and  dysenter}''  is  soon  relieved  by 

A  patient  suffering  from  an  attack  of  fistula  in 
ano,  characterised  by  an  emission  of  flatus  (Vayu), 
urine,  fecal  matter,  worms  and  semen  through  the 
ulcerated  locality,  should  be  given  up  as  lost.  A 
patient  suffering  from  the  presence  of  stone,  gravel,  or 
urinary  concretions  (Sharkar^)  in  the  bladder  and 
attended  with  oedema  of  the  scrotum  and  the  umbilicus, 
retention  of  urine,  and  colic  pain  in  that  organ,  is 
soon  relieved  of  his  pain  by  death. 

In  a  case  of  false  presentation  ^Mudhagarva)  an 
extreme   constriction  of   the     mouth     of    the    uterus 

300  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     f  Chap.  XXXIII. 

(os  uteri),  development  of  the  peculiar  pain  of  child- 
birth, which  is  known  as  Makkalla,  tonic  rigidity  of 
the  vagina,  and  situation  of  the  placenta  (Apara)  at  a 
wrong  place  (false  pregnancy;  and  other  symptoms  (con- 
vulsions, cough,  d3^spnoea,  vertigo  etc/i  described  in  the 
Chapter  on  the  Etiology  of  that  disease,  forebode  the 
death  of  the  parturient  woman. 

A  patient  suffering  from  abdominal  dropsy  (ascites) 
marked  by  pain  at  the  sides,  aversion  to  food,  oede- 
matous  swelling  of  the  limbs,  dysentery  and  fresh 
accumulation  of  water  even  after  he  had  been  tapped, 
or  evacuated  with  the  exhibition  of  purgatives,  should 
be  given  up  as  incurable.  A  case  of  fever  in  which 
the  patient  becomes  restless  and  tosses  about  in  the 
bed  in  an  unconscious  state,  and  lies  extremely  pros- 
trate, or  is  incapable  of  sitting  or  of  holding  himself  up 
in  any  other  position  and  is  besides  afllicted  with  rigor 
though  complaining  of  a  burning  sensation  within, 
is  sure  to  end  in  death. 

Similarly,  a  fever  patient  developing  such  symptoms 
as,  the  appearance  of  goose  flesh  on  the  skin,  an  aching 
gathered-up  pain  in  the  cardiac  region,  blood-shot 
or  congested  eyes,  and  breathing  through  the  mouth 
should  be  deemed  as  already  at  the  threshold  of 
death.  Similarly,  a  case  of  fever,  attended  with  hic-cough, 
dyspnoea,  thirst,  fits  of  unconsciousness  or  fainting,  and 
rolling   of  the   eye-balls,  proves   fatal   in   a  weak   and 


emaciated  patient,  who  is  found   to   breathe  hurriedly 
through  the  mouth. 

A  case  of  fever  proves  fatal  in  a  patient,  found 
to  be  restless  or  to  lie  inert  in  an  unconscious 
(subcomatose)  state  with  dull,  clouded,  or  tearful  eyes, 
or  prostrate,  somnolent  and  extremely  emaciated.  A 
fever  patient  and  especially  an  old  one  extremely 
enfeebled  and  emaciated,  readily  succumbs  to  an 
attack  of  dysentery  in  which  laboured  respiration, 
colic  and  thirst  supervene. 

An  attack  of  Phthisis  (Yakshm^)  leads  its  victim 
to  death  in  whom  glossiness  of  the  e3'es,  aversion 
to  food,  expiratory  (subclavicle)  dyspnoea,  difficult  and 
up-drawn  breathing  (Urdha-Shvasa),  and  painful  and 
and  excessive  micturition  (diarrhoea  according  to  others), 
manifest  themselves,  A  patient  suffering  from  an 
attack  of  Gulma  (abdominal  gland),  and  on  the  verge 
of  death,  exhibits  such  symptoms  as  laboured  and  painful 
respiration,  colic  pain,  unquenchable  thirst,  aversion 
to  food,  loss  of  consciousness,  anaemia,  and  the  sudden 
obliteration  of  the  Granthi  (tumorous  or  glandular 

A  person  laid  up  with  an  attack  of  Vidradhi  (abscess) 
and  exhibiting  such  fatal  symptoms  as  distension 
of  the  abdomen,  retention  of  urine,  vomiting,  hic- 
cough, thirst,  pain  of  a  varied  character  (such  as  aching, 
excruciating,  etc.)   and   dyspnoea,   should   be   regarded 

302  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap,  XXXIII. 

as  to  have  approached  the  goal  of  his  life.  A  patient 
suffering  from  an  attack  •  of  jaundice  or  chlorosis 
marked  by  yellowness  of  the  teeth,  nails,  and  of  the 
conjunctivae,  and  seeing  everything  yellow,  is  not 
expected  to  long  survive  the  occurrence  of  the  attack. 

A  person  laid  up  with  an  attack  of  Haemoptysis, 
largely  vomiting  blood,  and  viewing  everything  red  or 
blood-coloured  with  his  blood-shot  eyes,  should  be 
regarded  as  about  to  depart  this  life.  A  person,  insane, 
extremely  enfeebled  and  emaciated,  and  sitting  up  sleep- 
less in  the  night,  or  with  eyes  constantly  lifted  upward 
or  cast  down,  would  be  soon  relieved  of  his  earthly 
suffering.  A  case  of  Apasm^ra  (epilepsy)  proves  fatal 
in  a  person,  who  is  extremely  emaciated,  and  whose 
eye-brows  are  constantly  moving  and  whose  eyes  seem 
fixed  in  an  unnatural  (oblique)  stare. 

Thus   ends   the   the    thirty-third    Chapter    of  the    Sutrasthinam    in  the 
Sushruta  Samhita  which  treats  of  incurable  diseases. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  the  mode  of  preserving  the  life  of  a  king  whose 
soldiers  are  on  march  (J  ucta-Scniya-madhy^- 

Metrical  Texts  :— I  shall  presentl}^  describe 
the  measures,  which  a  physician  in  the  king's  service 
should  adopt  with  a  view  to  protect  the  life  of  his  royal 
master,  specially  from  acts  of  secret  poisoning,  while 
mobilizing  his  armies  to  invade  the  territor}^  of  a 
neighbouring  monarch  accompanied  by  his  chiefs  and 

A  common  practice  of  the  enemy  under  such 
circumstances  is  to  poison  the  wells  on  the  roadside,  the 
articles  of  food,  the  shades  of  trees  (shadowy  places)  and 
the  fuel  and  forage  for  cattle  ;  hence  it  is  incumbent 
on  a  physician  marching  with  the  troops,  to  inspect, 
examine  and  purify  these  before  using  any  of  them, 
in  case  they  be  poisoned.  The  symptoms  and  medical 
treatment  will  be  fully  described  and  discussed  later  on 
in  the  part,  entitled  the  Kalpa  Sthanam. 

Men,  learned  in  the  lore  of  the  Atharva  Veda,  hold 
that  death  may  be  attributed  to  a  hundred  and  one 
different  causes,  (lit  :  deaths  of  a  hundred  and  one 
kinds)  of  which   one   (which  is  that  of   an  old  man 



natural!}'-  and  spontaneously  expiring)  is  called  natural, 
while  the  rest  are  unnatural  or  traumatic  in  their 
origin.  Physicians  conversant  with  the  curative  virtues 
of  drugs  and  minerals,  and  priests  well  versed  in  the 
Vedic  Mantras,  should  jointly  protect  the  king  from 
death,  whether  due  to  idiopathic  (Doshajai  or 
extrinsic  causes. 

The  god  Brahma  disclosed  to  the  world  the  Atharva 
Veda  together  with  the  eight  allied  branches  of 
Vedic  hterature  and  the  science  of  medicine.  And 
since  a  priest  (Brahmana)  is  well- versed  in  the  aforesaid 
branches  of  study,  a  physician  should  act  subserviently 
and  occupy  a  subordinate  position  to  the  priest.  The 
death  of  a  king  usually  leads  to  a  political  revolu- 
tion or  to  popular  disturbances  and  brings  about  a 
confusion  among  the  vocations  of  the  different  orders 
of  society.  The  growth  of  population  markedly 
suffers  through  such  catastrophies. 

As  the  external  features  of  a  king  resemble  those  of  a 
common  person,  while  his  (king's)  commanding  majesty, 
sacrifice,  forbearance  and  fortune  are  super- human 
(in  their  nature  and  intensity),  therefore  a  man  should, 
who  is  prudent  and  seeks  his  own  good,  think 
reverentially  of  his  king,  and  propitiate  him  with 
tokens  of  loyalty  and  allegiance  as  if  he  were  a  deity. 
A  physician,  fully  equipped  with  a  supply  of  medicine, 
should  live    in   a   camp   not  remote   from  the    royal 

Chap.  XXXIV.  ]  SUTRASTKANAM.  365 

pavilion,  and  there  the  persons  wounded  by  shafts  ot 
arrows  or  an}^  other  war  projectiles,  or  suffering 
from  the  effects  of  any  imbibed  poison,  should 
resort  to  him  (the  physician),  conspicuous  like  a  tri- 
umphant ensign  for  his  fame  and  professional  success. 
A  physician,  well  versed  in  his  own  technical  science, 
and  commanding  a  fair  knowledge  of  other  allied 
branches  of  study  as  well,  is  glorified  by  his  king 
and  the  Brahmanas,  and  is  like  a  banner  of  victory  an 
ennobling  ornament  to  the  state. 

The  physician,  the  patient,  the  medicine,  and  the 
attendants  (nurses  are  the  four  essential  factors  of  a 
course  of  medical  treatment.  Even  a  dangerous  disease 
is  readily  cured,  or  it  may  be  expected  to  run  a  speedy 
course  in  the  event  of  the  preceding  four  factors  being 
respectively  found  to  be  (qualified,  self-controlled, 
genuine  and  intelligently  watchful  . 

In  the  absence  of  a  qualified  physician  the  three 
remaining  factors  of  treatment  will  prove  abortive  like  a 
religious  sacrifice  performed  with  the  help  of  an 
Udgatri,*  a  Hotri,t  and  a  Brahmana,  in  the  absence  of 
an  Adhvaryam.t  A  qualified  physician  is  alone  capable 
ofreheving  the  pain  of  many  a  suffering  patient,  just   as 

"'  Udgdtri  ;  —One  of  the  four  piiucipal  priests  al  a  sacrifice,  who  chants 
llie  hymns  of  the  Sdma  Veda. 

t  Hotri — A  priest,  who  recites  the  (Riks)  pr.iyers  of  the  Rik  \'eda  at  a 
religious  sacrifice. 

t  Adhvaryyu  — A  priest  of  the  ^'ayur  \'eda,  whose  duly  is  to  cast  the 
sacrificial  beast  into  the  fire. 


3o6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap,  xxxiv. 

only  a  helmsman  is  capable  of  taking  his  boat  across  a 
river  even  without  the  help  <ind  co-operation  of  a  single 

Qualities  of  a  physician  :— A  physician, 
who  is  well  versed  in  the  science  of  medicine  and  has 
attended  to  the  demonstrations  of  surgery  and  medicine, 
and  who  himself  practises  the  healing  art,  and  is  clean, 
courageous,  light-handed,  fully  equipped  with  supplies 
of  medicine,  surgical  instruments  and  appliances, 
and  who  is  intelligent,  well  read,  and  is  a  man  of  ready 
resources,  and  one  commands  a  decent  practice,  and  is 
further  endowed  with  all  moral  virtues,  is  alone  fit  to 
be  called  a  physician. 

Patient  : — The  patient,  who  believes  in  a  kind 
and  all-merciful  Providence,  and  possesses  an  unshakable 
fortitude  and  strong  vital  energy,  and  who  is  laid  up 
with  a  curable  form  of  disease,  and  is  not  greedy,  and 
who  further  commands  all  the  necessary  articles  at  his 
disposal,  and  firmly  adheres  to  the  advice  of  his 
physician,  is  a  patient  of  the  proper  or  commendable 

lYIedicine  : — The  proper;  medicine  is  that  which 
consists  of  drugs  grown  in  countries  most  congenial  to 
their  growth,  collected  under  the  auspices  of  proper 
lunar  phases  and  asterisms,  and  compounded  in  proper 
measures  and  proportions,  and  which  is  pleasing 
(exhilarating   to   the   mind    and   has    the   property   of 



subduing  the  deranged  bodily  humours  without  creating 
any  discomfort  to  the  patient,  and  which  is  harmless 
eveil  in  an  overdose,  and  is  judiciously  administered  at 
the  opportune  moment. 

Nurse  : — That  person  alone  is  fit  to  nurse  or  to 
attend  the  bedside  of  a  patient,  who  is  cool-headed 
and  pleasant  in  his  demeanour,  does  not  speak  ill  of 
any  body,  is  strong  and  attentive  to  the  requirements 
of  the  sick,  and  strictly  and  indefatigably  follows  the 
instructions  of  the  physician. 

Thus  ends  the  ihirly-fourth  Chapter  of  the  SiitrasthSnam  in  the 
Sushruia  Samhit^,  which  treats  of  preserving  the  life  of  a  king  whose 
soldiers  are  on  march. 



Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  deals 
with  clinical  observations  (A'turopakramaniya- 

A  physician  should  first  observe  the  vital  condition 
(Ayu)  of  the  patient  before  commencing  the  medical 
treatment.  After  that,  the  nature  of  the  disease,  the 
country  and  season  of  the  year  in  which  it  has  made  its 
appearance,  as  well  as  the  state  of  digestion,  age,  body, 
strength,  disposition,  habit,  previous  medicine,  natural 
temperament  and  the  power  of  endurance  of  the 
patient,  etc.  should  be  observed  and  carefully  examined. 

Characteristic  features  of  a  long 
lived  man  : — Men,  the  dimensions  of  whose 
hands,  legs,  sides,  back,  nipples  of  the  breast,  teeth, 
face,  shoulders  and  forehead  exceed  the  average,  as 
well  as  those  whose  eyes,  arms,  phalanges  and  fingers 
are  longer  than  the  ordinary  ones  should  be  regarded  as 
going  to  live  long.  Those  who  have  broad  chests, 
broad  eye-brows  with  broader  spaces  intervening  between 
the  muscles  of  the  breasts,  and  who  take  in  deeper 
inspirations  of  breath,  will  be  long  lived.  Those  whose 
necks,  thighs,  and  generative  organs  are  shorter  than 
those  of  the  average  type,  or  those  whose  voices  and 
umbilical  cavities  -are  deep,  and  whose  breasts  are  unraised 
an  d  thick-set,  and  external  ears  broad,  fleshy  and  haiiy. 

Chap.  XXXV.  j  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  309 

with  the  occipital  region  fully  developed  and  protruded, 
will  enjoy  a  longer  span  of' life.  Men,  on  whose  bodies 
sandal  paste  and  similar  preparations  begin  to  dry 
up  from  the  head  downward,  while  those  applied  over 
the  chest  become  absorbed  later,  should  be  looked  upon 
as  persons  endowed  with  an  uncommonly  longer  dura- 
tion of  life. 

The  medical  treatment  of  such  a  patient  may  be 
unhesitatingly  taken  in  hand  by  a  physician.  Persons, 
exhibiting  bodily  features  other  than  those  described 
above,  should  be  looked  upon  as  short-lived  men, 
while  those,  who  are  possessed  of  features  common 
to  men  of  both  the  above  mentioned  types,  should 
be  considered  as  keeping  the  mean  between  them 
as  regards  longevity  (Madhyamayuh). 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — A  man,  with  deep-set  bones,  ligaments,  and 
veins,  and  tough  and  thick-set  limbs,  and  firm  and 
unflinching  sense  organs,  as  well  as  one  whose  body 
gradually  develops  a  more  and  more  symmetrical 
shape,  should  be  looked  upon  as  a  long-lived  man  The 
man,  who  has  not  ailed  for  a  single  moment  even  from 
the  day  of  his  birth,  and  has  been  getting  more  and 
more  strong- limbed  every  day  through  the  culti- 
vation of  his  inborn  sense  and  a  better  knowledge 
of  the  laws  of  health,  is  sure  to  live  to  a  good  old  age 
in  the  full  enjoyment  of  his  senses  and  intellect. 

3IO  THE  SUSHRTTTA   SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXXV. 

IVIadhyama^uh  :— Now,  hear  me  describe 
the  bodily  features  of  a  man  of  a  mean  or  aver- 
age duration  of  life  (Madhyamayuli;.  The  man,  the 
integuments  of  whose  lower  eyelids  are  marked  with 
two  or  three  well-marked  and  extended  lines  or 
furrows,  and  whose  legs  and  external  ears  are  thick 
and  fleshy,  and  the  tip  of  whose  nose  is  turned  a 
little  upward,  and  who  has  up-pointed  lines  directly 
running  through  the  middle  of  his  back,  is  expected  to 
live  up  to  the  ripe  old  age  of  seventy  years. 

Specific     traits     of     a    short-lived 

man  : — ^Xow,  hear  me  describe  the  specific  traits, 
which  characterise  the  body  of  a  short-li^•ed  man. 
A  man  with  short  phalanges  of  fingers,  a  narrow 
back,  and  external  ears  abnormall}'  raised  up  from 
their  natural  seats,  and  who  is  possessed  of  a  large 
penis,  a  high  nose,  a  breast  covered  with  ringlets 
of  curly  hair,  and  who  exposes  the  gums  of  his 
teeth,  or  whose  e3'es  roll  while  talking  or  laughing, 
is  not  expected  to  see  more  than  twenty-five  summers. 

We  shall  now  give  the  exact  measures  of  the  different 
limbs  and  members  of  the  body  for  the  better 
ascertainment  of  the  duration  of  life  of  a  patient 
under  investigation. — The  legs,  the  arms,  and  the 
head  are  called  the  limbs  of  the  bod}*-,  while  their  com- 
ponent parts  are  called  the  members  (Avayavas). 
The  great  toe  of  a  man,  or  the  one  next  to  it,  measured 

Chap,  xxxv.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  311 

with  his  own  fingers  should  measure  two  fingers' 
width  in  length,  the  lengths  of  the  other  toes  (the  third, 
fourth,  and  small  ones)  successively  diminishing  by 
a  fifth  part  of  that  of  his  middle  finger  ( Pradeshini). 

The  fore-sole  and  the  sole  proper  respectively  should 
measure  four  fingers'  width  in  length  and  five  fingers' 
width  in  breadth.  The  heel  of  the  foot  (Parshni)  should 
measure  five  fingers'  width  in  length  and  four  fingers' 
wadth  in  breadth.  The  foot  itself  should  measure 
fourteen  fingers'  width  in  length.  The  girth  of  the  foot, 
as  well  as  the  circumference  of  the  middle  parts  of 
thighs  and  knee-joints,  respectively  should  measure 
fourteen  fingers  in  width. 

The  part  of  the  leg  between  the  ankle  and  the 
knee-joint  should  measure  eighteen  fingers'  width  in 
length,  while  the  part  between  the  joint  of  the  waist 
and  the  knee-joint  should  measure  thirty -two  fingers' 
width  in  length,  the  entire  leg  thus  measuring  fifty 
fingers'  width  in  all.  The  length  of  the  thigh  is  the 
same  as  that  of  the  part  lying  between  the  heel  and  the 
knee-joint  (Jangha  . 

The  scrotum,  the  chin,  the  (two  rows  of)  teeth, 
the  exterior  line  of  the  nostrils^  the  roots  of  the 
ears,  and  the  intervening  space  between  the  eyes,  should 
respectively  measure  two  fingers'  width  in  length.  The 
non-erected  penis,  the  cavity  of  the  mouth,  the  two 
rows    of    teeth,   the    nose,   the    height   of    the   neck. 

JI2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXXV. 

the  ears,  and  the  forehead,  and  the  space  intervenmg 
between  the  pupils  of  the  eyes  measure  four  fingers' 
width  in  length. 

The  entire  length  of  the  vaginal  canal  should  measure 
twelve  fingers'  width.  The  space  l3nng  between  the  penis 
and  the  umbihcus,as  well  as  the  one  intervening  between 
the  chest  and  the  upper  end  of  the  throat  (lit :  neck), 
like  the  one  h'ing  between  the  tips  of  the  two 
nipples  of  the  breast,  should  measure  twelve  fingers' 
width  in  length.  The  length  of  the  entire  face  should 
measure  twelve  fingers'  width.  The  girth  round  the 
wrist  and  the  fore-arm  of  a  man  should  measure  twelve 

The  girth  round  the  knee-joint  is  sixteen  fingers' 
width  and  the  length  between  the  wrist  and  the  elbow 
should  measure  sixteen  fingers'  width.  The  part  of  the 
arm  between  the  elbow  and  the  tip  of  the  middle  finger 
should  measure  twenty-four  fingers'  width  in  all.  The 
length  of  the  entire  arm  mea.sures  thirty- two  fingers' 
width,  and  the  girth  round  the  thighs  should  measure 
thirty-two  fingers'  width.  The  palm  of  the  hand  should 
measure  six  fingers'  width  in  length  and  four  fingers' 
width  in  breadth.  The  space  between  the  bottom 
of  the  ball  of  the  thumb  to  the  root  of  the  index 
finger,  as  well  as  the  space  between  the  root  of  the  ears 
to  the  outer  corner  or  angle  of  the  eyes,  should  measure 
live     fingers'    in    length.      The   middle   finger    should 

Chap.  XXXV.  j  SUTRASTHANAM.  31- 

measure  five  fingers'  width  in  length.  The  index  and 
the  ring-fingers  respectively -should  measure  four  and  a 
half  fingers  in  length,  the  thumbs  and  the  little  fingers 
respectively  measuring  three  and  a  half  fingers. 

The  fissure  of  the  mouth  should  measure  four  fingers 
in  length.  The  girth  round  the  neck  should  measure 
twenty  fingers.  Each  of  the  cavities  of  the  nostrils 
should  measure  one  and  three  quarter  parts  of  a 
finger  in  length.  The  region  of  the  iris  occupies  a  third 
part  of  the  entire  area  of  the  cornea.  The  region  of 
the  pupil  should  measure  a  ninth  part  thereof 

The  arch  extending  from  the  hairy  extremity  of 
the  templar  region  to  the  middle  point  of  the  back 
of  the  head  should  measure  eleven  fingers.  The  distance 
between  the  middle  of  the  head  and  the  terminal 
point  of  the  hairy  portion  of  the  neck  should  measure 
ten  fingers  in  length.  The  girth  of  the  neck  measured 
from  the  back  of  one  ear  to  that  of  the  other  should  be 
fourteen  fingers.  The  length  of  the  pelvic  region  of 
a  young  woman  measured  from  below  the  anterior 
side  of  the  thigh  joints  should  be  found  to  be  equal  to 
the  breadth  of  the  chest  (Vakshah)  in  a  male  subject 
'twelve  fingers\ 

The  thigh  of  a  woman  should  be    eighteen  fingers  in 

breadth  and  equal  to  that  of  the  waist  of  a  man.     The 

entire  length  of  a  male  human  body  should  be  a  hundred 

and  twenty  fingers. 

314  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  xxxv. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject:—An  intelligent  physician  should  regard  the 
organism  oi"  a  man  of  twenty- five  or  of  a  woman  of 
sixteen  years  of  age,  as  fully  developed  in  respect  of 
the  maturity  of  the  seven  fundamental  principles  of  the 
body  such  as,  serum,  blood,  Sic).  The  dimensions 
of  the  different  limbs  and  members  of  the  body,  laid 
down  above,  should  be  understood  as  to  have  been 
measured  by  the  standard  of  one's  (man's  or  woman's) 
own  finger's  width,  and  a  person,  whose  limbs  and  organs 
are  found  to  correspond  to  the  above-said  measures,  is 
sure  to  live  to  a  good  and  hearty  old  age,  as  a 
necessary  and  befitting  sequel  to  a  happ3'  and  prosperous 
career  in  life.  In  the  case  of  a  partial  correspondence 
of  one's  limbs  and  organs  to  the  above-said  measures 
and  proportions,  a  man  should  be  regarded  as  having 
an  average  life  and  prosperity.  A  person  whose  limbs 
fall  short  of  the  abovesaid  measures  should  be  regarded 
as  an  indigent  and  short-lived  person. 

Physical  temperament  (Sa'ra)  :— Now 

we  shall  describe  the  characteristic  traits  of  the 
different  preponderant  principles  (Sara)  or  temperaments 
of  the  human  organism.  A  man,  who  is  possessed  of  a 
good  retentive  memory,  and  is  intelligent,  valorous  and 
cleanly  in  his  habits,  and  whose  mind  is  graced  with 
such  rare  and  excellent  virtues  as,  purity  of  thought,  and 
a  fervent  and  unflinching  devotion  to  gods  and  the 
reverend,  and  who    exerts  himself  for   the   furtherance 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  31^ 

of  the   absolute   good,   should  be  regarded  as  a  man  of 
Satvasara  (psychic  or  illumined)  temperament. 

A  man  with  glossy,  white  and  close-set  bones, 
teeth,  and  nails  and  who  has  beootten  a  large 
family  of  children,  and  shows  a  marked  amative  ten- 
dency, should  be  looked  upon  as  a  man  in  whom  the  prin- 
ciple of  semen  decidedly  preponderates.  A  man  with  a 
thin  and  sinewy  bod}',  and  who  exibits  traits  of  excessive 
strength,  and  possesses  a  deep  resonant  voice,  and  a  pair 
of  large  and  handsome  eyes,  and  who  is  successful  in 
ever}'  walk  of  life,  should  be  looked  upon  as  one  in 
whom  the  principle  of  marrow  preponderates.  A  man 
with  a  large  head,  and  a  large  pair  of  shoulders,  and 
having  firm  teeth,  bones,  cheek-bones,  and  finger-nails, 
should  be  considered  as  one  in  whom  the  principle 
of  bone  preponderates. 

A  man  with  a  large  and  bulky  body,  and  who  is 
capable  of  enduring  a  large  amount  of  fatigue  or 
physical  exertion,  and  who  naturally  talks  in  a  soft 
and  melodious  voice,  and  whose  bodily  secretions 
such  as  urine  and  perspiration  are  characterised  by 
coldness  should  be  regarded  as  one  of  a  fatty  tempera- 
ment. A  man  with  an  erect  and  upright  frame,  and 
deep-set  bones,  and  joints  in  thick  layers  of  flesh, 
should  be  regarded  as  one  in  whom  the  principle  of 
flesh  predominates. 

A  man,   whose   finger  nails,  eyes,  tongue,  palate. 



THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Clmp.  xxxv 

lips,  palms  of  hands  and  soles  of  feet  are  glossy,  and 
tinged  with  a  shade  of  red,  should  be  looked  upon  as  one 
in  whom  blood  forms  the  essential  and  predominant 
principle.  A  man  with  a  soft,  smooth  and  pleasant  skin 
and  hair  should  be  considered  as  one  in  whom  serum 
fTvak)  forms  the  essential  principle  of  the  body.  In 
respect  of  worldly  success  and  longevity,  men  of 
each  of  the  aforesaid  types  should  be  successively 
judged  inferior  to  men  belonging  to  the  one  pre- 
ceding it  in  the  above  order  of  enumeration. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject :  A  quabfied  physician  should  examine  the  dura- 
tion of  life  in  a  patient  with  the  help  of  the  aforesaid 
measures  of  limbs  and  the  essential  bodily  principles, 
before  proceeding  to  take  up  his  medical  treatment,  and 
his  professional  success  should  be  decidedly  increased 

All  the  diseases,  whose  names  have  been  specifically 
enumerated  before,  ma}'  be  grouped  under  any  of  the 
three  different  heads  as  the  curable,  the  suppressible 
(Yapya)  and  the  incurable  (lit  :  fit  to  be  pronounced 
as  hopeless). 

Each  of  these  different  types,  in  its  turn,  should  be 
carefully  observed  so  as  to  determine  whether  it  is  a 
primar}'  or  an  independent  disease,  or  merely  an 
accessory  or  sympathetic  one,  or  the  premonitory  indica- 
tion of  an  incipient  distemper  in  its  incubative  stage. 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'XAM.  ^17 

An  A  upasargika  (sympathetic)  disease  is  merely  a 
symptom  developed  in  the  course  of  an  original  or 
primary  malady,  and  which  has  its  foundation  in  the 
very  nature  or  component  factors  of  the  pre-existing 
distemper.  A  disease,  Avhich  manifests  itself  from  the 
commencement  of  a  case  and  is  neither  an  accessor}' 
symptom,  nor  a  premonitory  indication  of  any  other 
distemper,  is  called  a  Prak-kevalam  (primary  or 
original)  one.  A  disease  which  indicates  the  advent 
of  a  future  or  impending  malad}'  is  called  a  Purvaru- 
pam  (premonitory  stage  or  indication  of  a  disease). 

The  medicinal  remedy  to  be  administered  in  any 
particular  case  should  be  selected  with  an  eye  to  the 
curative  ^•irtues  of  each  of  its  components,  so  as  not  to 
clash  with  the  nature  (cause)  of  the  disease  and  its 
accompanying  symptoms,  and  to  prove  simultaneously 
soothing  to  both  of  them.  On  the  contrary,  a  violent 
unfavourable  symptom  should  be  first  attended  to  and 
checked  in  a  case  where  it  would  be  found  to  have 
grown  stronger  and  more  distressing  or  dangerous  than 
the  original  malady  in  course  of  which  it  has  been 

A  primary  or  independent  malady,  unattended 
with  any  of  the  distressing  or  unfavourable  symptoms, 
should  be  treated  according  to  its  indications  and  the 
nature  of  the  deranged  humours  involved  therein, 
while  in   an   incubative   disease   the  treatment   should 



consist  in   subduing  a  premonitory  s^'mptom  as  soon  as 
it  would  make  itself  manifest. 

Authoritative  Verse  on  the  sub 
ject  : — As  there  is  not  a  single  disease,  which  can 
make  its  appearance  without  the  participation  of  any  of 
the  deranged  bodil)'  liumours,  a  wise  physician  is  en- 
joined to  administer  medicines  according  to  the  specific 
features  of  the  deranged  humours  involved  in  a  disease 
whose  nature  and  treatment  have  not  even  been  de- 
scribed in  any  book  on  medicine.  The  different  seasons 
of  the  year  have  been  described  before. 

IVIetricai  Texts :— In  the  cold  season,  a 
disease  should  be  treated  with  measures  and  remedies 
endued  with  the  virtue  of  destroying  or  warding  off 
cold,  while  in  summer  the  medicinal  treatment  should 
consist  of  measures  and  applications  capable  of  alla^n'ng 
the  heat.  The  medical  treatment  of  a  disease 
should  be  connnenced  just  at  the  opportune  moment, 
which  should  not  be  allowed  to  expire  in  vain  under 
any  circumstances  whatsoever.  A  course  of  medical  treat- 
ment commenced  at  an  inopportune  moment,  or  not 
resorted  to  at  the  advent  of  its  proper  time,  as  well  as 
over  or  insufficient  medication,  proves  abortive  even  in 
a  curable  type  of  disease.  The  proper  medical  treat- 
ment (of  a  disease)  is  that  which  successfully  copes 
with  the  malady  under  treatment,  and  arrests  the 
recrudescence  of  a  fresh  one  by   way  of  sequel,  and  not 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  :>ig 

that,  which,   though   subduing   a   particular  distemper, 
is  immediately  followed  by  a  new  one. 

It  has  been  demonstrated  before  that  the  food  of 
a  man  is  digested  only  with  the  help  of  the  digestive 
fire  or  heat  (Pachakagni),  which  may  be  divided  into 
four  ditferent  kinds  (states).  One  of  these  kinds  is  due 
to  it  not  being  in  any  way  affected  by  the  deranged 
humours  of  the  body,  while  the  other  three  are  respec- 
tively ascribed  to  the  fact  of  their  becoming  so  deranged. 
The  digestive  fire  or  heat  becomes  irregular  or  fitful 
(Vishamagni)  through  the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu, 
becomes  keen,  through  the  action  of  the  deranged 
Pittam,  and  dull  or  sluggish,  through  the  action  of 
the  deranged  Kapham.  The  fourth  kind  (Sama) 
continues  in  a  state  unaffected  by  any  of  the  morbid 
humoural  constituents  of  the  body  owing  to  their 
maintaining  the  normal  equilibrium. 

Samargni  and  Vishamei'gni  :— The  diges- 
tive heat,  which  l\illy  digests  the  ingested  food  at  the 
proper  time  without  the  least  irregularit}',  thus 
reflecting  the  continuance  of  the  bodily  humours  in  their 
normal  state,  is  called  Samagni.  The  digestive  heat 
which  is  irregular  in  its  action,  and  which  sometimes 
helps  the  process  of  complete  digestion,  and  produces 
distension  of  the  abdomen,  colic  pain,  constipation  of 
the   bowels,  dysentery,  ascites,  heaviness  of  the   limbs. 

320  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  Xxxv. 

rumbling  in  the  intestines,  and  loose  motions  (diarrha;a) 
at  other  times,  is  called  Vishamagni. 

Tikshna'gni  :-  -The  digestive  heat,  which  helps 
the  digestion  of  even  a  heavy  meal  within  an  incredibly 
short  space  of  time,  is  called  "  Keen  "  (Tikshnagni)  and 
which  becoming  abnormally  augmented  begets  an 
excessive  or  voracious  appetite  (Atyagni),  helps  a 
glutton  to  digest  his  frequent  meals,  and  produces  a 
parched  throat,  palate  and  lips,  heat  and  other  dis- 

Wlanda'g'ni  :— The  digestive  fire  or  heat  which 
causes  the  tardy  digestion  even  of  a  scanty  meal,  and 
produces  heaviness  of  the  abdomen  and  head,  cough, 
difficult  breathing,  water-brash,  nausea,  and  weariness 
of  the  limbs  simultaneously  with  the  taking  thereof, 
is  called  dull  or  sluggish  (Mandagni). 

Metrical  Texts  :— The  digestive  fire  of  the 
Vishama  kind  brings  on  diseases  characterised  by  the 
derangement  of  the  Vayu.  A  keen  (Tikshna)  digestive 
fire  brings  on  bilious  (Pittcija)  affections,  while  a  sluggish 
(Manda)  fire  gives  rise  to  diseases  marked  by  a 
deranged  state  of  the  Kapham.  Endeavours  should  be 
made  to  keep  the  digestive  fire  of  the  Sama  type 
normal  or    regular   appetite*;  in  an  unimpaired   state. 

■"  TIktc  is  a  (lifk'iencc  Ijclwccn  "Agni"  and  "appclile."  Ayni  includo 
liile  and  pancrcalic  sccrcliuns,  and  hence  inchcales  llie  stale  of  ones  diges- 
tion. Appetite,  though  not  an  iinening  indicator  of  the  ]:)r(jcess,  is  the 
eliecl  of  Agni. 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRAStHANAM.  321 

The  one  known  as  Vishama  'irregular)  should  be  cor- 
rected by  a  diet  consisting'  of  emollient,  acid  or  saline 
substances.  In  a  case  of  abnormally  keen  digestive 
fire,  the  medical  treatment  should  consist  in  prescrib- 
ing purgatives  and  a  diet  in  the  composition  of 
which  sweet,  cooling,  and  fatty  or  albuminous 
matters  largely  enter.  The  same  treatment  should  be 
adopted  in  (Atyagni)  as  marked  in  cases  of  voracious 
appetite,  and  a  diet  consisting  of  buffalo-milk,  or  its  curd 
(Dadhi)  and  liquid  buffalo- butter  should  be  prescribed  for 
the  patient  in  addition.  Emetics  should  be  administered 
in  a  case  of  dull  or  sluggish  digestion  (Mandagni), 
and  the  patient  should  be  restricted  to  a  diet  consisting 
of  articles  of  a  pungent,  astringent  or  bitter  taste. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— The  fire,  that  burns  within 
a  person,  is  godly  in  its  subtle  essence,  and  possesses 
the  divine  attributes  of  atom-like  invisibility,  weight- 
lessness, etc.,  and  is  the  digestant  of  food.  It  takes 
up  the  lymph  chyle  of  different  tastes  for  the 
purpose  of  digestion,  and  is  invisible  owing  to  its 
extremely  subtle  essence.  The  three  vital  Vayus 
known  as  Prana,  Apana  and  Samana,  located  in  their 
own  spheres  within  the  organism,  feed  it  and  keep  it 

The  three  stages  of  man  may  be  roughly  described 

as   (i)   infancy   or  childhood,   (2)  youth  or  middle  age, 

and  (y  old  age  or  dotage.   Childhood  extends  up  to  the 

322  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  xxxV. 

sixteenth  year  of  life,  and  children  may  be  divided  into 
three  different  classes,  according  as  they  are  fed  on 
milk,  or  on  milk  and  boiled  rice  or  on  boiled  rice 
alone.  A  child  lives  exclusively  on  milk  up  to  the  first 
year  of  its  life,  it  is  fed  on  milk  and  boiled  rice  (hard 
food)  up  to  the  second  year,  and  is  thenceforward 
nourished  with  boiled  rice  (hard  food). 

The  middle  age  of  a  man  extends  from  the  sixteenth 
to  the  seventieth  year  of  his  life,  and  exhibits  the  traits 
of  growth,  youth,  arrest  of  de^'elopment  and  decay. 

The  process  of  growth  or  building  goes  on  up  to 
the  twentieth  year  of  life,  when  youth  or  the  age 
of  maturity  sets  in  and  holds  sway  over  the  body  of 
a  man  up  to  the  thirtieth  year  of  his  life, — the  strength, 
semen,  and  all  the  organs  and  vital  principles  of  the 
body  attain  (their  full  maturity  at  the  age  of  forty. 
Thenceforth  decay  gradually  sets  in  up  to  the 
seventieth  year  of  life.  After  that  the  strength  and 
energy  of  a  man  dwindle  day  by  dav.  The  organs  and 
virility  grow  weak  and  suffer  deterioration.  The  hair 
turns  to  a  silvery  white,  the  parched  skin  looks  shrivelled 
and  becomes  impressed  with  marks  of  dotage  (crow's 
feet-marks).  The  skin  hangs  down  and  becomes  flabby, 
the  hair  begins  to  fall  off,  and  symptoms  of  alopecia 
mark  the  smooth,  sheen  and  balded  pate.  The  respira- 
tion becomes  laboured  and  painful.  The  body,  worn  out 
like  an  old  and  dilapidated  building,  shakes  with   fits  of 


Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  323 

distressing  cough.  Such  a  man  is  incapable  of  all  acts, 
and  does  but  imperfectly  perform  all  bodily  functions. 
He  has  grown  old. 

The  dose  of  medicine  should  be  increased  with  the 
age  of  a  patient  till  the  age  of  decay,  and  reduced  after 
the  expiry  of  the  seventieth  year  to  the  quantity 
( which  is  usuall}'  prescribed  for  an  youth  of  sixteen). 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject :— Kapham  is  increased  during  the  years  of 
childhood  and  Pittam  in  middle  age  ;  while  an  increase 
of  VcCyu  (nervous  derangement^  marks  the  closing  years 
of  life.  The  use  of  strong  or  drastic  purgatives,  and 
cauterisation  are  alike  prohibited  in  cases  of  children 
and  old  men.  They  should  be  used  only  in  weakened 
or  modified  forms  if  found  indispensably  necessary. 

It  has  been  stated  before  that  the  body  of  a 
person  is  either  stout,  thin  or  of  an  average 
(middling)  bulk.  A  stout'  person  should  be  reduced 
in  bulk  with  depletive  measures,  while  a  physician 
should  try  to  make  a  thin  patient  gain  in  flesh.  A 
human  body,  which  is  neither  too  thin  nor  too  stout, 
should  be  made  to  maintain  its  shapely  rotundity. 

We  have  already  discoursed  on  the  strength  of  the 
body.  Now  in  a  particular  case  under  treatment,  it  is 
primarily  incumbent  on  the  physician  to  enquire 
whether   the   patient   is  naturally  weak,  or  has  become 



so  through  a  deranged  condition  of  the  bodily  humours 
or  old  age.  And  since  it  is  the  strength  of  a  patient 
which  makes  all  remedial  measures  (such  as  cauterisa- 
tion, etc.)  possible,  it  should  be  regarded  as  the 
grandest  auxiliary  to  a  medical  treatment  of  whatsoever 
nature  it  may  be. 

lYIetrical  Texts  :  —There  are  some  men  who 
are  strong  though  thin  ;  while  others  are  weak, 
though  stout ;  and  accordingly  a  physician  should  deter- 
mine the  bodily  strength  of  a  patient  by  enquiring 
about  the  capacity  of  his  physical  endurance  and 
labour.  Sattvam  or  fortitude  denotes  a  kind  of  (stoic) 
indifference  of  one's  mind  to  sensations  and  sources 
of  pleasure  or  pain. 

A  man  of  strong  fortitude  (Sattvika  temperament)  is 
capable  of  enduring  everything,  or  any  amount  of  pain 
by  repressing  his  mind  with  the  help  of  his  will  or  intel- 
lect. A  man  of  a  Rajasika  turn  of  mind  (strong,  active, 
energetic)  may  be  made  to  patiently  submit  to  a  course 
of  painful  medical  treatment  by  means  of  persuasive 
counsels  and  the  logic  of  the  inevitable,  whereas  a  man 
of  a  Tamasika  temperament  (a  worldly  cast  of  mind 
characterised  by  Nescience)  is  simply  overwhelmed  at 
the  prospect  of  bodily  pain. 

Later  on,  we  shall  have  occasion  to  deal  with  the 
different  types  of  physical  treatment  and  of  remedial 
agents  in  general.    A  particular   country,   or  a   season 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^25 

of  the  year,  a  particular  disease  or  a  peculiar  mode  of 
living,  any  particular  kind  of  physical  labour  or 
exercise,  or  the  specific  properties  of  the  water  of  any 
particular  locality,  or  day  sleep,  or  a  juice  of  any  parti- 
cular taste,  is  or  are  said  to  be  congenial  (Satmya)  to  a 
man,  or  a  man  is  said  to  be  naturalised  to  these  condi- 
tions and  environments,  when  they  fail  to  produce  any 
injurious  effect  on  his  health,  though  naturally  unwhole- 
some to  others. 

Metrical  Texts  :— A  thing  of  any  taste  what- 
soever, or  any  kind  of  habit  or  physical  exercise  is 
said  to  be  congenial  to  a  man  which,  instead  of  in  any 
way  telling  on  his  health,  contributes  to  his  positive 
pleasure  and  comfort. 

Features    of  an  Anupa  country:— A 

country  may  be  classed  either  as  an  Anupa,  Jangala  or  a 
Sadharana  one,  according  to  its  distinctive  physical 
features.  An  Anupa  watery  or  swampy)  country 
contains  a  large  number  of  pools,  and  is  wooded  and 
undulated  with  chains  of  lofty  hills  traversing  its 
area,  and  which  is  impassable  owing  to  its  net- works 
of  rivers  and  sheets  of  accumulated  rain-water  rippling 
before  the  currents  of  the  gentle,  humid  air.  It  is 
inhabited  by  a  race  of  stout,  shapely  and  soft- 
bodied  men,  susceptible  to  Vatala  and  Kaphaja  diseases. 

Features  of  Ja'ngala  and  Sardharrana 
countries  : — The   country,   which  presents  a  fiat 

326  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap.  XXXV. 

surface  and  whose  dull  monotony  is  enlivened  here  and 
there  by  scanty  growths  of  thorny  shrubs  and  the  tops 
of  a  few  isolated  hills  or  knolls,  and  in  which  the  waters 
from  springs  and  wells,  accumulated  during  the  rains, 
become  nearly  drained,  and  strong  gales  of  warm  wind 
blow  (during  the  greater  part  of  the  year)  making  its  in- 
habitants, though  thin,  strong,  tough,  and  sinewy  in 
their  frames,  subject  to  attacks  of  diseases,  is  called 
Jangala.  A  country,  which  exhibits  features  common 
to  both  the  aforesaid  classes,  is  called  Sadharana  or 

Authoritative  Verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject : — A  country  derives  the  epithet  of  Sadharana 
from  the  ordinary  character  of  its  heat,  cold  and  rainfall, 
and  from  the  fact  of  the  bodilv  humours  maintaining 
their  normal  state  of  equilibrium  within  its  confines. 
A  disease  originated  in,  and  peculiar  to  a  particular 
country  fails  to  gain  in  intensity,  if  brought  over  to, 
and  transplanted  in  a  country  of  a  different  character. 
A  man,  who  observes  a  regimen  of  diet  and  conduct 
soothing  to  the  deranged  bodih'  humours  accumulated 
in  the  country  he  has  come  from,  and  aggravated  and 
manifest  in  the  shape  of  a  disease  in  the  country  he 
has  been  living  for  the  time  being,  need  not  apprehend 
any  danger  from  the  altered  conditions  of  his  new 
abode,  for  the  fact  of  his  not  observing  a  regimen  of 
diet   and   conduct  regarded  beneficial  in   consideration 

Chap.  XXXV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  327 

of  the  physical  features  of  the  latter  place.  A 
disease  of  recent  growth'  or  origin  unattended  with 
any  distressing  or  unfavourable  complications,  and 
unsuited  to  the  nature  of  the  country*,  the  season 
of  the  year,t  the  temperament,;  and  §  the  adopt- 
ed or  congenial  or  naturalised  traits  of  the  physique 
of  a  patient  with  a  regular  and  unimpaired  state 
of  digestion  (Samagnij,  and  who  exhibits  traits  of 
strength,  fortitude  and  longevity  and  commands  the 
co-operation  of  the  four  commendable  factors  of  a 
course  of  medical  treatment,  readily  yields  to  medicine. 

A  disease,  which  is  marked  by  features  other  than 
those  described  above,  should  be  regarded  as  incurable, 
while  the  one  exhibiting  traits  common  to  both 
the  abovesaid  types,  should  be  looked  upon  as  ex- 
tremely hard  to  cure. 

In  the  case  of  a  former  medicine  proving  abortive, 
a  different  one  should  not  be  resorted  to  as  long  as 
the  effect  of  the  first  would  last,  inasmuch  as  a  mixture 
or  a  confusion  of  medicinal  remedies  tends  to  produfce  a 
positively  injurious  effect.     A  medicine  or  any  medicinal 

*  As  the  development  of  a  disease  due  to  the  deranged  Kapham 
in  a  country  of  the  JAngala  type. 

+  As  the  attack  of  a  bilious  distemper  in  forewinler,  or  of  a  \'5laja 
malady  in  autumn,  or  of  a  Kaphaja  atifectiun  in  summer. 

J  As  the  appearance  of  Kaphaja  disease  in  a  patient  of  bilious 

§  As  the  appearance  of  a  Kaphaja  disease  in  a  subject  habituated 
to  the  use  of  viands  of  pungent  taste. 

328  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chnp.  XXXV. 

measure,  failing  to  produce  any  tangible  effect,  may 
be  repeated  in  quick  succession  in  a  difficult  or 
dangerous  disease,  if  it  be  empirically  found  to  be 
beneficial  in  the  case  under  treatment.  The  intelligent 
physician,  ^vho,  considering  the  nature  of  the  season, 
etc.,  fully  conforms  to  the  abovesaid  rules  of  medical 
treatment,  conquers  the  bodily  distempers  and  dispels 
the  gloom  of  Death  from  the  world  with  his  medical  skill. 

Thus  ends  the  Thirty-fifth  Chapter  of  the  Sulrasthinam  in  the  Sushrula 
Samhila,  which  treats  of  clinical  oliservalions. 

Xow   we   shall    discourse   on   the   Chapter,    which 
treats    of    miscellaneous   remedies   for    swellings,   etc. 
(lYI  ish  raka- m  ad  hyayam) .  * 

Metrical  Texts  :— A  medicinal  plaster,  com- 
posed of  Matulanga,  Agnimantha,  Devadaru,  Mahaush- 
dham,  Ahinsra,  and  Rasna  pasted  together  and  applied 
to  the  seat  of  the  affection,  leads  to  the  resolution  of  a 
swelhng,  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu. 

A  plaster  composed  of  Durva,  Xalamulam,  Madhu- 
kam,  and  Chandanam,  as  well  as  plasters  composed  of 
drugs  of  cooling  properties,t  brings  about  the  resolution 
of  an  inflammatory  swelling  of  the  Pittaja  type, 
and  proves  similarly  beneficial  to  a  traumatic  swelling, 
or  to  one  which  has  its  origin  in  the  vitiated  condition 
of  the  blood. 

Measures,  laid  down  in  connection  with  a  swelling 
resulting  from  the  effects  of  poison,  would  lead  to  the 
resolution  of  a  Pittaja  swelling  as  well. 

*  The  nomenclature  of  the  chapter  is  based,  according  to  certain 
authorities,  on  the  fact  of  its  jointly  treating  of  eight  principal  processes 
of  absorption,  suppuration,  spontaneous  bursting,  etc.  of  a  swelling ;  while 
some  there  are  who  hold  that  the  name  of  the  chapter  is  derived  from 
the  fact  of  its  containing  remedial  measures  commonly  (Mishrakam  ) 
beneficial  to  swellings  and  ulcers. 

t  Belonging  to  the  groups  (  Gana  )  of  medicinal  herbs,  which  go  by 
the  names  of  their  first  components,  such  as  the  Kakalyadi  group  (Gana), 
the  Utpalidi  group  etc. 


330  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XXXVI. 

A  plaster,  composed  of  Ajagandha,  Ashvagaiidha, 
Kala,  Asarala,  Ekaishika,  and  Ajashringi  pasted  together, 
and  applied  to  the  spot,  leads  to  the  resolution  of 
a  Kaphaja  swelling  (appearing  at  any  part  of  the 

A  plaster,  composed  of  the  components  of  the  above- 
said  groups  of  medicinal  drugs  and  Lodhram,  Pathya, 
Pinditakam,  and  Ananta,  brings  about  the  resolution 
of  a  swelling  due  to  the  simultaneous  derangement 
of  the  three  fundamental  humours  of  the  body 

A  medicinal  plaster,  prescribed  for  a  swelling  due 
to  the  deranged  ^'ayu,  should  be  applied  by  mixing  it 
with  a  little  rock  salt,  acid  (Amla),  and  oil  or  clarified 
butter.  Similarly,  a  plaster,  prescribed  for  the  resolution 
of  a  Pittaja  swelling,  should  be  applied  cold,  and  with  a 
little  quantity  of  milk  added  to  it.  A  plaster  for  the 
resolution  of  a  Kaphaja  swelling  should  be  applied 
warm  to  the  affected  part,  and  with  the  addition  of  a 
considerable  quantity  of  an  alkali  and  cow's  urine. 

Pare  ha  na   Plasters  :— A  piaster  composed 

of  the  seeds  of  Shana,  Mula,  Shigru,  Tila  and  Sarshapa, 
Yava-powder,  Kinva  (enzyme),  and  linseed  pasted 
together,  or  one  consisting  of  thermogenetic  drugs  (such 
as  Kustha,  Aguru,  etc.),  would  establish  suppuration  in 
a  swelling. 

Chap.  XXXVI.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  33 1 

Darrana  Plasters  :^A  plaster  composed  of 
Chiravilva,  Agiiika,  Danti,  Chitraka,  Hayamaraka  and 
the  dung  of  pigeons,  vultures  and  storks  (Kanka)  pasted 
together,  would  lead  to  the  spontaneous  bursting  of  a 
swelling.  An  alkali,  or  its  ingredients  should  be  re- 
garded as  a  powerful  auxiliary  in  bringing  about  the 
spontaneous  bursting  of  a  swelling. 

Pi  dan  a  Plasters  :— A  plaster  composed  of 
the  roots  and  bark  of  slimy  trees  (Shalmali,  Shelu, 
etc.),  or  of  barley,  wheat,  and  Masha  pulse  powdered 
together,  would  increase  the  secretion  of  pus  from 
an  ulcer,  or  a  swelling  that  has  burst.* 

ShOdhana  Plasters  :— A  Kashayat  decoc- 
tion) of  Shankhini,  Ankota,  Sumanah,  Karavira,  and 
Suvarchchala,  or  of  drugs  belonging  to  the  group 
(Ganas)  known  as  the  Aragvadadi-Varga,  should  be 
used  in  washing  and  purifying  (asepsising)  the  contents 
of  an  ulcer,  or  a  secreting  swelling. 

ShOdhana  Varti  :— A  lint  saturated  with  a 
plaster  of  Ajagandha,  Ajashringi,  Gavakshi,  Langalahva- 
ya,  Putika,  Chitraka,  Patha,  Vidanga,  Ela,  Renuka, 
Tri-katu,  Yavakshara,  the  five  kinds  of  salt,  Manahshila, 

*  The  plaster  should  be  applied  all  round  the  swelling,  leaving  its  head 
free  and  exposed. 

t  A  decoction  with  one  part  of  a  drug  mixed  with  four,  eight  or  six- 
teen parts  of  water,  the  whole  being  boiled  down  to  a  quarter  pan  of  the 
entire  quantity. 


Kasisa,  Trivrita,  Danti,  Haritala  and  the  Saurashtra- 
mrittikjl,  and  inserted  into  ari  ulcer  or  an  open  swelling, 
brings  about  the  purification  of  its  interior,  and  these 
drugs  and  substances  should  be  regarded  as  the  ingre- 
dients of  Shodhana  Vartis  (aseptic  plugs). 

Shodhana  Kalka  :— A  kalka  (aseptic  paste), 
composed  of  the  preceding  drugs  and  substances,  is 
possesed  of  the  virtue  of  purifying  the  interior  of  an 
ulcer,  or  open  swelling. 

Oil  or  clarified  butter  prepared  with  the  aforesaid 
Ajagandha,  Ajashringi,  etc,  and  Kasisa,  Katurohini, 
Jatikanda,  and  the  two  kinds  of  Haridra,  and  applied  to 
an  ulcer  or  open  swelling,  purifies  its  interior.  The 
medicated  Ghritam  prepared  with  the  expressed 
juice  of  Arka  roots,  Uttama,  the  milky  juice  of 
Snuhi  plants,  drugs  abounding  in  alkalis,  Jati-roots,  the 
two  kinds  Haridra,  Kasisa,  Katurohini  and  the  aforesaid 
plug-drugs  (Sodhana-Varti)  pasted  together,  should  be 
regarded  as  possessed  of  a  virtue  similar  to  the  preced- 
ing one. 

A  medicated  oil  prepared  with  Mayuraka, 
(Apang),  Rajabriksha,  Ximva,  Kosh^taki,  Tila, 
Vrihati,  Kantakari,  Haritala,  Manahshila,  and  the  afore- 
said plug-drugs  (purgative  drugs  according  to  others), 
should  be  used  for  the  purpose  of  purifying  the  interior 
of  an  ulcer.  A  pulverised  compound  consisting  of  Kasisa, 
Saindhava,  Kinva,  Vach.1,   the   two   kinds   of  Haridra, 

Chap.  XXXVI.]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  333 

and  the  component  drugs  of  the  aseptic  plug 
powdered  together,  should  be  used  for  the  puri- 
fication of  the  cavity  of  an  ulcer.  For  the  same 
purpose  a  condensed  extract  (Rasa-Kriya)*  should  be 
made  of  the  essence  of  the  drugs  belonging  to  the 
Salsaradi,  Patoladi,  and  Triphaladi  groups. 

Dhupanam  : — A  wise  physician  should  fumigate 
(Dhupanam)  an  ulcer  with  the  fumes  of  a  compound 
consisting  of  Sriveshtaka,  Sarjarasa,  Sarala,  Devadaru, 
and  the  drugs  belonging  to  the  Salsaradi  group, 
pulverised  together  and  made  into  an  raseptici  fumigat- 
ing compound. 

A  cold  infusion  (Shhita-Shritam)  of  trees  (Vata, 
Audumvara,  Ashvattha,  etc.)  which  are  cooling  and 
astringent  in  their  virtue,  should  be  used  in  healing  or 
setting  up  a  process  of  granulation  in  an  ulcer. 

The  Ropana-Varti  :— Plugs  of  drugs  such  as 
Soma,  Amrita  (Gulancha),  and  Ashvagandha,  or  of  those 
belonging  to  the  Kakolyadi  group,  or  of  the  sprouts 
of  milk-exuding  trees  (Kshirivrikshas  such  as,  Vata, 
Audumvara,  etc.)  and  inserted  into  an  ulcer  tend 
to  help  its  granulation  (Ropana).  A  paste  (Kalka)  of 
Samanga,     Soma,    Sarala     wood,      Soma-Valka,    (red^ 

*  The  process  consists  in  mixing  the  drugs  wiih  water  weighing  eight 
or  sixteen  times  their  combined  weight,  and  then  boiling  them  down  to 
an  eighth  or  sixteenth  part  of  the  entire  quantity. 

334  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap,  xxxvi. 

Chandana,   and     drugs   belonging    to    the     Kakol)'adi 
group,  is  recommended  for  the  healing  of  an  ulcer. 

A  medicated  Ghritam,  prepared  with  the  Prithak- 
parni,  Atmagupta,  Haridra,  Daruharidra,  Malati,  Sita, 
and  drugs  belonging  to  the  Kakolyadi  group,  is  renowned 
for  its  healing  properties.  A  medicated  oil  prepared 
with  Kalanusari,  Aguru,  Haridra,  Daru- Haridra, 
Devadaru,  Priyangu,  and  Lodhra,  is  possesed  of  a  similar 

A  pulverised  compound  consisting  of  Kanguka, 
Triphala,  Lodhra,  Kasisam,  Shravana  and  the  barks 
of  Dhava  and  Ashvakarna  powdered  together,  is 
possessed  of  a  similar  healing  property.  The  use  of  a 
pulverised  compound  consisting  of  Priyangu,  Sarjarasa, 
Pushpa-kasisa,  Tvaka,  and  Dhava  powdered  together 
is  commended  for  the  healing  of  an  ulcer.  A  condensed 
extract  ( Rasakriya )  of  the  bark  of  milk-exuding 
trees  ( such  as  Vata,  Ashvattha  etc. )  and  the 
drugs  known  as  the  Triphala,  should  be  successively 
used  for  the  healing  of  an  ulcer. 

Utsardanam : — The  drugs  known  as  Apam^rga, 
Ashvagandha,  Talapatri,  Suvarchhala  and  those  belong- 
ing to  the  Kakolyadi  group,  should  be  used  for  the 
growth  of  flesh  in  an  ulcer  (  Utsadana  ). 

Avasa'danam  : — A  compound  consisting  of 
K^sisa,    Saindhava  ( rock    salt ),   Kinvam,  Kuruvinda, 

Chap.  XXXVI.]  SUtRAStHi^NAM.  335 

Manalishila,  the  shell  of  a  hen's  egg,  the  blossoms  of 
Jati  flowers,  the  seeds  of  .Shirisha,  and  Karanja,  and 
powders  of  the  abovesaid  metals  ( Dhatus )  mixed  to- 
gether, should  be  used  in  destroying  the  fleshy  super- 
growths  of  an  ulcer  {  Avasadanam ). 

A  wise  physician  should  use  all  the  drugs  and  sub- 
stances as  have  been  enumerated  in  connection  with  the 
healing  or  establishing  of  suppuration,  etc.  in  an  ulcer, 
or  as  many  of  them  as  would  be  available  at  the  time. 

Thus  ends  ihe  ihirly-sixlh  Chapter  of  ihe  Sulrasthdnam  in  the    Sushruta 
Sanihitd  which  treats  of  miscellaneous  remedies  for  inflammatory  swellings. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which  deals 
with  the  distinctive  traits  of  the  different  classes  of  soil 
commended  for  the  growth  or  culture  of  medicinal 
herbs  (Bhumi-Pravibha'ga-Vijna'niya- 

These  are  the  general  features  of  a  ground  which  is 
recommended  for  the  culture  of  medicinal  plants  or 
herbs.  A  plot  of  ground,  whose  surface  is  not  broken  or 
rendered  uneven  by  the  presence  of  holes,  ditches,  gravel 
and  stones,  nor  is  loose  in  its  character,  and  which  is 
not  disfigured  by  ant-hills,  nor  used  for  the  purposes  of 
a  cremation  or  execution  ground,  and  which  does  not 
occupy  the  site  of  a  holy  temple,  is  favourable  for  the 
growth  of  medicinal  herbs.  A  ground  which  possesses  a 
soil  which  is  glossy,  firm,  steady,  black,  yellowish  or 
red  and  does  not  contain  any  sand,  potash  or  any  other 
alkaline  substance,  and  is  favourable  to  the  germination 
of  plants  and  easily  pervious  to  the  roots  of  plants 
growing  thereon,  and  which  is  supplied  with  the 
necessary  moisture  from  a  close  or  adjacent  stream  or 
reservoir  of  water,  is  recommended  for  the  growth  of 
medicinal  plants  and  herbs.  Plants  should  be  regard- 
ed as  partaking  of  the  virtues  of  the  ground  they  grow 
upon.  A  plant,  growing  in  such  a  commendable  site, 
should  be  examined  as  to  its  being  infested  with  worms 

Chap.  XXXVII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  337 

or  insects,  or  as  to  its  being  anywise  infected  with 
poison,  or  cut  with  an  arm,  or  affected  by  winds, 
atmospheric  heat,  or  an  animal's  body.  It  should 
be  culled  or  uprooted  in  the  event  of  it  being  found 
sound,  healthy,  deep-rooted,  full-bodied,  and  of 
matured  sap.  The  gatherer  should  look  towards  the 
north  at  the  time  of  culling. 

A  plot  of  ground  with  a  pebbly,  steady,  heavy,  dusky 
or  dark  coloured  soil,  and  which  conduces  to  the  growth 
of  large  trees,  and  yields  rich  harvests  of  corn,  should 
be  regarded  as  permeated  with  the  specific  virtues  of 
essential  Earth-matter. 

A  ground  having  a  cool,  glossy,  white  coloured  soil, 
which  is  adjacent  to  water,  and  whose  surface  is  covered 
with  a  lavish  growth  of  glossy  weeds  and  luscious 
shady  trees,  should  be  considered  as  characterised  by 
the  essential  properties  of  water  (Amvuguna .  A 
ground  having  a  gravelly  soil  of  varied  colours,  and 
which  contributes  only  to  the  germination  of  scanty  and 
yellowish  sprouts,  should  be  looked  upon  as  permeated 
with  the  attributes  of  essential  fire  (Agmguna).  A 
ground  with  an  ash-coloured  or  ass-coloured  (grey ,  soil, 
and  on  which  withered  looking,  sapless,  large-holed  trees 
of  stunted  growth,  somehow  eke  out  a  miserable 
existence,  should  be  considered  as  being  controlled  by 
the  specific  properties  of  air  (Anilaguna)  ;  while  the 
one  having  a  soft,  level  surface  with  large  trees  and  lofty 




hills  cropping  up  at  intervals  thereon,  and  which  is 
covered  with  growths  of  weeds  and  under-shrubs,  and  is 
endued  with  a  dark  soil,  kept  moist  and  sappy  by  the 
percolation  of  invisible  (subterranean)  water,  should  be 
looked  upon  as  permeated  with  the  essential  properties 
of  sky  (Akashaguna). 

According  to  certain  authorities,  the  roots,  leaves, 
bark,  milk\^  exudations,  essence  and  fruits  (seeds)  of 
medicinal  plants  and  herbs,  should  be  respectively  culled 
in  the  early  part  of  the  rains  (Pravrit)  and  in  the  rainy 
season  proper  (Varsha\  autumn,  (Sharat),  fore- winter 
(Hemanta),  spring  (Vasanta)  and  summer  (Grishma). 
But  we  cannot  subscribe  to  that  opinion  inasmuch  as 
the  nature  or  essential  temperament  of  the  earth  is  both 
cool  (Saumya)  and  hot  (Agneya).  Accordingly  drugs  of 
cooling  virtues  should  be  culled  during  the  cold  seasons 
of  the  year,  and  the  heat- making  ones  in  the  hot  season, 
as  they  do  not  become  divested  of  their  native  virtues  at 
those  seasons  of  the  year.  Medicinal  plants  of  cooling 
virtues,  which  are  grown  on  a  soil  of  cool  temperament 
and  are  culled  during  the  cool  seasons  of  the  year, 
become  intensely  sweet,  cooling  and  glossy.  These 
remarks  hold  good  of  other  medicinal  plants  and  herbs. 

Herbs  of  purgative  properties,  which  are  grown  on 
a  soil  permeated  with  the  specific  virtues  of  water 
or  earth  matter,  should  be  culled  as  the  most  effective 
of  their  kind.    Similarly,  herbs  of  emetic  virtues  should 

Chap.  XXXVII.]        SUTRASTHA'NAM. 


be  culled  from  a  ground  permeated  with  the  essential 
virtues  of  fire,  sky  and  air. 

Herbs  exercising  both  purgative  and  emetic  virtues 
should  be  culled  from  ground  exhibiting  features 
common  to  both  the  two  aforesaid  classes  of  soil. 
Similarly,  herbs  possessed  of  soothing  properties 
(Sanshamanam)*  are  found  to  exert  a  stronger  action 
in  the  event  of  their  being  reared  on  a  soil  permeated 
with  the  essential  properties  of  sk5\ 

All  medicinal  herbs  and  substances  should  be  used 
as  fresh  as  possible,  excepting  Pippali,  Vidanga,  Madhu, 
Guda,  and  Ghritam,  fwhich  should  be  used  in  a  matured 
condition  i.e.  not  before  a  year;.  The  milky  juice  or  sap 
of  a  medicinal  tree  or  plant  should  be  regarded  as  strong 
and  active  under  all  circumstances.  Herbs  and  drugs, 
that  had  been  culled  or  collected  within  the  year,  might 
be  taken  and  used  in  making  up  a  medicinal  recipe  in  a 
case  where  fresh  ones  would  not  be  available. 

Authoritative  Verses  on  the  Sub- 
ject— Medicinal  herbs  and  plants  should  be  recognis- 
ed and  identified  with  the  help  of  cowherds,  hermits, 
huntsmen,  forest-dwellers,  and  those  who  cull  the  fruits 
and  edible  roots  of  the  forest.  Xo  definite  time  can 
be  laid  down  for  the   culling  of   the  leaves  and  roots  of 

*  Herbs  or  drugs,  which  in  virtue  of  their  own  essential  properties 
soothe  or  subdue  a  disease  without  eliminating  the  morbid  humours 
or  without  exercising  any  emetic  or  purgative  action. 

340         THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap,  xxxvil. 

medicinal  plants,  etc.,  such  as  are  used  in  compounding 
the  recipe,  which  is  called  the  Patra-lavanam,  and  which 
covers,  within  its  therapeutic  range,  diseases,  which  are 
peculiar  to  the  entire  organism  (such  as  Vata-vyadhi, 

As  soil  admits  of  being  divided  into  six  different 
classes  according  to  its  smell,  colour,  taste,  etc.  so 
the  sap  of  a  medicinal  plant  may  assume  an}'  of  the 
six  different  tastes  through  its  contact  with  the  peculiar 
properties  of  the  soil  it  grows  on.  Tastes  such  as^ 
sweet,  etc.,  remain  latent  in  water,  which  imparts  them 
to  the  soil  in  a  patent  or  perceptible  condition. 

A  plot  of  ground,  exhibiting  traits  peculiar  to  all  the 
five  fundamental  material  principles  (such  as  the  earth 
water,  fire,  etc.),  is  said  to  be  possessed  of  a  soil 
of  general  character  (Sadharani  Bhumi),  and  medicinal 
plants  and  herbs  partake  of  the  specific  virtues  of  the 
soil  the}'  grown  on. 

Drugs,  whether  fresh  or  old,  and  emitting  a  contrary 
smell,  or  in  any  way  affected  as  regards  their  natural 
sap  or  juice,  should  not  be  used  for  pharmaceutical 

The  virtues  of  such  medicinal  drugs  and  substances 
such   as   Vidanga,   Pippali,  Madhu,  and  Guda,  improve 

*  ITence  the  doctrine,  as  regards  the  culling  of  the  difterent  parts  of  a 
medicinal  plant  such  as,  the  leaves,  roots,  etc.,  in  the  different  seasons 
of  the  year,  naturally  falls  to  the  ground. 

Chap.  XXXVII.  ]         SUTRASTHA'NAM.  34 1 

(after  a  year.  Accordingly  all  drugs  and  n^.edicinal 
herbs,  excepting  the  preceding  ones,  should  be  used 
fresh  and  unsoiled,  or  uninjured  by  insects. 

Blood,  nails,  or  hair  etc.,  of  animals,  '^officinally  laid 
down  to  be  used  in  our  Pharmacopoeia),  should  be  taken 
from  young  and  healthy  animals,  and  the  ordure,  urine, 
or  milk  of  an  animal,  (enjoined  to  be  used  for  medicinal 
purposes),  should  be  collected  at  a  time  after  it  has 
completed  its  digestion. 

The  pharmacy  and  the  medicinal  store  of  a  physician 
should  occupy  a  commendable  site  and  an  auspicious 
quarter  of  the  sky  (Xorth  or  East),  and  the  collected 
medicines  should  be  kept  tied  in  pieces  of  clean  linen,  or 
stored  in  earthen  vessels  and  hollow  tubes  of  wood,  or 
suspended  on  wooden  pegs. 

Thus  ends  the  thirty-seventh  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasthanam  in  the 
Sushruta  Samhit^  wliich  treats  of  the  Classification  of  grounds  for  the 
culture  of  medicinal  plants  and  herhs,  etc. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  deals 
with  the  general  classification  of  drugs  according  to 
their  therapeutical  properties  (Dravya-Sangra- 

These  drugs  are  usually  made  into  thirty-seven 
different  groups  (Gana)  which  are  as  follows  : — 

The  Vidarigandha'cli  Croup:— The  drugs 

known  as  Vidarigandha,  Vidari,  Sahadeva,  Vishvadeva, 
Shvadanstra,  Prithakparni,  Shatavari,  Sariva,  black 
Sariva,  Jivaka,  Rishavaka,  Mahasaha,  Kshudra-Saha, 
Vrihati,  Kantakari,  Punarnava,  Eranda,  Hansapadi, 
Vrishchikah,  and  Rishavi,  form  the  group  known  as  the 

IVIetrical  Text  : — The  present  gi-oup  of  drugs 
subdues  the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu  and  Pittam 
and  proves  beneficial  in  phthisis  ;Shosha~^,  Gulma,  aching 
of  the  limbs,  Urdha  Shvasa  and  cough. 

The  A'ragvadha'di  Group  :— The  drugs 
known  as  Aragvadha,  Madana,  Gopaghonta,  Kutaja, 
Patha,  Kantaki^  Patala,  Murva,  Indrayava,  Saptaparna, 
Ximva,  Kuruntaka,  Dasi-kuruntaka,  the  two  kinds  of 
Karanja,  Patola,  Kiratttikua,  Guduchi,  Chitraka, 
Sh^ngshta,  and  Susha^•i  form  the  group  known  as 
the  Aragvadhjidi. 


Metrical  Text  :  — The  group  under  discus- 
sion destroys  the  deranged  Kaphani  and  the  effects  of 
poison  and  proves  beneficial  in  cases  of  Meha  (^morbid 
discharges  from  the  urethra),  Kushtha,  fever,  vomiting 
and  itching  of  the  body  and  acts  as  a  purifying 
(aseptic)  agent  in  the  case  of  an  ulcer. 

The  Varuna'di  Group  :  —The  drugs  known 
as  Varuna,  Artagala,  Shigru,  Madhu-Shigi-u,  Tarkari, 
Mesha-Shringi,  Putika,  Xaktamala,  Morata,  Agni- 
mantha,  the  two  kinds  of  Sairiyaka,  Vimvi,  Vasuka, 
Vasira,  Chitraka,  Shatavari,  Mlva,  Ajashringi,  Darbha, 
and  the  two  kinds  of  Vrihati  form  the  group  known 
as  the  Varunadi. 

IVIetrical  Text  :  —The  group  is  possessed  of  the 
efficacy  of  reducing  the  deranged  Kapham  and 
fat  and  proves  efficacious  in  cases  of  cephalaegia,  Gulma 
and  internal  abscesses. 

The   Viratarva'di     Group  :— The    drugs 

known  as  Virataru,  the  two  kinds  of  Sahachara,  Darbha, 
Vrikshadani,  Gundra,  I\'ala,  Kusha,  Kasha,  Ashma- 
bhedaka,  Agnimantha,  Morata  Vasuka,  Vasira, 
Bhalluka,  Kuruntaka,  Indivara,  Kapotavanka,  and 
Sh^adanstra  enter  into  the  composition  of  the  group 
known  as  the  Viratarvadi. 

IVIetrical  Text  :— The  group  subdues  all  dis- 
orders incidental  to   the   deranged   state   of  Vata   and 

344         1*ilE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     t  Chap,  xxxvili. 

proves      curative      in     Ashmari,      Sharkara,     Mutra- 
krichhra,  Mutraghata  and  urinary  troubles. 

The  Sa^Iasara'di  Group  :— The  group  of 
medicinal  drugs,  known  as  the  Salasaradi,  consists  of 
Salasara,  Ajakarna,  Khadira,  Kadara,  Kalaskandha, 
Kramuka,  Bhurjja,  Meshashringi,  Tinisha,  Chandana, 
Kuchandana,  Shinshapa,  Shirisha,  Asana,  Dhava, 
Arjuna,  Tala,  Shaka,  Xaktamala,  Putika  Ashvakarna, 
Aguru  and  Kaliyaka. 

IVIctrical  Texts  ;  -The  group  of  the  drugs, 
known  as  the  Salasaradi  Gana,  destroys  the  germ  of 
Kushtha,  absorbs  the  deranged  fat  and  Kapham  and 
proves  beneficial  in  morbid  discharges  from  the  urethra 
(Meha\  chlorosis   or  jaundice  (Pandu). 

The  Rodhrardi  Group:— The  group  of  medi- 
cinal drugs  known  as  the  Rodhradi  consists  of  Rodhra, 
Savararodhra,  Palasha  Kutannata,  Ashoka,  Phanji, 
Katphala,  Elabaluka,  Sallaki,  Jingini,  Kadamva,  Sala 
and  Kadali. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— The  group  is  antidotal  to 
the  deranged  Kapham  and  fat,  is  astringent  in  its 
properties,  removes  vaginal  and  uterine  disorders, 
neutralises  the  effects  of  poison  (anti  toxic)  and 
acts  as  a  stj'ptic  and  purifying  agent  in  a  case  of  ulcer 
and  arrests  all  secretions  and  excretions  of  the  body. 

The  Arkardi  Group  :--The  drugs  known 
as   the     Arka,     Alarka,    the     two   kinds   of    Karanja, 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]        SUtRASTHANAM.  345 

Nagadanti,  Mayuraka,  Bhargi,  Rasna,  Indrapiishpi, 
Kshudrashveta  Mahashveta,  Vrishchikali,  Alavana  and 
Tapasha-Vriksha,  enter  into  the  composition  of  the 
group  known  as  the  Arkadi  Gana. 

Metrical  Texts:— The  group  known  as  the 
Arkadi  destroys  Kaphani,  fat,  and  the  effects  of 
poison.  It  acts  as  a  vermifuge  and  a  specific  aseptic 
agent  in  the  case  of  an  ulcer  and  proves  curative  in 
diseases  of  the  skin. 

The  Surasa'di  Group  :— The  drugs  known 
as  Surasa,  white  Surasa,  Fainjjhaka,  Arjaka,  Bhustrina, 
Sugandhaka,  Sumukha,  Kalamala,  Kashamarda, 
Kshavaka,  Kharpushpa,  Vidanga,  Katphala_,  Surasi, 
Nirgundi,  Kulahala,  Indurakarnika,  Phanji,  Prachi- 
vala,  Kakamachi  and  Vishamushtika  form  the  group 
known  as  the  Surasadi  Gana. 

IVIetrical  Texts :— The  group  acts  as  a 
vermifuge  and  is  an  aseptic  agent.  It  subdues  the 
deranged  Kapham  and  proves  beneficial  in  catarrh, 
non-relish  for  food,  asthma  and  cough. 

The  lYIushkaka'di  Group:— The  group  of 
medicinal  drugs  known  as  the  Mushkakadi  consists  of 
Mushkaka,  Palasha,  Dhava,  Chitraka,  Madana, 
Shinshapa,  Vajra-Vriksha  and  Triphala. 

Metrical      Text  :— The      present      group      is 
possessed  of  the  therapeutic  virtue  o-f  destroying  fat  and 

346         THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.    [  Chap.  XXXVIII. 

removing  the  defects  of  semen.  Meha,  piles,  jaundice, 
chlorosis,  gravels  and  urinary  calculi  in  the  bladder 
are  the  diseases  which  yield  Lo  its  curative  efficac)'. 

The    Pippalya'di    Group: -The  group  of 

medicinal  drugs  known  as  the  Pippalyadi  consists  of 
Pippali,  Pippali  mulam,  Chavya,  Chitraka,  Shringavera, 
Maricha,  Hasti-Pippali,  Harenuka,  Ela,  Ajamoda, 
Indrayava,  Patha,  Jiraka,  Sarshapa,  Maha-Nimva-Phala, 
Hingu,  Bhargi,  Madhurasa,  Ativisha,  Vacha,  Vidanga 
and  Katurohini. 

IVIetrical  Text : — The  present  group  acts  as  a 
good  appetiser  and  is  an  absorbant  of  intestinal  mucous 
and  unassimilated  lymph  chyle.  The  range  of  its  thera- 
peutical application  includes  catarrh,  deranged  Kapham 
and  Vatam,  non-relish  for  food,  abdominal  glands,  colic 
and  gastralgia. 

The  Elardi  Group  : — The  group  of  medicinal 
drugs  known  as  the  Eladi-Gana  consists  of  Ela,  Tagara, 
Kushtha,  M^nsi,  Dhyamaka,  Tvaka,  Patra,  Naga- 
pushpa,  Priyangu,  Harenuka,  Vyaghranakha,  Shukti, 
Clianda,  Sthauneyaka,  Shriveshtaka,  Chocha,  Choraka, 
Valaka,  Guggulu,  Sarjarasa,  Turushka,  Kunduruka, 
Aguru,  Sprikka,  Ushira,  Bhadradaru,  Kumkuma, 
Punnaga  and  Keshara. 

IVIetrical  Text  :— The  therapeutic  virtue  of 
the  group  consists  in  subduing  the  action   of  V^yu  and 



Kapham  and  in  neutralising  the  effects  of  poison.  It  is 
a  cosmetic  and  arrests*  the  eruption  of  pimples 
and  other  vegetations  on  the  skin  such  as  rash,  urticaria 
etc.  and  checks  the  itching  sensation  incidental 

The  Vach2rcli  and  Haridrardi  Groups :- 

The  groups  known  as  the  Vachadi  and  Haridradi 
Ganas,  respectively  consist  of  Vacha,  Musta,  Ativisha, 
Abhaya,  Bhadradaru,  Nagakeshara  (Vachadi),  Haridra, 
Daruharidr^,  Kalashi,  Kutaja  seeds  and  Madhuka 

IVIetrical  Text: — These  two  groups  are  the 
purifiers  of  breast  milk  and  specifically  act  as  the 
assimilators  of  the  deranged  humours  of  the  body,  their 
curative  properties  being  markedly  witnessed  in  cases 
of  mucous  dysentery  (Amatisiira). 

The  Shy^mardi  Group  : -The  drugs  known 
as  Shyama,  Mahd-Shyam^,  Trivrit,  Danti,  Shan- 
khini,  Tilvaka,  Kampillaka,  Ramyaka,  Kramuka, 
Putrashroni,  Gavakshi,  Rajavriksha,  the  two  kinds 
of  Karanja,  Guduchi,  Saptala,  Chhagalantri,  Sudh^  and 
Suvarnakhiri,  form  the  group  known  as  the  Shyam^di 

Metrical  Text : — This  group  is  possessed  of 
the  therapeutic  virtue  of  curing  abdominal  glands  and 
acts  as  an    anti-toxic.    It  proves  beneficial  in  An^ha 



'epistasis),  abdominal  dropsy  and  diarrhoea  and  is  one 
of  the  most  reliable  purgatives  in  cases  of  obstinate 
constipation  of  the  bowels  with  suppression  of  urine 
and  distention  of  the  abdomen  (Udavarta). 

The  Vrihatya'di  Group  :-^The  drugs  known 
as  Vrihati,  Kantakarika,  Kutajaphala,  Patha  and 
Madhuka  combinedly  form  the  group  known  as  the 
Vrihatyadi  Gana. 

IVIctrical  Text :— The  group  is  a  good  digestant 
or  assimilator  of  the  deranged  humours.  It  subdues 
the  deranged  Vata,  Pitta  and  Kapham  and  proves 
efficacious  in  cases  of  nausea,  water-brash,  d^'suria  and 
non- relish  for  food. 

The  Patola'di  Group:— The  drugs  known 
as  Patola,  Chandana,  Kuchandana,  Murva,  Guduchi, 
Patha,  and  Katurohini  form  the  group  known  as  the 
Patoladi  Gana. 

IVIetrical  Text  : — The  group  is  a  febrifuge  and 
anti-toxic,  and  its  therapeutic  action  consists  in  destroy- 
ing the  action  of  the  deranged  Pittam  and  Kapham.  It 
restores  the  natural  relish  of  the  patient  for  food, 
removes  vomiting,  and  proves  beneficial  in  ulcers, 
and  itching  erythematous  eruptions. 

The  Ka'kolya'di  Group  :— The  drugs  known 
as  Kakoli-Kshira-Kakoli,  Jivaka,  Rishabhaka,  Mudga- 
parni,    Mashaparni,    Meda,    Mah^meda,    Chhinna-ruha, 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]         SUTRASTHA'NAM. 


Karkata-Shringi,  Tugakshiri,  Padmaka,  Prapaundarika, 
Riddhi,  Vriddhi,  Mridvika,  Jivanti  and  Madhuka,  com- 
binedly  form  the  group  known  as  the  Kakolyadi  Gana. 

IVIetrical  Text  :— The  group  of  medicinal 
drugs  under  discussion  subdues  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Pittam,  blood  and  Vayu.  It  increases  the 
quantity  of  milk  in  the  breast  f  galactagogue)  and 
favours  the  accumulation  of  phlegm  (Kapham)  in  the 
body.  It  is  a  restorative  and  an  elixir  and  is  endued  with 
the  therapeutic  virtue  of  augmenting  the  virile  potency 
of  a  man. 

The  Ushaka'di  Group  :— The  medicinal 
drugs  and  substances  known  as  Ushaka  (alkaline  earth) 
Saindhava  salt,  Shilajatu,  the  two  kinds  of  Kasisa, 
Hingu  and  Tutthaka  enter  into  the  composition  of  the 
group  known  as  the  Ushakadi  Gana. 

IVIetrical  Text :  — It  destroys  kapham  mucous), 
absorbs  the  fat  of  the  body  and  proves  curative  in  cases 
.of  stone   or   gravel   in   the  bladder   (urinary    calculi), 
dysuria  and  abdominal  glands  fGulma\ 

The  Sa'riva'di  Group  :— The  drugs  known 
as  Sariva,  Madhuka,  Chandana,  Kuchandana,  Padmaka, 
Kashmari  phala,  Madhuka-pushpa  and  Ushira_,  com- 
binedly  form  the  group  known  as  the  Sarivadi  Gana. 

IVIetrical  Text  :— The  group  under  discussion 
allays  thirst  and  proves  curative  in  a  case  of  haemoptysis. 

350        'i'HE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XXXVIII. 

Its  therapeutic  virtue  consists  in  curbing  an  attack 
of  bilious  (Pittaja)  fever  and  in  specifically  alleviating 
the  burning  sensation  (Daha)  of  the  body. 

The  Anjana'di  Group  :-The  group  known 
as  the  Anjanadi  Gana  consists  of  Anjana,  Rasanjana, 
Nagapushpa,  Priyangu,  Nilotpala,  Nalada,  Nalina, 
Keshara  and  Madhuka. 

Metrical  Texts  :— An  attack  of  hasmoptj-sis 
readily  5n'elds  to  the  curative  virtue  of  the  group  under 
discussion.  It  is  anti-toxic  in  its  character  and  allays 
the  internal  burning  sensation  of  the  body. 

The  Parushaka'di  Group:— The  gioup 
known  as  the  Parushakadi  Gana  consists  of  Parushaka, 
Dr^ksha,  Kat-phala,  Dadima,  Rajadana,  Kataka-phala 
Shaka-phala  and  Triphala. 

lYIetrical  Text  : — It  subdues  the  deranged 
Vayu,  allays  thirst,  acts  as  a  cordial,  increases  one's 
relish  for  food 'and  cures  the  diseased  or  abnormal  com- 
ponents of  urine  or  its  defects. 

The  Priyangvardi  Group:— The  group  of 
medicinal  drugs  known  as  the  Priyangvadi  Gana  consists 
of  Priyangu,  Samang^,  Dhataki,  Naga-pushpa,  Chandana, 
Kuchandana,  Mocharasa,  Rasanjana,  Kumbhika, 
Srotohnjana,  Padma- keshara,  Jojanvalli,  and  Dirghamula. 

The  Amvashtha'di  Group:— Drugs  known 
as  Amvashth^,   Dhataki  flowers,   Samanga,   Katvanga, 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]         SUTRASTHANAM.  351 

Madhuka,  Vilva-peshika,  Rodhra,  Savara-Rodhra, 
Palasha,  Xandi-Vriksha  and  Padma  keshara,  enter  into 
the  composition  of  the  group  known  as  the  Amvashthadi 

lYletrical  Text:— The  two  medicinal  recipes 
or  groups  prove  beneficial  in  a  case  of  deranged  Pitta, 
favour  the  heahng  of  ulcers,  bring  about  the  adhesion 
of  fractured  bones  and  prove  curative  in  cases  of 
dysentery  where  the  stools  are  found  to  consist  of 
lumps  of  thick  and  matured  mucous  (Pakvatisara.) 

The  Nya'grodha'di  Croup:— The  drugs 
known  as  Nyagrodha,  Audumvara,  Ashvattha,  Plaksha, 
Madhuka,  Kapitana,  Kakubha,  Amra,  Koshamra, 
Chorakapatra,  the  two  sorts  of  Jamvu,  Piyala,  Madhuka 
(Maula),  Rohini,  Vanjula,  Kadamva,  Vadari,  Tinduki, 
Sallaki,  Rodhra,  Savara-Rodhra,  Bhallataka,  Palasha, 
and  Nandi-Vriksha,  combinedly  form  the  group  known 
as  the  Nyagodhradi  Gana. 

Metrical  Texts  : — This  group  proves  bene- 
ficial in  cases  of  ulcer,  cures  all  disorders  of 
the  uterus  and  vagina,  favours  the  adhesion  of 
fractured  bones  and  all  sorts  of  secretions  of  the 
body  in  addition  to  its  astringent  properties  (Sangrahi) 
and  proves  curative  in  a  case  of  haemoptysis.  It  is 
an  anti-fat  and  assuages  the  burning  sensation  of 
the  body. 

352        THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.    [  Chap,  xxxviii. 

The  Guduchya'di  Group  :— The  drugs 
known  as  Guduchi,  Ximva,  Kustumvuru,  Chandana, 
and  Padmaka,  combinedly  form  the  group  known  as 
the  Guduchyadi  Gana. 

IVIctrical  Text:— It  is  a  good  appetiser,  and 
acts  as  a  general  febrifuge  and  successfully  combats 
such  symptoms  as  nausea,  want  of  relish  for  food, 
vomiting,  thirst  and  burning  sensation  of  the  body. 

The  Utpala'di  Group  :— The  drugs  known 
as  Utpala,  Raktotpala,  Kumuda  Saugondhika,  Kuvalaya, 
Pundarika  and  Madhuka  constitute  the  group  known 
as  the  Utpaladi  Gana. 

lYIetrical  Texts  : — This  group  is  possessed  of 
the  therapeutic  virtue  of  allaying  thirst  and  corrects 
the  deranged  Pittam  and  the  vitiated  blood.  It 
assuages  the  burning  sensation  of  the  body  and  proves 
curative  in  cases  of  vomiting,  in  Hridroga  (Angina 
pectoris'^  in  syncope,  in  ha3mopt\sis  and  in  cases  of 
poisoning  as  well. 

The  lYIusta'di  Group  :— The  group  of 
drugs  known  as  Mushtadi  Gana  is  composed  of 
Musta,  Haridra,  Daru-Haridra,  Haritaki,  Amlaki, 
Vibhitaka,  Kushtha,  Haimavati,  Vacha,  Patha,  Katu- 
rohini,  Sharngashta,  Ativisha,  Dravidi,  Bhallataka  and 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]         SUTRASTHANAM.  ^53 

Metrical  Text : — The  group  under  discussion 
destroys  the  deranged  Shleshma,  cures  uterine  and 
vaginal  disorders,  purifies  the  breast  milk  of  a  mother, 
and  acts  as  a  good  digestant  (Pachana). 

The  Triphalar  Group  :- The  drugs  known 
Haritaki,  Amlaki  and  Vibhitaka,  constitute  the  group 
known  as  the  Triphaladi  Gana. 

Metrical  Text  :— The  present  group  destroys 
the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  Kapham  and  Pittam 
and  proves  curative  in  Meha,  and  in  diseases  of  the  skin 
(Kushtham).  It  is  a  good  appetiser,  improves  the 
eyesight  and  proves  beneficial  in  chronic  intermittent 
fever  (Vishama-jvara). 

The  Trikatu  Group  :— The  Trikatu  group 
consists  of  Pippali,  Maricha  and  Shringavera. 

Metrical  Text  :— It  destroys  fat  and  Kapham, 
proves  curative  in  cutaneous  affections,  leprosy 
(Kushtha),  and  morbid  discharges  from  the  urethra,  and 
is  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  curing  abdominal  glands, 
catarrh,  dullness  of  the  appetite  and  indigestion. 

The  A'mlakya'di  Group  :— The  group 
known  as  the  Amlakyadi  Gana  consists  of  Amlaki, 
Haritaki,   Pippali  and  Chitraka. 

Metrical  Text  : — The  present  group  of  medici- 
nal drugs  acts  as  a  general  febrifuge  and   may   be   used 

^54        THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.    [  Chap,  xxxviil. 

with  advantage  in  fevers  of  whatsoever  type.  Moreover, 
it  is  an  aphrodisiac  and  acts  as  a  general  tonic  or  resto- 
rative and  appetiser,  destroying  the  deranged  Kapham 
and  improving  the  eyesight. 

The  Trapvardi  Group  :—Tlie  group  known 
as  the  Trapvadi  Gana  consists  of  Trapu,  Sisa,  Tamra, 
Rajata,  Krishna-Lauha,  Suvarna  and  Lohamala. 

lYIctrical  Text  :— The  present  group  is 
regarded  as  a  good  vermifuge  and  possessed  of  the  virtue 
of  neutrahsing  the  effects  of  chemical  poison  originated 
through  incompatible  combinations.  Its  therapeutic 
range  covers  jaundice,  chlorosis,  Melia  (morbid  secre- 
tions from  the  uretlira),  Hridroga  (heart  disease),  thirst 
and  maladies  incidental  to  the  effects  of  poison. 

The  La'ksha'di  Group  :— The  drugs  known 
as  the  Laksha,  Arevata,  Kutaja,  Ashvamara,  Katphalam, 
Haridra,  Daru-Haridra,  Ximva,  Saptachchhada,  Malati, 
and  Trayamana  form  the  Lakshadi  Gana. 

Metrical  Text  : — This  consists  of  astringent, 
bitter  and  sweet  taste  (Rasa)  and  acts  as  a  good 
vermifuge  and  a  purifying  (aseptic)  agent  in  cases 
of  bad,  malignant  or  indolent  ulcers.  Diseases  due  to 
the  deranged  Kapham  and  Pittam  prove  amenable  to  its 
curative  properties,  which  extend  to  cases  of  cutaneous 
affections  (Kushtham)  as  well.     Now  we  shall  describe 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]        SUTRASTHANAM.  ^^^ 

the  five  groups  of  medicinal  roots  (Mulam),  each 
consisting  of  similar  number  of  components. 

The  Svalpa  Panchamulam  Croup  :— 

The  group  known  as  the  mmor  group  of  five  roots 
(Svalpa-Pancha-Mula)  consists  of  the  roots  of  medicinal 
plants  known  as  the  Trikantaka,  the  two  species  of 
Vrihati,  Prithakparni,  and  Vidarigandha. 

lYIetrical  Texts  : — The  compound  possesses  a 
taste  blended  of  astringent,  bitter  and  sweet.  It  is  a 
tonic  and  aphrodisiac,  subdues  the  deranged  Yayu  and 
proves  soothing  to  the  deranged  Pittam. 

The    IVlahat    Panchamula   Croup:— 

The  one  known  as  the  great  or  the  major  group  of 
five  medicinal  roots  (Mahat-Pancha-Mula)  consists  of 
the  roots  of  such  trees  as  Vilva,  Agnimantha, 
Tuntuka,  Patala  and  Kashmari. 

Metrical  Texts  :— It  is  bitter  in  taste  and 
subdues  the  deranged  Kapham  and  Vatam.  It  is  light 
(easily  digestible)  and  appetising,  and  acquires  a  sub- 
sequent sweet  taste  in  its  reaction  (Anurasa). 

The     Dashamula     Croup  :— The    two 

preceding  groups  in  combination  form  the  one  techni- 
cally known  as  the  Dasha-Mulam  (the  ten  roots),  which 
is  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  destroying  the  deranged 
Vata,  Pittam  and  Kapham.  It  proves  beneficial  in  cases  of 
asthma  and   difficult  respiration.     It  acts  as  a    good 



digestant  in  respect  of  undigested  lymph  chyle,  etc  and 
is  used  with  satisfactory  results  in  all  types  of  fever. 

The    Valli-Panchamulam    Group:— 

The  group  consisting  of  the  roots  of  the  five  medicinal 
creepers  known  as  Vidari,  Sariva,  Rajani,  Guduchi 
and  Aja-Shringi,  is  called  the  Valli-Panchamulam. 

The  Pancha-kantakam  Groups— Simi- 
larly, the  group  consisting  of  the  five  medicinal 
(thorny)  shrubs  known  as  Karamradda,  Trikantaka, 
Sairiyaka,  Shatavari,  and  Gridhranakhi,  is  called  the 
Pancha-  Kantaka. 

Metrical  Texts  : — The  two  preceding  groups 
prove  curative  in  Hcemoptysis  and  in  all  the  tliree 
types  of  anasarca  or  cedema  (Shopha).  Moreover,  it  has 
the  incontestable  virtue  of  arresting  all  sorts  of  urethral 
discharges  and  is  a  potent  remedy  in  all  cases  of  seminal 

The  Pancha-Trina  Group  :- The  group 
consisting  of  the  five  medicinal  herbs  (of  the  grass 
species)  and  known  as  Kusha,  Kasha,  Nala,  Darbha, 
Kandekshuka,  is  called  the  Pancha-Trina. 

Metrical  Texts  : — Cases  of  Haemoptysis,  renal 
defects  or  of  uninary  diseases  are  found  to  speedily  yield 
to  the  curative  efficacy  of  the  compound  internally 
administered  through  the  medium  of  cow's  milk. 

Metrical  Texts -.—The  first  two  of  the   afore- 

Chap.  XXXVIII.]         SUTRASTHA'NAM.  357 

said  groups  of  Panchamulas  (viz.,  the  Svalpa  and  the 
Vrihat  Panchamulas)  are  possessed  of  the  virtue  of 
destroying  the  deranged  Vata,  while  the  one  standing  in 
the  bottom  of  the  list  (Trina-Panchamula)  is  endued  with 
the  property  of  killing  the  deranged  Pittam.  Those  stand- 
ing third  and  fourth  in  order  of  enumeration  (the  Valli 
and  Kantaka  Panchamulas)  subdue  the  deranged  Kapham. 

The  groups  of  medicinal  drugs  and  roots  have  thus 
been  briefly  described,  which  will  be  more  elaborately 
dealt  with  later  on  in  the  chapter  on  Therapeutics. 

An  intelligent  physician  should  prepare  plasters, 
decoctions,  medicated  oils,  Ghritas  (medicated  clarified 
butter)  or  potions,  according  to  the  exigencies  of  each 
individual  case.*  The  groups  enumerated  above  should 
be  therapeutically  used  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
deranged  humours  involved  in  each  individual  case. 
Only  two,  three  or  four  drugs  of  the  same  medicinal 
group,  or  a  similar  number  of  drugs  chosen  from  the 
the  different  groups,  or  a  group  of  medicinal  drugs  in  its 
entirety,  or  in  combination  with  another,  should  be 
used  according  to  the  indications  of  any  particular  case, 
as  the  physician,  in  his  discretion,  would  determine. 

*  Additional  Text  : — These  drugs  may  be  duly  culled  in  all  seasons  of 
the  year,  and  should  be  stored  in  a  room  protected  from  smoke,  blasts  of 
cold,  wind  and  rain. 

Thus  ends  the  thirty-eighth  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasth^nam  in  the  Sushruta 
Samhit5,  which  deals  with  the  classification  of  drugs  according  to  their 
therapeutical  use. 


Xow  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter  which  treats 
of  medicinal  drugs  possessed  of  cleansing  (cathartic') 
or  soothing  effects  (Samshodhana-Samsha- 

Emetic  Drugs  : — The  drugs  known  as 
Madana  fruits,  Kutaja,  Jimutaka,  Ikshvaku,  Dhamagarba, 
Krita-vedhana,  Sarshapa,  Vidanga,  Pippali,  Karan- 
jaka,  Prapunnada,  Kovidara,  Korvudara,  Arishta,  Ashva- 
gandha,  Vidula,  Vandhujivaka,  Shveta,  Shanapushpi, 
Vimvi,  Vacha,  Mrigervaru  and  Chitra,  etc.  are  possessed 
of  emetic  properties.  Out  of  these  the  fruits  (seeds)  of 
plants  preceding  Kovidara  in  the  abovesaid  list 
(from  the  ]\Iadana  fruits  to  those  of  the  Prapunnada) 
and  the  roots  of  plants  from  Kovidara  to  its  close, 
should  be  used. 

Purgative  Drugs  :— The  trees,  plants,  herbs 
and  creepers,  etc.  known  as  Trivrita,  Shyama,  Danti, 
Dravanti,  Saptala,  Shankhini,  Vishanika,  Gavakshi, 
Chhagalantri,  Snuk,  Suvarnakshiri,  Chitraka,  Kinihi, 
Kusha,  Kasha,  Tilvaka,  Kampillaka,  Ranwaka,  Patala, 
Puga,  Haritaki,  Amalaka,  Bibhitaka,  Xilini,  Chatur- 
angula,  Eranda,  Putika,  Mah^vriksha,  Saptachchhada, 
Arka,  and  J3''otishmati,  etc.  are  possessed  of  purgative 
properties.   Of  these  the  roots  of  plants,  which  precede 

Chap.  XXXIX.]         StJTRASTHANAM. 


Tilvaka  in  the  above  list,  should  be  used  for  purgative 
purposes.  The  barks  of  trees  from  Tilvaka  to  Patala 
in  the  same  list  should  be  used  for  similar  purposes. 
The  pollens  or  dust  of  the  Kampilla  seeds,  and  of  the 
fruits  of  trees  from  Eranda  to  Puga,  the  leaves  of 
Putika  and  Aragvadha.  and  the  milky  exudations  of  the 
remaining  members  of  the  list,  should  be  similarly  used. 

The  expressed  juice  of  Koshataki,  Saptala,  Shankhini, 
Devadali,  or  Karavellika  is  both  emetic  and  purgative. 

The  Errhincs  :— The  following  drugs,  viz. 
Pippali,  Vidanga,  Apamarga,  Shigru,  Siddharthaka, 
Shirisha,  Maricha,  Karavira,  Vimvi,  Girikarnika,  Kinihi, 
Vacha,  Jyotishmati,  Karanja,  Arka,  Alarka,  Lashuna, 
Ativisha,  Shringavera,  Talisha,  Tamala,  Surasa,  Arjaka, 
Ingudi,  Meshashringi,  Matulungi,  Murangi,  Pilu,  Jati, 
Shala,  Tala,  Madhuka  (Maula),  Laksha  and  Hingu, 
together  with  such  substances  as  rock-salt,  spirits, 
cow's  urine  and  watery  exudation  of  cow  dung 
should  be  regarded  as  errhines  (Shirovirechanam  . 
The  fruits  (seeds)  of  plants  from  Pippali  to  Maricha 
enumerated  in  the  above-said  list,  the  roots  of  plants 
commencing  with  Karavira  and  ending  with  Arka,  the 
bulbs  of  those  whose  names  precede  Talisha  in  the 
same  list,  the  leaves  of  those  commencing  with  Talisha 
and  ending  with  the  Arjaka  therein,  the  barks  of 
Ingudi  and  Meshashringi,  the  flowers  of  Matulungi, 
Murungi,  Pilu  and  Jati,  the  essence  (Sara)  of  Shala,  Tala 

360  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [  Chap,  xxxix. 

and  Maduhka  (Maul)  trees,  the  gummy  exudation 
(Niryasa)  of  Hingu  plants  and  Laksha  trees,  as  well  as 
salts  which  are  but  the  saline  modifications  of  earth, 
Madya  (wines)  which  are  but  the  modified  products  of 
Asava  (fermented  liquors),  and  secretions  of  cowdung,  or 
cow's  urine  which  should  be  understood  to  mean  the 
animal  excrements,  in  their  crude  or  natural  state,  should 
be  used  where  errhines  are  indicated. 

Samshamaniya  Drugs  :— Now  we  shall 
enumerate  the  names  of  drugs  and  substances  which 
soothe  or  pacify  the  deranged  humours  or  principles 
of  the  body  involved  in  any  particular  disease 

Va'ta-Samshamana-Varga:— The  follow- 
ing drugs,  viz.  Bhadradaru,  Kustha,  Haridra,  Varuna, 
Meshshringi,  Vala,  Ativala,  Artagala,  Kachhura,  Sallaki, 
Kuverakshi,  Virataru,  Sahachara,  Agnimantha,  Vatsa- 
dani,  Eranda,  Ashmabhedaka,  Alarka,  Arka,  Shata- 
vari,  Punarnava,  Vasuka,  Vasira.  Kanchanaka,  Bhargi, 
Karpasi,  Vrishchiaali,  Pattura,  Vadara,  Yava,  Kola, 
Kulattha,  etc.  and  the  drugs  forming  the  group  of  Vidari- 
gandhadi-Gana,  as  well  as  those  belonging  to  the  first 
two  groups  of  Panchamula  (Mahat  and  Svalpa),  are 
possessed  of  the  general  virtue  of  soothing  (restoring  to 
its  normal  state)  the  deranged  (Vaym  Vata. 

Pitta-Samshamana-Varga  —The  drugs 
known    as  Chandana,  Kuchandana,   Hrivera,   Ushira, 

Chap.  XXXIX.]  StiTRASTHANAM.  361 

Manjishtha,  Payasya,  Vidari,  Shatavari,  Guiidra, 
Shaivala,  Kahlara,  Kiimuda,  Utpala,  Kadali,  Kandali^ 
Durva,  Miirva,  etc.  and  the  drugs  forming  the  groups 
of  Kakolyadi,  Sarivadi,  Anjaiiadi,  Utpaladi,  Nyagro- 
dhadi,  and  Trina-Panchamula  groups  generally  prOve 
soothing  to  the  deranged  Pittam. 

Shicshma'- Samshamana- Varga  :— 

The  drugs  known  as  Kaleyaka,  Aguru,  Tilaparni, 
Kushtha,  Haridra,  Shitashiva,  Shatapushpa,  Sarala, 
Rasna,  Prakiryya,  Udakiryya,  Ingudi,  Sumanah, 
Kakadani,  Langalaki,  Hastikarna,  Munjataka,  Lama- 
jjaka,  etc.  and  the  drugs  belonging  to  the  groups  of 
Valli  and  Kantak  Panchamulas  and  those  composing 
the  Pippalyadi-Varga,  Brihatyadi-Varga,  Mushkadi- 
Varga,  Vachadi,  Surasadi  and  Aragvadhadi  groups 
are  generally  possessed  of  the  efficacy  of  restoring 
the  deranged  Shleshma  to  its  natural  state. 

The  choice  of  a  medicine  whether  for  cleansing 
or  soothing  purposes  should  be  determined  by  the 
consideration  of  the  strength  (intensity)  of  the  disease, 
and  the  stamina  and  the  digestive  function  of  the 
patient  under  treatment.  A  medicine  (of  a  soothing 
or  Samshamanam  efficacy),  which  is  stronger  than 
the  disease  it  has  been  applied  to  combat  with, 
not  only  checks  it  with  its  own  soothing  virtue  but 
usually  gives  rise  to  a  fresh  malady,  on  account  of 
its     surplus     energy     being     not     requisitioned     into 




action,  nor  its  being  used  up  by  the  weakened  and 
conquered  origuial  distemper.  It  is  thus  stored  up  in 
the  organism  for  the  working  of  fresh  mischief.  A 
medicine,  which  proves  stronger  than  the  digestive 
function  of  a  patient,  impairs  his  digestion,  or  takes 
an  unusually  greater  length  of  time  to  be  digested 
and  assimilated  into  his  organism.  A  medicine,  which 
is  stronger  than  the  physical  stamina  of  a  patient,  may 
bring  on  a  feeling  of  physical  languor,  fits  of  fainting, 
loss  of  consciousness,  delirium,  etc.  Similarly,  an  over- 
dose of  a  cleansing  (cathartic)  medicine  .may  work 
similar  mischief.  On  the  other  hand,  medicines  of 
inadequate  potencies,  and  accordingly  unequal  to  the 
strength  of  a  disease,  as  well  as  medicines  in  in- 
adequate doses  fail  to  produce  any  tangible  effect. 
Hence  medicines  of  adequate  potencies  should  be  alone 
administered  in  adequate  doses. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :^A  prudent  physician  should  prescribe  a  mild 
purgative  for  a  patient  enfeebled  by  the  action  of  the 
deranged  and  accumulated  bodily  humours  and  laid 
up  with  a  disease  in  which  such  a  cleansing  (cathartic) 
or  emetic  remedy  is  indicated.  The  same  rule  should 
hold  good  in  the  case  of  a  patient  enfeebled  through 
causes  other  than  physical  distempers,  and  whose 
bowels  are  easily  moved,  and  in  whom  the 
fecal   matter,  etc.   are   found  to   have   been  dislodged 

Chap.  XXXIX.]  SUTI^ASTHANAM.  363 

from  their  natural  seats  or  locations.  Decoctions 
(including  extracts  and  cold  infusions  of  medicinal 
herbs)  in  doses  of  four  Palas  weights,  and  pastes  and 
powders  in  doses  of  two  Palas  weights,  should  be 
prescribed  in  a  disease  of  ordinary  intensit}'.  Corrective 
medicines  (Purgatives  and  lilmetics)  may  be  safely 
exhibited  even  in  a  weak  patient  with  loose  or  uncon- 
stipated  bowels,  if  they  are  found  to  be  stuffed  with  a 
spontaneous  accumulation  of  fecal  matter  (Dosha)  etc. 
inspite  of  such  looseness  or  easy  motion. 

Thus  ends  ihe  thiity-ninlh  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasth^nam  in  the  Sushiuta 
SamhitS,  which  treats  of  drugs  of  cleansing  (corrective)  and  soothing 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
treats  of  drugs  and  their  flavours,  virtues,  potencies 
and  chemical  actions.  (Dravya-Rasa-Guna- 

Certain  professors  of  the  Aj'urveda  hold  that  a 
medicinal  drug  or  substance  is  pre-eminently  the  most 
important  niatter  with  which  the  science  of  medicine  is 
concerned.  First  because,  a  drug,  as  a  substance,  has  a 
definite  and  continuous  existence/ which  its  attributes 
(such  as,  taste,  etc.,)  do  not  possess.  As  for  example 
the  tastes,  etc.,  which  characterise  a  fruit  in  its  unripe 
stage,  are  not  perceived  in  its  ripe  or  matured  condition. 
Secondly  because,  a  drug  is  real  (Xitya)  and  invariable, 
whereas  its  attributes  are  but  transitory  and  accidental 
at  the  best.  As  for  instance  the  real  character  of  a 
drug  cannot  be  destroyed  whether  it  be  powdered 
or  pasted.  Thirdly  because,  a  drug  or  a  substance  never 
can  lose  its  own  generic  character.  As  for  example, 
a  drug  possessed  of  attributes  peculiar  to  the  fun- 
damental matter,  earth,  can  never  be  transformed 
into  one  of  watery  attributes — a  truth  which  does 
not  hold  good  of  its  attributes.  Fourthly  because, 
a  drug  or  a  substance  is  an  object  of  all  the  five 
senses  of  a  man,   whereas  its  attributes  of  tastes,  etc. 

Chap.  XL.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^5^ 

are  respectively  accommodated  to  the  faculty  of 
special  sense  organs.  Fifthly  because,  a  drug  or  a 
substance  is  the  receptacle  of  the  attributes  of  taste,  etc., 
whilethe  latter  are  the  things  contained.  Sixthly  because, 
a  dictum  of  medicine  can  be  commenced  with  the  name 
of  a  drug  or  substance.  As  for  example,  it  is  quite 
natural  to  say  that  the  drugs  such  as  Vidari  Gandha,etc., 
should  be  pressed  and  boiled.  But  it  sounds  preposterous 
to  utter  that  the  sweet  taste  should  be  pulverised  and 
boiled.  Seventhl)'  because,  the  greater  importance  of 
a  drug  or  substance  has  been  laid  down  in  the  Shastras 
of  medicines  inasmuch  as  medical  recipes  have  been 
described  by  the  names  of  their  component  ingredients 
such  as  Matulunga,  Agnimantha,  etc.,  and  not 
described  as  the  tastes  of  Matulunga,  Agnimantha  etc. 
Eighth!}'  because,  the  attributes  of  tastes,  etc.,  depend 
upon  the  drugs  and  substances  (of  which  they  are  the 
attributes)  for  their  progressive  maturity.  As  for 
example,  the  taste  of  a  drug  or  substance  varies  with 
its  growth  and  is  different  in  its  raw  (immature)  and 
ripe  (mature)  conditions.  (Hence  a  drug  is  more  im- 
portant than  its  attributes  of  taste,  etc.)  Ninthly 
because,  a  drug  may  prove  curative  through  the  eflicacy 
of  one  of  its  component  parts  or  principles  as  in  the 
case  of  Mahavriksha,  the  milky  exudations  of  which 
are  possessed  of  therapeutical  virtues,  which  cannot 
be  said  of  its  taste. 

Hence  a  drug  or  a  substance  (Dravyam)  is  the  most 

366  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  [  Chap.  XL. 

important  factor  (which  the  science  of  medicine  has  got 
to  deal  with).  A  substance  or  drug  necessarily  implies 
action  and  attributes  with  which  it  is  intimately  con- 
nected and  of  which  it  is  the  primary  cause,  or  to  put  it 
more  explicitly,  these  attributes  have  an  inseparable 
inherence  in  and  are  intimately  associated  with  the 
substance  by  way  of  cause  and  effect  (Samavayi- 

Others,  on  the  contrary,  who  do  not  endorse 
the  above  opinion,  accord  the  highest  importance  to 
the  attribute  of  taste  (Rasa)  of  a  drug  or  sub- 
stance. Firstly  because,  it  is  so  laid  down  in  the 
Agamas  (Vedas),  which  include  the  science  of  medicine 
(Ayurveda  Shastram)  as  well,  and  inasmuch  as  such 
statements  as  "  Food  is  primarily  contingent  on  its 
tastes  and  on  food  depends  life "  occur  therein. 
Secondly  because,  the  essential  importance  of  taste 
may  be  inferred  from  such  injunctions  or  instructions 
of  the  professors  of  medicine  as,  "  sweet,  acid  and 
saline  tastes  soothe  or  pacify  the  deranged  bodily  Vayu." 
Thirdly  because,  a  drug  or  a  substance  is  named  after 
the  nature  of  its  taste,  as  a  sweet  drug,  a  saline  sub- 
tance,  etc.  Fourthly  because,  its  primary  importance 
is  based  on  the  inspired  utterances  of  the  holy  sages 
(Rishis)  which  form  the  sacred  hymns  and  verses  of  the 
Vedas,  and  such  passages  as  "  sweets  to  be  collected  for 
the  purposes  of  a   religious  sacrifice,"   etc,  are  to  be 

Chap.  XL.  ]  StJTRASTHANAM.  367 

found  in  them.  Hence  taste  is  the  most  important 
factor  in  the  science  of  medicine  and  forms  the  primary 
attribute  of  a  medicinal  drug.  But,  later  on,  we  shall 
have  occasion  to  speak  of  that. 


Certain  authorities  however,  (who  reject  the  two 
aforesaid  theories),  hold  the  potency  (Viryam)  of  a 
drug  to  be  the  most  important  factor  in  medicine  inas- 
much as  its  therapeutic  action,  whether  purgative, 
emetic,  or  both,  or  cathartic,  or  pacifying,  or  astrin- 
gent, appetising,  pressing  (drawing  to  a  definite  head) 
or  liquefacient,  or  constructive,  tonic  (vitalising) 
or  aphrodisiac,  or  inflammatory,  absorbing,  caustic, 
or  bursting,  or  intoxicating,  soporific,  killing  or  antitoxic, 
depends  upon  its  potency.  The  potency  of  a  drug 
is  either  cooling  or  heat-making  owing  to  the  two- 
fold (hot  and  cool)  nature  of  the  temperament  of 
the  world.  According  to  several  authorities  the 
potency  of  a  medicinal  drug  may  be  classed  as  either 
hot  or  cool,  emollient  or  dr}-,  expansive  or  slimy, 
mild  or  keen,  so  as  to  embrace  the  eight  differ- 
ent attributes  in  all.  These  potencies  of  medicinal  drugs 
serve  their  respective  functions  by  overpowering 
their  (drugs')  tastes  with  their  specific  strength  (inten- 
sity) and  virtues.  As  for  example  the  decoction  of 
the  roots  belonging  to  the  group  of  the  Maha- 
Panchamulam,  though  possessed  of  an  astringent 
taste   which   is   subsequently   transformed  into  a  bitter 

368  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHiTA.  [Chap.  XL. 

one,  acquires  the  virtue  of  pacifying  the  deranged 
Vayu  out  of  its  heat-making  potenc3^  Similarly,  the 
pulse  known  as  Kulattha  though  possessed  of 
an  astringent  taste,  and  onion  though  endued  with 
a  ,  pungent  one,  respectively  soothe  the  same 
deranged  humour  of  the  body  through  the  oleaginous 
character  of  their  potencies.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  expressed  juice  of  sugar-cane,  though  possessed  of 
a  sweet  taste,  tends  to  augment  or  aggravate  the 
deranged  Vayu  owing  to  its  cooling  potency.  The 
drug  Pippali,  though  a  pungent  substance  in  itself, 
proves  soothing  to  the  deranged  Pittam,  owing  to  its 
mild  and  cooling  potenc}'.  Similarly,  an  Amalakam 
fruit,  though  acid  in  taste,  and  Saindhava,  though  saline, 
respectively  tend  to  pacify  the  deranged  Pittam. 
The  drug  Kakamachi,  though  of  a  bitter  taste,  and 
fish,  though  sweet,  respectively  aggravate  the  Pittam, 
owing  to  their  thermogenetic  potency.  Similarly, 
Mulakam  (Radish),  though  pungent,  increases  the 
Kapham  of  the  body,  on  account  of  its  emollient 
potency  ;  and  Kapittham,  though  acid,  soothes  ;  and 
honey,  though  sweet,  tends  to  pacify  the  deranged 
Kapham  owing  to  the  dry  character  of  its  potency. 
The  aforesaid  instances  have  been  cited  by  way  of 

Authoritative    verses  on   the   sub- 
ject : — Tastes,  which  are  possessed  of  dry,  light  or 



expansive  potencies,  fail  to  pacify  the  deranged  Vayii, 
though  otherwise  they  may  prove  soothing  to  that 
deranged  humour.  Similarly,  tastes,  which  are  or- 
dinarily reckoned  as  pacifiers  of  the  deranged  Pittam, 
fail  to  produce  that  effect  in  the  event  of  their  being 
endued  with  a  keen,  light  or  heat- making  potency. 
Likewise,  tastes,  which  are  commonl}'  found  to  soothe 
the  deranged  Kapham,  tend  to  aggravate  it  in  the 
event  of  their  being  possessed  of  potencies  which 
are  respectively  heavy,  cool  and  emollient  in  their 
character.*  Hence  the  potency  of  a  drug  is  the  most 
important  factor  in  the  science  of  medicine. 

But  certain  authorities  dissent  from  the  above-said 
view,  and  attach  the  highest  importance  to  the  process 
of  digestive  (chemical)  reaction  (Vipaka)  for  the 
reason,  that  all  ingested  food,  properly  or  improperly 
digested  in  the  stomach,  proves  wholesome  or  other- 
wise to  the  body.  Certain  authorities  on  the  subject 
hold  that  digestion  develops  all  the  several  tastes. t 

According  to  others,  tastes  such  as,  sweet, 
pungent  and  acid,  follow  upon  the  completion  of 
the  process  of  digestion  (b}^  way  of  reactionary  result 
or  transformation). 

*  Flavours  such  as,  sweet,  acid  and  saline,  subdue  the  deranged  \"5yu. 
Tastes  such  as,  sweet,  bitter  and  astringent  are  antiljilious  in  their  efficacy, 
while  those,  which  are  pungent,  bitter  and  astringent,  are  antiphlegmagogic 
in  their  virtues. 

t  The  process  of  digestion  is  followed  by  a  reactionary  taste,  which  may 
be  either  sweet,  pungent,  acid,  astringent,  bitter  or  saline. 




It  is  needless  to  say  that  the  hypothesis  is  based 
on  erroneous  data,  inasmuch  as  the  fact  of  acid 
digestion  (acid  taste  developed  at  the  close  of  the 
digestive  process  or  reactionary  acidity)  is  contrary 
both  to  the  properties  of  matter  and  the  collective  ex- 
perience of  the  race  embodied  in  the  dictum  of  the 
Shastras,  and  which  should  be  rather  ascribed  to  the 
acid  taste  of  the  Pittam  remaining  in  an  undigested 
or  unassimilated  condition  owing  to  imperfect  gastric 
digestion.  The  probability  of  a  saline  digestion  (a 
reactionary  saline  taste  following  upon  the  close  of 
the  digestive  process)  should  be  necessarily  presumed, 
if  the  fact  of  an  acid  digestion  were  to  be  upheld 
as  a  tested  and  corroborated  principle  of  medical 
science.  The  hypothesis  of  an  acid  digestion  (re- 
actionary acidity)  does  not  preclude  the  possibility  of 
a  similar  saline  one  owing  to  the  participation  of 
the  natural  taste  (saline)  of  the  bodily  Kapham  in 
the  process  of  digestion,  as  is  said  of  Pittam  in  the 
preceding  instance.  Hence  the  theory  that  only  three 
tastes,  such  as  sweet,  acid,  and  pungent  are  developed 
through  digestive  reaction,  appears  to  be  untenable,  and 
naturally  points  to  the  doctrine  that  a  sweet  taste 
(partaken  of  by  a  man)  brings  on  a  sweet  tasted 
digestion  ;  an  acid  taste  (reactionary  acidit}')  begets 
acid  digestion,  and  so  on,  a  taste  of  whatsoever  kind 
partaken  of  by  a  man  imparting  its  specific  character  to 
his  digestive  reaction. 

Chap.  XL.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  37 j 

Those,  who  adhere  to  the  last  named  doctrine, 
endeavourto  substantiate  it  by  the  following  analogy,  and 
argue  that  as  milk  kept  boiling  in  a  basin  placed  over  a 
fire  does  not  change  its  natural  sweetness  (with  the 
change  of  its  temperature),  as  cereals  such  as  Shali- 
rice,  wheat,  barley,  Mudga,  etc.  sown  broadcast  in 
the  ground  do  not  part  with  their  inherent,  generic 
attributes  (through  their  successive  stages  of  develop- 
ment), so  the  tastes  of  food-stuff  do  not  alter 
even  after  being  boiled  in  the  heat  of  the  digestive 

Others,  on  the  contrary,  assert  that  weak  tastes 
are  naturally  merged  in  the  strong  ones  in  the  course 
of  digestion.  And  since  the  consensus  of  expert 
opinions  on  the  subject  serves  only  to  increase 
the  confusion  on  account  of  their  differences  and 
bigoted  antipathy,  we  shall  judiciously  refrain  from 
indulging  in  idle  theories  on  the  subject. 

Only  two  kinds  of  digestion  (digestive  reactionary 
tastes)  have  been  noticed  in  the  Shastras,  such  as, 
the  sweet  and  the  pungent,  the  first  being  heavy 
and  the  second  light.  The  specific  properties  of 
the  five  essential  material  principles  of  the  world  such 
as,  the  earth,  water,  fire,  air  and  sky  may  be  roughly 
described  as  heaviness  and  lightness,  the  two  attri- 
butes which  appertain  to  their  fundamental  natures. 
Heaviness  forms  the  characteristic  attribute  of  earth 

372  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  [Chap.  XL. 

and   water,    while   lightness   stands   for  the    essential 

properties  of  fire,   air   and   sky.     Hence  the   digestion 

of  all   food-stuff  may   be   described    as  either   heavy 
(Guru)  or  light  (Laghu). 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject :— Of  substances  under  the  process  of  digestion, 
those,  which  are  characterised  by  attributes,  specifi- 
cally belonging  to  earth  and  water,  are  called 
substances  of  sweet  (heavy)  digestion  ;  while  those 
which  are  permeated  with  the  specific  properties  of 
air,  fire  and  sky  are  called  substances  of  pungent 
(lightj  digestion  (easily  digestible  articles  of  food). 
We  have  fulh^  stated  the  text  of  the  controversy 
as  regards  the  primary  importance  of  drugs  and 
their  tastes,  virtues,  potencies  and  digestive  reactions, 
as  well  as  the  views  of  those  who  build  their  theories 
on  the  separate  or  exclusive  importance  of  any  of 
the  five  afore-said  factors.  The  wise  and  the  erudite 
set  an  equal  importance  to  each  of  them,  and  ascribe 
the  curative  efficacy  of  a  medicine  to  the  co-opera- 
tion of  all  these  five  factors.  A  drug  ot  a  sub- 
stance sometimes  destroys  or  originates  a  deranged 
condition  of  the  humours  through  the  dynamical 
action  of  its  native  or  inherent  properties,  sometimes 
in  virtue  of  its  specific  potency  and  sometimes  by 
natural  taste  or  digestive  (chemical)  reaction.  Digestive 
reaction  is  impossible  without   drug   potency.     There  is 

Chap.  XL.  J  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  373 

no  potency  without  a  taste,  and  taste  without  a  drug 
or  substance  is  an  absurdity.-  Hence  a  substance  (vegeta- 
ble or  otherwise)  is  the  greatest  of  them  all.  A  taste  and 
a  substance  are  correlative  categories  from  the  time 
of  their  origin,  like  a  body  and  an  embodied 
self  in  the  plane  of  organic  existence.  Since  an 
attribute  per  se  can  not  be  possessed  of  another  attri- 
bute, the  eight  kinds  of  potency  (properties)  can 
only  appertain  to  a  substance  and  not  to  a  taste, 
which  is  an  attribute  in  itself.  Substances  are  digested 
in  an  organic  body  and  not  the  six  tastes  simply 
for  the  reason  of  their  being  invisible  and  intangible 
in  themselves.  Hence  a  substance  is  the  greatest  of 
all  tlie  aforesaid  five  factors  (of  substance,  taste, 
virtues,  etc.)  and  the  attributes  lie  inherent  in  the 

Unscrutable  and  unthinkable  are  the  virtues  of 
drugs  (medicines),  which  are  above  all  rules  of 
syllogism  ;  and  hence  drugs  (medicines),  which  have 
been  observed  to  be  efficacious  from  time  immemorial, 
as  well  as  those  laid  down  in  the  scriptures  on 
medicines,  should  alone  be  used  in  the  course  of  a 
medical  treatment.  A  learned  physician  should  think 
it  a  sacrilege  to  logically  dispute  the  efficacy  of  a 
medicine  of  tested  virtue,  and  which  has  been  adopted 
after  generations  of  careful  observation  and  is  instinc- 
tively pronounced  b}-^   men   as   a    beneficial    remedy. 



No  amount  of  logic  will  alter  the  nature  of  things, 
nor  persuade  the  drugs  of  the  Amboshtha  group  to 
exercise  a  purgative  virtue.  Hence  an  intelligerrt  physi- 
cian should  adhere  to  the  officinal  recipes  given  in  the 
books  on  medicine,  and  not  introduce  innovations, 
however  logical  or  probable,  into  the  realms  of 
applied  or  practical  Therapeutics. 

Thus  ends  the  fortieth  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasthinam  in  the  Sushruta 
SamhitS,  which  deals  with  drugs  and  their  flavours,  virtues,  and  digestive 
(chemical)  transformation. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
treats  of  the  specific  properties  of  drugs  (Dravya- 

The  five  fundamental  principles*  such  as  the  earth 
(Kshithi),  water  (Apa),  fire  (Teja),  air  (Marut)  and  Sky 
(Vyoraa)  enter  into  the  composition  of  all  substances 
in  the  world,  and  the  predominance  of  any  of  them  in 
a  particular  substance  determines  its  character. 
Accordingly  a  thing  is  denominated  as  a  substance  of 
dominant  earth  principle,  or  one  marked  by  a  pre- 
dominance of  fire,  air  or  ether. 

Parrthiva  Drugs  : — A  thing  or  substance, 
which  is  thick,  pithy,  compact,  dull,  immobile,  rough, 
heavy  (hard  to  digest^  strong  smelling  and  largely  has 
a  sweet  taste  marked  by  a  shade  of  astringent,  is  called 
a  substance  of  dominant  earth  (Parthivam)  matter. 
•  Such  a  thing  increases  the  firmness,  strength,  hardness 
and  rotundity  of  the  human  body,  and  is  possessed  of 
gravity  (the  virtue  of  moving  the  bowels). 

A'pyam  Drugs  :— Similarly,  a  thing  or  subs- 
tance, which  is  cold,  moist,  glossy,  devoid  of  keenness, 
takes  time   to   be   digested,   is  mobile,   compact,  soft, 

*     These  may  be  translated  as  Solid,  Liquid,  Gas,  Ether,  and  Etherioil 
in  the  parlance  of  modern  science. 

376  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.  [  Chap.  XLI. 

slimy,  sappy,  and  is  largely  endued  with  an  acid,  saline 
or  sweet  taste  marked  by  a  shade  of  astringent,  is  called 
a  substance  of  dominant  water  (Apyam'i  principle. 
Such  a  thing  soothes  and  imparts  a  glossy  character  to 
th2  body,  keeps  it  moist,  favours  the  adhesion  of  its 
parts,  and  increases  its  liquid  contents. 

Taijasam  Drugs  :— A  thing  or  substance, 
which  is  heat-making,  pungent  and  keen,  subtle  in 
its  essence,  permeates  the  minutest  capillaries,  and  is  dry, 
rough,  light,  and  non-slimy  in  its  character  and  has  strong 
properties  and  a  taste  which  is  largely  pungent  marked  by 
a  shade  of  saline,  is  called  a  substance  of  the  dominant 
principle  of  fire  (Taijasam).  Such  a  thing  naturally 
evinces  an  up-coursing  tendency  in  the  body,  produces 
a  burning  sensation  in  its  inside,  helps  the  process  of 
digestion  and  spontaneous  bursting  (of  abscesses), 
increases  the  temperature  of  the  body,  strengthens  the 
eyesight,  improves  the  complexion  and  imparts  a 
healthful  glow  to  it. 

Varyaviyam  Drugs  :— A  thing  or  substance, 
which  is  subtle  in  its  essence,  and  is  dry,  rough,  light, 
cold  and  non- slimy,  increases  tactual  sensation  and 
is  endued  with  a  largely  astringent  taste  marked  by  a 
shade  of  bitter,  is  called  a  substance  of  the  dominant 
principle  of  air  ( Vayaviyam).  Such  a  thing  removes  the 
slimy  character  of  the  internal  organism,  produces  light- 

Chap.-XLI.  J  SUTRASTHANAM.  377 

ness,  diyness  and  emaciation  of  the  body,  and  increases 
the  speculative  or  contemplative  faculty  of  the  mind. 

Aka'shiyam  Drugs  :— A  thing  or  sub 
stance,  which  is  smooth,  unctuous,  and  is  subtle  in 
its  nature,  soft  or  pliant  in  its  consistency,  expansive  'in 
the  internal  organism),  porous,  soundy  and  non- slimy 
in  its  character  without  any  definite  taste,  is  called 
a  substance  of  the  dominant  principle  of  sky 
(Akashiyam).  Such  a  substance  produces  softness,  light- 
ness and  porosity  of  the  body. 

It  may  be  inferred  from  the  foregoing  illustrations 
that  there  is  not  a  single  substance  in  the  world  but  is 
endued  with  certain  curative  virtues.  Drugs  or 
substances,  used  in  specific  combinations  and  according 
to  the  indications  of  a  disease  under  treatment,  prove 
curative  in  virtue  of  their  native  virtues  and  potencies. 
The  time,  during  which  a  drug  or  a  medicine  exerts  its 
curative  virtues,  is  called  its  Kala  or  the  period  of 
action.  That  which  immediately  results  from  the  use  or 
application  of  a  medicinal  remedy  is  called  its  Karma 
or  physiological  action.  The  principle,  in  virtue  of  which 
the  action  is  performed,  is  called  its  potenc)'  or  Viryam. 
That,  in  which  the  action  takes  place,  is  called  its 
receptacle  or  Adhikaranam.  The  means  by  which  it  is 
effected  is  called  its  agency  or  Upaya,  while  that  what 
it  accomplishes  is  called  its  therapeutic  effect  or  Phalam. 

Of  these  the  drugs  of  purgative  virtue  are  possessed 

378  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.XLi. 

of  attiibutes  which  specifically  belong  to  the  earth 
and  water.  Earth  and  water  are  heavy,  and  natur- 
ally gravitate  downward  owing  to  their  heaviness. 
Hence  it  is  inferred  that  purgative  drugs  are  largely 
endued  with  the  specific  attributes  of  earth  and  water, 
in  virtue  of  which  they  are  more  strongly  attracted 
towards  the  centre  of  the  earth  (gravity).  Drugs  endued 
with  emetic  properties  are  possessed  of  attributes  which 
form  the  characteristics  of  fire  and  air.  Fire  and  air 
are  light,  and  naturally  ascend  upward  owing  to  their 
lightness.  Hence  it  is  inferred,  that  emetic  (Vamana) 
drugs  are  largely  possessed  of  attributes,  which  are 
upcoursing  in  their  nature.  Drugs  or  substances  endued 
with  both  emetic  and  purgative  virtues  are  charac- 
terised by  attributes  belonging  to  both  the  aforesaid 
elements  (earth  and  fire). 

Drugs,  which  soothe  the  deranged  bodily  humours, 
are  permeated  with,  qualities  which  specifically  belong 
to  the  principle  of  the  sky.  Astringent  (Sangrahaka) 
drugs  are  endued  with  attributes,  which  specifically 
belong  to  the  air  owing  to  the  drying  character  of  the 
latter  element.  Appetising  (Dipana)  drugs  are  largely 
possessed  of  attributes  which  belong  to  the  material 
principle  of  fire.  Lekhana  (Liquefacient)  drugs  or  sub- 
stances are  endued  with  attributes  which  belong  to  fire 
and  air.  Constructive  or  restorative  (Vringhanam)  drugs 
or  substances  are  endued  with   attributes   which  speci- 

Chap.  XLI.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  279 

fically  belong  to  earth  and  water.  These  inferences 
should  be  carefully  remembered  at  the  time  of  pre- 
scribing medicines. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject ; — The  deranged  bodily  Vayu  readily  yields  to  the 
curative  efficacies  of  drugs  possessed  of  attributes, 
specifically  belonging  to  the  earth,  fire  and  water,  while 
the  deranged  Pittam  is  speedily  soothed  or  restored  to 
its  normal  state  by  drugs  having  attributes,  specifically 
belonging  to  the  earth,  water  and  air.  Similarly,  the 
deranged  Kapham  is  pacified  by  drugs  possessed  of 
attributes  which  characterise  the  sky,  fire  and  air. 

The  bodily  Vayu  is  increased  by  the  use  of  drugs 
possessed  of  attributes  which  specifically  belong  to  the 
sky  and  air,  while  the  Pittam  is  increased  by  the  use 
of  those  which  are  largely  endued  with  the  specific 
attributes  of  fire.  The  bodily  Kapham  of  the  body 
is  increased  by  the  use  of  drugs  which  are  largely 
endued  with  the  specific  attributes  of  the  earth 
and  water.  Thus  having  ascertained  the  dominant 
attributes  of  drugs,  a  physician  should  use  them  for  the 
pacification  of  two  or  more  of  the  deranged  humours  of 
the  body  according  to  the  exigencies  of  a  case. 

Of  the  eight-fold  potencies  of  a  drug,  such  as 
cooling,  thermogenetic,  oleaginous,  heavy,  parchifying, 
plastive,  keen  and  slimy,  keenness  and  thermogenetic 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.         [  Chap.  XLI. 

potency  should  be  ascribed  to  the  attributes  of 
fire  ;  coohng  potenc)-  and  that  of  engendering  slime, 
to  the  predominance  of  the  attributes  of  water  in  a 
drug  or  substance  ;  oleaginousness,  to  the  predominance 
of  the  attributes  of  the  earth  and  water ;  plastive  potenc)^, 
to  the  predominance  of  the  attributes  of  water  and  the 
sky  ;  parchifying  potency,  to  the  excess  of  the  attributes 
of  air  ;  non-slimy  potency  (Vaishadyam),  to  the  predo- 
minance of  the  attributes  of  earth  and  air  ;  and  heavy 
and  light  digestion,  to  the  same  cause. 

Of  these,  oiliness  and  thermogenetic  potency  prove 
curative  in  respect  of  the  deranged  Vayu,  while  cooling 
potency,  plastive  potency,  and  that  of  engendering  slime 
subdue  the  deranged  Pittam.  Keenness,  parchifying  and 
non-slimy  potencies  conquer  the  deranged  Kapham. 
Substances,  which  are  hea^y  in  digestion,  destroy  the 
deranged  Vayu  and  Pittam,  while  those  which  are  light 
in  digestion  (easily  digestible  substances)  prove  curative 
in  respect  of  the  deranged  Kapham. 

Of  these,  softness,  coldness  and  heat  ma)?^  be  per- 
ceived by  touch.  The  properties  of  sliminess  and  its 
opposite  may  be  perceived  by  the  eyes  and  touch. 
The  properties  of  dr3mess  and  oiliness  of  a  drug 
may  be  perceived  with  the  eyes  ;  keenness  of  a  drug 
from  the  fact  of  its  producing  pain  in  the  mouth  ;  and 
[heat  and  cold,  by  the  sensation  of  comfort  (pleasure)  or 
discomfort— A.  Text]     The  fact  of  heavy  (insufficient) 


digestion  should  be  inferred  from  the  frequent 
passing  of  stool  and  urine,  •  as  well  as  from  the  expec- 
toration of  Kapham,  while  the  contrary  should  be 
presumed  from  the  constipation  of  the  bowels,  retention 
-of  urine  and  disorders  of  the  abdominal  Va}^!  (flatulence, 
distension  of  the  abdomen^  etc.).  A  specific  taste  is 
detected  in  material  principles  of  similar  properties. 
As  for  example,  a  drug  or  a  substance,  which  is  heavy 
and  endued  with  a  sweet  taste,  should  be  deemed  as 
belonging  to  the  group  of  the  earthy  matter  (largely 
possessed  of  attributes  characterising  earth-matter). 
Similarly,  a  substance,  which  is  sweet  and  oily  in  its 
character,  should  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  one  in 
which  the  principle  of  water  predominates. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Properties,  which  characterise  drugs  and 
substances,  may  be  as  well  found  in  a  human  organism, 
and  the  normal  continuance,  aggravation  or  dimi- 
nution of  the  deranged  humours  is  due  to  the  action 
of  the  drugs  (substances). 

Thus  ends  the  forty-first  Chapter  of  the    Sutrasth^nam   in   the  Sushruta 
Samhiti  which  treats  of  specific  properties  of  drugs. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which  treats 
oi"  the  specific  properties  of  flavours  (Rasa- 

The  properties  of  sky  (Akasha),  air  (Pavana),  fire 
(Dahana),  water  (Toya)  and  earth  (Bhumi)  are  sound 
touch,  colour,  taste  and  smell,  each  of  the  preceding 
elements  possessing  properties  less  by  one  than  those 
of  the  one  immediately  succeeding  it  in  the  order  of 

[Since  a  matter  is  designated  after  the  name  of 
the  preponderant  natural  element,  which  enters  into  its 
composition],  taste  is  said  to  be  a  water-origined  prin- 
ciple. All  material  elements  are  inseparably  connected 
with  one  another,  and  there  is  a  sort  of  interdependence 
among  them,  each  one  contributing  to  the  continuance 
of  the  other  and  jointly  entering,  to  a  more  or  less 
extent,  into  the  composition  of  all  material  substances. 
This  water-origined  flavour  (Rasa),  which  becoming  mo- 
dified through  its  contact  with  the   rest  of  the  material 

*To  put  it  more  explicitly  the  property  of  sound  belongs  to  the  sky 
(Akdsha).  The'properties  of  sound  and  touch  appertain  to  the  air  (V^yu). 
The  properties  of  sound,  touch  and  colour  form  the  characteristics  of  Fire 
(Teja).  Sound,  touch,  colour  and  taste  form  the  specific  properties  of 
water  (Toya).  Sound,  touch,  colour,  taste  and  smell  mark  the  earth  matter 

Chap.  XLII.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  383 

elements,  admits  of  being  divided  into  six  different 
kinds,  such  as  sweet,  acid,  saline,  pungent,  bitter  and 
astringent.  These,  in  their  turn,  being  combined  with 
one  another,  give  rise  to  sixty- three  different  kinds. 
A  sweet  taste  is  largely  endued  with  attributes  whi{;h 
specifically  appertain  to  the  material  principles  of 
earth  and  water.  An  acid  taste  is  pre-eminenth'  possessed 
of  attributes,  which  belong  to  the  elementary  principles 
of  earth  and  fire.  A  sahne  taste  is  mostly  endued  with 
attributes  which  characterise  the  elements  of  water 
and  fire.  A  pungent  taste  is  largely  possessed  of 
attributes,  which  mark  the  elementary  principles  of 
air  and  fire.  The  specific  attributes  of  air  and  sky 
predominate  in  a  bitter  taste.  The  specific  properties 
of  earth  and  air  should  be  regarded  as  dominant  in  an 
astringent  taste. 

Tastes  such  as  sweet,  acid  and  saline  are  endued 
with  the  virtues  of  subduing  Vayu.  Tastes  such  as 
sweet,  bitter  and  astringent  are  possessed  of  the  virtue 
of  subduing  the  deranged  Pittam.  Tastes  such  as 
pungent,  bitter  and  astringent  tend  to  subdue  the 
deranged  Kapham. 

The  Vayu  is  a  self-origined  principle  in  the  human 
organism.  The  Pittam  owes  its  origin  to  the  bodily 
heat  (Agneya),  while  the  origin  of  Kapham  is  ascribed 
to  the  presence  of  watery  (Saumya)  principle  in  the 
body.    Tastes  such  as   sweet,   etc.   are   augmented   by 



causes  in  which  they  have  their  origin,  and  prove 
soothing  or  pacifying  in  respect  of  causes  other  than 
those  which  produce  them. 

According  to  certain  authorities,  there  are  only  two 
kinds  of  tastes,  owing  to  the  two- fold  (hot  and  cold) 
nature  of  the  temperament  of  the  world.  Of  these 
the  tastes  such  as  sweet,  bitter  and  astringent  are 
cold  in  their  properties,  while  the  pungent,  acid  and 
saline  ones  exercise  fiery  or  heat  making  virtues.  The 
tastes  such  as  sweet,  acid  and  saline  are  heavy  and 
emollient  in  their  character,  while  the  pungent, 
astringent  and  bitter  ones  are  dry  and  light.  The 
watery  (Saumya)  tastes  are  cold.  The  fiery  (Agne3'a) 
ones  are  hot. 

Coldness,  dryness,  lightness,  non-sliminess,  suppress- 
ion (of  the  urine  or  ordure)  form  the  characterstic 
properties  of  the  Vayu.  An  astringent  taste  should  be 
considered  as  possessed  of  the  same  properties  as  the 
Vayu,  and  hence  it  (astringent  taste)  increases  the 
coldness,  dryness,  lightness,  non-sliminess  and  arres- 
tiveness  of  the  latter  with  its  specific  coolness,  dryness, 
lightness,  non-sliminess  and  arrestiveness. 

Heat,  pungency,  dryness,  lightness,  and  non-slimi- 
ness form  the  specific  properties  of  the  Pittam.  A  pun- 
gent taste,  which  is  possessed  of  the  same  properties  as 
the  Pittam,   respectively   increases  the  heat,  pungency, 

Chap.  XLII  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^8^ 

dryness,  lightness  and  non-sliminess  of  the   latter  with 
the  help  of  similar  properties  of  its  own. 

Sweetness,  oiliness,  heaviness,  coldness  and  slimi- 
ness  form  the  specific  properties  of  Kapham.  A  sweet 
taste,  which  is  possessed  of  the  same  properties  as  the 
Kapham,  respectively  increases  the  sweetness,  oiliness, 
heaviness,  coldness  and  sliminess  of  the  latter  with 
the  help  of  similar  properties  of  its  own.  A  pungent 
taste  is  endued  with  properties  which  are  contrary 
to  those  of  the  Kapham,  hence  the  sweetness,  oiliness, 
heaviness,  coldness  and  sliminess  of  the  latter,  are 
respectively  destroyed  by  the  pungency,  dryness, 
lightness,  heat  and  non-sliminess  of  the  former.  These 
have  been  cited  only  by  way  of  illustration. 

Characteristics  of   Tastes  :— Now    we 

shall  describe  the  characteristics  of  tastes.  A 
taste,  which  is  pleasant,  proves  <"omfortable  to,  and 
contributes  to  the  life-preservation  of  a  man,  keeps 
his  mouth  moist,  and  increases  the  quantity  of  bodily 
Kapham,  is  called  Sweet  (Madhura).  A  taste,  which 
produces  tooth- edge  and  increased  salivation,  and 
increases  the  relish  for  food,  is  called  acid  (Amla). 
A  taste,  which  imparts  a  greater  relish  to  food,  pro- 
duces salivation  and  softness  of  a  part,  is  called  saline 
(Lavana).  A  taste,  which  produces  a  burning  sensation 
at  the  tip  of  the  tongue  attended  with  a  tingling  of  the 
part    and    headache,  and   is  instantaneously  followed 



THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XLil. 

b}'  a  running  at  the  nose  (fluent  coryza)  is  called 
pungent  (Katuka).  A  taste,  which  gives  rise  to 
a  sort  of  sucking  sensation  at  the  throat,  removes 
the  slimy  character  of  the  cavity  of  the  mouth,  gives 
ris6  to  the  appearance  of  goose-flesh  on  the  skin,  and 
increases  the  relish  for  food,  is  called  bitter  (Tikta). 
A  taste,  which  brings  about  the  dryness  of  the  mouth, 
numbs  the  palate,  obstructs  the  throat,  and  gives 
rise  to  a  drawing,  pressing  sensation  in  the  region  of 
the  heart,  is  called  astringent  (Kashaya;. 

Specific   virtues  of   tastes  :  -Now  we 

shall  describe  the  specific  virtues  of  tastes.  Of  these, 
the  sweet  taste  is  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  increasing 
the  quantity  of  lymph-chyle,  blood,  flesh,  fat,  bone 
marrow,  albumen  (ojas),  semen,  and  milk  in  a 
parturient  woman.  It  materially  contributes  to  the 
growth  of  bones,  strengthens  the  eyesight,  favours 
the  growth  of  hair,  improves  the  complexion  of  the 
bod3%  brings  about  the  adhesion  of  fractured  bones 
(Sandhanam'i,  and  purifies  the  blood  and  the  lymph- 
chyle.  Likewise,  it  proves  wholesome  to  infants, 
old  and  weak  men  and  ulcer-patients  (suffering  from 
Endocarditis — Urah-Kshata  and  is  most  coveted  by 
bees  and  ants.  It  exhilarates  the  mind  as  well  as 
the  five  sense-organs,  refieves  thirst,  swooning  and  a 
burning  sensation  of  the  body,  and  originates  Kapham. 
Similarly,    it   favours    the     germination     of    intestinal 

Chap.  XLII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  387 

parasites.  Largely  and  exclusively  partaken  of,  it  brings 
on  cough,  dyspnoea,  flatulence  (Alasaka),  vomiting, 
sweet  taste  in  the  mouth,  hoarseness  of  the  voice 
(aphonia),  worms  in  the  intestines,  tumours,  elephantisis, 
Vasti-lepa  mucous  deposit  in  the  bladder),  Gudopol^pa 
(mucous  or  slimy  deposit  in  the  anus),  and  Abhisandya 
(ophthalmia),  etc. 

Acid  taste  : — An  acid  taste  should  be  regard- 
ed as  a  digestant  of  assimilated  food,  and  is  endued  with 
resolving,  appetising  and  carminative  properties.  It 
sets  in  the  natural  emission  of  flatus  and  urine, 
restores  the  natural  movements  of  the  bowels,  lessens  the 
tendency  to  spasms,  and  gives  rise  to  an  acid  (digestive  1 
reaction  in  the  stomach,  and  to  a  sensation  of  external 
shivering.  It  originates  a  slimy  or  mucous  secretion 
and  is  extremel}'  pleasant  or  relishing.  An  acid  taste, 
though  possessed  of  the  aforesaid  virtues,  brings  on 
tooth-edge,  with  sudden  closing  of  the  eyes,  appearance 
of  goose  flesh  on  the  skin,  absorption  of  Kapham  and 
looseness  of  the  bod}'  in  the  event  of  its  being  largely 
partaken  of  to  the  exclusion  of  all  other  tastes.  Owing 
to  its  fiery  character,  the  taste  under  discussion 
sets  in  a  process  of  suppuration  in  cuts  or  burns,  or  in 
incised,  lacerated  or  punctured  wounds,  as  well  as 
in  those,  which  result  from  external  blows,  or  are 
due  to  fractures,  swellings,  or  falls,  or  are  brought 
about  as  the   after   effects  of  any   idiopathic  distemper. 

388  THE  SUSHRtJTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XLli. 

or  which  are  tainted  with  the  urine  of  an}'  venomous 
animals  or  through  contact  with  any  poisonous  animal 
or  vermin.  It  gives  rise  to  a  burning  sensation  in  the 
throat,  chest  and  the  region  of  the  heart. 

Saline  taste  : — A  saline  taste  is  possessed  of 
corrective  (purgative  and  emetic)  virtues,  favours  the 
processes  of  suppuration  and  spontaneous  bursting  of 
swellings,  brings  about  the  looseness  or  resolution  of  any 
affected  part  (ulcer),  is  heat- engendering  in  its  property 
and  proves  incompatible  with  all  other  tastes.  It 
cleanses  the  internal  passages  or  channels  of  the 
organism  and  produces  softness  of  the  limbs  and 
members  of  the  body.  A  saline  taste,  though  possessed 
of  the  aforesaid  properties,  may  bring  on  scabies 
urticaria,  cedematous  swellings,  loss  or  discolorati  on  of 
the  natural  complexion  of  the  body,  loss  of  virile 
potenc}',  distressing  symptoms  affecting  the  sense-organs, 
inflammation  of  the  mouth  and  the  eyes,  haemoptysis, 
Vata-rakta  (a  kind  of  leprosy)  and  acid  eructations  etc., 
in  the  event  of  its  being  largely  partaken  of  to  the  exclu- 
sion of  all  other  tastes. 

Pungent  taste  :— A  pungent  taste  is  endued 
with  appetising,  resolving  (Pachana"!  and  purifying 
properties  in  respect  of  ulcers  etc.),  and  destroys  obesity, 
languor,  deranged  Kaphani  and  intestinal  parasites.  It 
is    antitoxic    in     its     character,     proves    curative    in 

Chap.  XLII.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  .589 

cases  of  Kushta  (skin  diseases)  and  itches,  and  removes 
the  stiffness  of  the  ligaments.  It  acts  as  a  sedative 
and  reduces  the  quantity  of  semen,  milk  and  fat.  A 
pungent  taste,  tliough  possessed  of  the  aforesaid  virtues, 
may  bring  on  vertigo,  loss  of  consciousness,  dryness 
of  the  throat,  palate  and  hps,  burning  sensation  and  a 
high  temperature  of  the  body,  loss  of  strength,  tremor, 
a  sort  of  aching  or  breaking  pain,  and  a  neuralgic  pain 
(Vata  Shula)  in  the  back,  sides  and  the  extremities,  etc. 
in  the  event  of  its  being  largely  partaken  of  in  exclusion 
of  all  other  tastes. 

Bitter  taste  : — A  bitter  taste  serves  to 
restore  the  natural  relish  of  a  person  for  food  and  brings 
on  a  sense  of  general  languor.  It  is  a  good  appetiser, 
and  acts  as  a  good  purifying  agent  (in  respect  of  ulcers, 
etc.),  and  proves  curative  in  itches  and  urticaria. 
It  removes  thirst,  swoon  and  fever,  purifies  mother's 
milk,  and  is  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  drying  up  urine, 
ordure,  mucous,  fat  and  pus,  etc.  A  bitter  taste, 
though  possessed  of  the  aforesaid  properties,  may  bring 
on  numbness  of  the  limbs,  wry-neck,  convulsions,  facial 
paralysis,  violent  headache,  giddiness,  and  an  aching, 
cutting  and  breaking  pain,  as  well  as  a  bad  taste  in  the 
mouth  in  the  event  of  its  being  largel}^  partaken  of  in 
exclusion  of  all  other  tastes. 

Astringent  taste  :— An  astringent  taste  is 
possessed    of     astringent,    healing,      styptic      (Stam- 

390  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  XLII. 

bhana),  purifying,  liquefacient,  drying  and  contracting 
virtues.  It  lessens  secretions  from  mucous  membranes. 
An  astringent  taste,  though  possessed  of  the  above- 
said  properties,  may  bring  on  the  peculiar  type  of 
heart  disease  known  as  (Hridroga)  parchedness  of 
the  mouth,  distention  of  the  abdomen,  loss  of  speech, 
wry-neck  (Manya  Stambha),  throbbing  or  quivering 
and  tingling  sensations  in  the  body  with  contraction 
of  the  limbs  and  convulsions,  etc. 

Now  we  shall  make  a  general  classification  of  the 
drugs  according  to  their  taste. 

lYI ad hura- Groups  :— The  drugs  forming  the 
groups  known  as  the  Kakolyadi-Gana,  as  well  as 
thickened  milk.  Ghee,  lard,  marrow.  Shall  and  Shashtika 
rice,  Yava,  Godhuma,  Masha  pulse,  Shringataka, 
Kasheruka,  Trapusha,  Erv^ruka.  Alavu,  Kalaukata 
Ankalodya,_  Piyala,  Pushkara,  Vijaka,  Kashmarya, 
Madhuka  (Moula),  Draksha,  Kharjura,  Rajadana,  Tala, 
Narikela,  modifications  of  the  expressed  Juice  of 
Ikshu  (Sugarcane),  Vala,  Ativala,  Atmagupta,  Vidari, 
Pyash5^a,  Gokshuraka,  Kshiramorata,  Madhulika,  and 
Kushmanda  etc.  are  generally  included  within  the 
Madhura  gi'oup. 

Acid  Groups  :— The  fruits  known  as 
Dadima,  Araalaka,  Matulanga,  Amrutaka,  Kapittha, 
Karamarda,  Vadra,    Kola,    Prachina-Amalaka,  Tintidhi, 



Koshamra,  Bhavya,  Paravata,  Vetraphala,  Lakucha, 
Amla-Vetash,  Dantashatha  and  curd,  whey,  Sura, 
Shukta,  Sauvira,  Tushodaka  and  Dhanyamla,  etc.  are 
generally  included  within  the  acid  group. 

Saline  Group  :— The  different  kinds  of 
salt  such  as,  Saindhaba,  Sauvarchala,  Vida,  Fakya, 
Romaka,.  Samudraka,  Paktrima,  Yavakshara  (nitrate 
of  potash),  Ushara  and  Suvarchika  collectively  form 
the  Saline  group. 

Pungent  Group  : — The  component  drugs 
which  form  the  groups  known  as  the  Pippalyadi 
and  the  Surasadi-Ganas  and  Shigru,  Madhu-sigru, 
Mulaka,  Lashuna,  Sumukha,  Shitashiva  (camphor, 
Kushtha,  Devadaru,  Harenuka,  Valguja-phalam,  Chanda, 
Guggula,  Mustha,  Langalaki,  Shukanasa  and  Pilu  etc. 
and  the  components  of  the  group  known  as  Salasaradi 
gana  collectively  form  the  pungent  group. 

Bitter  Group  :— The  component  members  of 
the  groups  of  medicinal  drugs  known  as  the  Aragva- 
dhadi-Gana  and  the  Guduchyadi-Gana  together  with 
Mandukparni,  Vetra-karira,  Haridra,  Daruharidra, 
Indra-yava,  Varuna,  Svadu-kantaka,  Saptaparna, 
Vrihati,  Kantakari,  Shankhini,  Dravanti,  Trivrit, 
Kritavedhana,  Karkotaka,  Karavellaka,  Vartaka, 
Karira,  Karavira,  Sumanah,  Sankha-pushpi  Apamarga, 
Trayamana,    Ashoka,    Rohini,   Vaijayanti,   Suvarchal^, 

392  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      I  Chap.  XUI. 

Punarnava,   Vrishikali  and  Jyotishmati,  etc.  collectively 
constitute  the  bitter  group. 

Astringent  Group  :— The  component  mem- 
bers of  the  groups  known  as  the  Nyagrodhade-Gana,  the 
Amvashtadi-Gana,  and  the  Priyangvadi  and  the 
Rodhradi  Ganas,  Triphala,  Shallaki,  Jambu,  Amra, 
Vakula,  Timduka  fruits,  Katakha  fruits,  Shaka  fruits, 
Pashanabhedaka,  the  fruits  of  trees  known  as  the 
Vanaspatis  (lit  :  lords  of  the  forest,  such  as  the  Vata, 
the  Ashvattha  etc.)  and  most  of  the  component  members 
of  the  group  known  as  the  Salasaradi  Gana,  as  well  as 
Kuruvaka,  Kovidaraka,  Jivanti,  Chilli,  Palanka  and 
Sunishanuaka,  etc.  and  grains  and  pulse  of  the  Nevara 
and  Mudga  species,  collectively  form  the  astringent 

These  .tastes,  in  groups  of  different  combinations, 
number  sixty-three  in  all  ;  as  for  example,  fifteen, 
computed  b}"  taking  two  at  a  time  ;  twenty,  computed 
by  taking  three  at  a  time  ;  fifteen,  computed  by  taking 
four  at  a  time  ;  six,  computed  by  taking  five  at  a  time 
and  six,  being  severally  computed,  thus  making  up  an 
aggregate  of  sixty-three. 

Authoritative  verse  on  the  sub- 
ject : — The  man,  who  gradually  habituates  him- 
self to   the   use   of  each  of  the    six  aforesaid  tastes, 



enjo5''s  a  sort  of  immunity  from  their  injurious  action 
in  the  same  manner  as,  a  strong  man,  who  makes  him- 
self successively  accustomed  to  the  action  of  the 
three  deranged  humours  of  his  bod)",  is  not  easily 
affected  by  their  pathogenetic  properties. 

Thus  ends  ihe  forty-second  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasthinam  in  the  Sushruta 
SamhitS,  which  treats  of  the  specific  properties  of  flavours. 


Xow   we   shall   discourse   on   the   Chapter,     which 
treats     of     the      mode      of      administering      emetics 

(Vamana-Dravya- Vikalpa-Vijna'niya- 

Of  all  emetic  fruits  the  Madana  (seeds)  should 
be  deemed  as  the  best  (most  active).  Madana 
fruits  should  be  dried  in  the  sun  and  powdered. 
Then  a  Pala  weight  (eight  tolas'^  of  the  powder  should 
be  stirred  in  a  decoction  of  Pratyakpushpi,  Sada-Pushpi, 
or  Nimva,  and  given  to  the  patient  with  honey  and 
Saindhava  salt,  for  emesis.  As  an  alternative,  a  potion 
consisting  of  the  powders  of  raw  Madana  fruits,  stirred 
in  a  decoction  of  Vakula  and  Ramyaka,  and  heated  in  fire, 
should  be'  administered  with  the  addition  of  honey  and 
rock-salt.  A  gruel,  consisting  of  sesamum  rice  and 
powders  of  green  Madana  fruits,  boiled  together,  should 
be  given  to  the  patient.  Likewise  matured  though  not 
ripe  Madana  fruits  should  be  stored  in  a  box  made  of  the 
blades  of  Kusha  grass.  The  box  should  be  plastered  over 
with  a  composition  of  cowdung  and  clay  and  kept  buried 
in  a  bushelful  of  Yava,  Tusha,  Mudga,  Masha  pulse  or 
Shali  rice  for  eight  consecutive  nights.  Then  having 
extracted  them,  fully  burst  out,  with  the  heat  of  the 
covering  grain,  their  kernels  should  be   separated   from 

Chap.  XLIII.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  ^g^ 

their  seeds  and  dried  in  the  sun.  Then  having  pasted 
them  with  curd,  hone}'  and  the  levigated  paste  of 
sesamum  they  should  be  again  dried  in  the  sun, 
after  which  they  should  be  kept  in  a  clean  vessel.  A 
Pala  weight  of  the  aforesaid  prepared  powder  should  be 
pounded  in  a  decoction  of  Yastimadhu  or  of  any  of  the 
drugs  of  the  Kovidaradi  group  over  night,  and  given  to 
the  patient  on  the  following  morning,  through  the 
medium  of  honey  and  Saindhava  salt.  The  patient 
should  take  it  looking  towards  the  north  or  the  east,  and 
the  following  benedictory  Mantra  should  be  recited  on 
the  occasion. 

Metrical  texts  :  -"May  tlie  gods  Bramha, 
Daksha,  Ashvis,  Rudra,  Indra,  the  earth  goddess,  the 
moon,  the  sun,  the  fire,  the  wind,  the  concourse  of  holy 
sages  (Rishis)  and  the  material  elements  with  the 
curative  properties  of  drugs  they  originate  and  nourish, 
preserve  thee.  May  the  potion  prove  wholesome  to  you, 
as  the  elixirs  prove  wholesome  to  the  Rishis,  the  nectar 
to  the  gods,  and  ambrosia  to  the  good  Xagas." 

This  emetic  medicine  should  be  specially  employed 
in  cases  of  catarrhal  fever,  catarrh,  and  internal  abscess. 
In  case  of  insufficient  or  unsatisfactory  action  of  the 
potion,  the  drugs  known  as  Pippali,  Vacha,  and  a  paste 
of  Gaura-Sarsapa  and  Saindhava  salt  should  be  added  to 
it.  It  should  be  administered  warm  and  in  repeated 
doses   until    the    symptoms     of    emesis     would     fully 

396  THE  SUSHRUTA   SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XLIII. 

appear.  In  the  alternative,  powders  of  Madana  kernels 
soaked  in  and  saturated  with  their  decoction  and 
subsequently  dried,  should  be  administered  through 
the  same  vehicle  (decoction  of  the  Madana  kernels)  ;  or 
milk  cream  boiled  with  the  kernels  of  jVIadana  fruits 
should  be  administered  with  hone}' ;  or  a  barley  gruel 
made  with  milk  prepared  as  above  should  be  prescribed 
for  the  purpose.  This  emetic  measure  should  be 
resorted  to  in  cases  of  Haematemesis  or  in  Haemorrhaee 
from  the  bowels  or  generative  organs  and  burning 
sensation  in  the  heart  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 

Milk,  boiled  with  the  kernel  of  a  Madana  fruit,  should 
be  curdled,  and  the  cream  of  the  curd  or  the  curd  itself 
so  prepared  should  be  used  for  emetic  purposes  in  cases 
of  water-brash,  vomiting,  syncope  and  dyspnoea.  The 
essence  (Rasam)  of  the  seed  pulps  of  Madana  fruits 
should  be  pressed  out  and  condensed  in  the  manner 
indicated  in  connection  with  the  extraction  of  oil 
(Sneha)  of  Bhallataka,  and  the  patient  should  be  made 
to  lick  that  condensed  essence  in  cases  where  the 
Pittam  would  be  found  to  have  shifted  into  the 
natural  seats  of  Kapham.  Sun-dried  and  pulverised 
Madana  fruits^  mixed  with  a  decoction  of  Jivanti,  may 
be  administered  in  its  stead. 

A  decoction  of  the  kernels  of  Madan  seeds  (Majja), 
saturated  with  powders  of  Pippali,  Yadi  or  a  potion  consist- 



ing  of  the  same  powder  mixed  with  a  decoction  of  Ximva 
or  Riipika,  should  be  prescribed  in  cases  of  lymphatic 
(Kaphaja)  diseases  due  to  acts  of  Santarpanam  (use 
of  emollient  remedies),  or  the  emesis  in  such  cases 
should  be  effected  with  a  decoction  of  Madhuk'am, 
K^shmari  and  Draksha  saturated  with  the  aforesaid 
powder.  Thus  the  emetic  remedies  made  of  Madana 
fruits  are  discharged. 

Pulverised  Jimutaka  flowers  may  be  used  in  the 
same  manner  and  through  the  same  medium  or  with 
the  same  adjuvants  and  for  same  purposes,  as  the 
preceding  (Madana  fruit).  Jimutaka  fruits  should  be 
pulverised  in  their  raw  or  unripe  state  and  dried  in 
the  sun,  and  a  gruel  made  with  milk  boiled  with  the 
same  powder  should  be  given  to  a  patient  for  emesis  ; 
or  milk-cream,  boiled  with  the  powder  of  Jimutaka  fruits 
(lit  : — flowers*)  powdered  in  their  mature  or  hardened 
(Romesha)  state,  should  be  given  ;  or  the  surface  cream 
of  milk  boiled  with  the  powders  of  full  grown  Aromasha), 
greenish  yellow  Jimutaka  fruits,  or  a  Sura  (wine)  made 
of  their  decoction  should  be  prescribed.  These  emetic 
remedies  should  be  used  in  cases  of  disincHnation  for 
food  through  the  action  of  deranged  Kapham  (lymphatic 
derangements),  cough,  dyspnoea,  jaundice  and  in  phthisis 
as  well,  like  the  compounds  of  Madana  fruits   described 

*  Fruits  include  flowers. 

398  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XLIII. 

before.  Mature  Kiitaja  or  fruits  may 
be  used  for  emetic  purposes  in  similar  combinations 
and  through  similar  mediums  as  the  Madana  fruits 
described  before.  Powders  of  Ikshaku  fruits  (Kushuma), 
similarly  prepared  with  milk,  curd,  etc.,  may  be  used 
for  emetic  purposes  in  cases  of  cough,  asthma,  vomiting 
and  non-relish  for  food  due  to  the  action  of  deranged 
Kapham  (lymphatic  disorders). 

The  emetic  compounds  of  Dhamargava  flowers 
are  identical  with  those  of  the  kernels  of  Madana 
fruits,  the  former  being  regarded  as  specifically  indicated 
in  cases  of  chemical  poisoning,  Gulma  (internal  gland), 
abdominal  drops}',  cough,  asthma,  as  well  as  in  diseases 
due  to  the  action  of  deranged  Kapham  (lymphatic 
disorders).  The  pulps  or  kernels  of  Kritavedhana  seeds 
should  be  soaked  in  the  expressed  juice  of  emetic 
drugs  and  subsequently  reduced  to  powder.  The 
powder,  so  prepared,  should  be  strewn  over  an 
Utpala  or  any  other  flower  and  the  patients  should  be 
made  to  smell  it  in  the  case  where  the  Kapham  would 
be  found  to  have  changed  its  seat  with  the  bodily 
Vayu.  Likewise,  in  cases  of  excessive  derangement  of 
the  bodil)'  humours,  the  patient  should  be  given  a 
stomachful  of  barle}'  gruel  and  then  made  to  eject  the 
contents  of  his  stomach  by  causing  him  to  smell  such  a 
medicated  flower.  Sternutatoric  (Shiro-virechanam)  or 
emetic  or  purgative  drugs  prove  most  efficacious  after 

Chap.  XLIII.  ]  SijTRASTHA'NAM. 


being  soaked  in  or  saturated  with  the  expressed  juice  of 
their  own. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject : — Thus  a  general  outhne  of  the  leading 
characteristics  of  the  emetic  drugs  in  general  has  been 
given.  An  intelligent  physician  should  choose  an 
emetic  remedy  in  consideration  of  the  season  of  the 
year  and  the  strength  of  the  disease,  and  should  tr}-  to 
set  in  the  process  of  ejection  in  a  patient  either  with 
the  help  of  the  expressed  juice,  paste  or  powder  of 
the  prescribed  drug  duly  administered  through  the 
medium  of  an  article  of  food  or  drink,  or  through  an 

Thus  ends    llie  forly-third  Cliapler  of  the  Sulraslhanain  in  llie  Sushiula 
Sanihila  which  deals  wiih  ihe  choice  and  mode  of  administering  emetics. 


Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
treats    of  the   choice     of  purgatives    (Vircchana- 

Dravya-Vikalpa  -  Vijiiariiya  -  madhya'- 

Metrical  Texts  :— Of  the  purgative  roots, 
the  roots  of  reddish  Trivrita  should  be  deemed  the 
most  effective.  The  barks  of  Tilvaka  and  the  fruit 
known  as  Haritaki  are  the  most  potent  of  all 
purgative  barks  and  fruits.  Similar!}-,  the  oil  of 
castor  seeds  (Erauda-Taila),  the  expressed  juice  of 
Karavellika  and  the  milky  exudations  of  Sndha  plant 
are  the  most  effective  of  all  such  purgative  oils,  ex- 
pressed juices  and  milky  exudations  of  plants,  etc. 
These  drugs  or  substances  form  the  principal  purgative 
remedies  (in  our  pharmacy),  and  we  shall  discuss  the 
mode  of  their  administration  in  successive  order. 

A  purgative  remedy  consisting  of  the  sound  and 
matured  roots  of  Tri\Titam,  soaked  in  the  expressed 
juice  of  the  principal  purgative  drugs  and  subsequently 
pulverised  and  mixed  with  a  considerable  quantity  of 
Saindhava  salt  and  powdered  Magara,  should  be 
administered  through  the  medium  of  curd  or  sour 
rice  gruel,  etc.  to  a  patient,  suffering  from  a  disease 
due     to     the     derangement      of    the     bodil)'     Vayu. 


The  same  powder  mixed  with  modifications  of  sugar- 
cane juice  (such  as  treacle,  sugar  etc.),  oi  with 
decoctions  of  drugs  belonging  to  the  Madhuradi  group 
(Kakolyadi-gana),  or  with  milk,  should  be  prescribed 
for  a  patient  laid  up  with  Pittaja  distemper.  "*  In 
diseases  due  to  the  deranged  action  of  the  Kapham  the 
same  powder  should  be  administered  with  a  decoction 
of  Guduchi,  Arishta  or  Triphala,  or  with  the  addition 
of  pulverised  Vyosha  and  cow's  urine. 

One  part  of  the  same  powder  (Trivrit),  mixed  with  one 
part  of  old  treacle  and  the  drugs  known  as  Trivarnaka, 
and  Tryushana,  should  be  administered  for  purgative  pur- 
poses in  a  disease  (due  to  the  concerted  action  of  the 
deranged  Viyu  and  Kapham).  As  an  alternative,  a 
Prastha  mea  sure  (four  seers)  cf  the  decoction  of  the 
Trivrit  roots,  mixed  with  a  Kudava  measure  (half  a  seer) 
of  their  paste,  and  a  Karsha  (two  tolas)  weight  of 
Saindhava  salt  and  Xagara,  and  boiled  together,  and  then 
formed  into  a  condensed  compound  should  be  used  ;  or 
one  part  of  the  paste  of  the  same  roots,  mixed  with  half 
a  part  each  of  rock-salt  and  powdered  Nagara,  should 
be  administered  through  the  vehicle  of  cow's  urine.  A 
compound  consisting  of  one  part  of  each  of  the  following 
drugs  viz.,  powdered  Trivrita  roots,  Nagara  and  Haritaki, 
and  a  half  part  of  each  of  such  drugs  as  powdered 
Maricha,  Devadaru,  Vidanga  and  ripe  Puga  nuts, 
mixed     with     rock-salt,     and     administered     through 


402  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  Xliv  . 

the  medium  of  cow's  urine,  should  be  considered  as  an 
effective  purgative  (in  diseases  of  whatsoever  type). 

Powders  of  purgative  drugs  taken  in  adequate 
measures  and  soaked  in  their  own  juice  should  be 
boiled  with  their  roots  and  made  into  pills  (Gutikd) 
with  clarified  butter  and  administered  as  occasion 
would  arise.  As  an  alternative,  powders  of  pur- 
gative drugs  pasted  with  clarified  butter  boiled 
with  their  roots  should  be  made  into  boluses,  and 
the  intelligent  ph5^sician  should  administer  them 
through  the  medium  of  clarified  butter,  prepared  as 
above,  whenever  necessary.  A  quantity*  of  treacle 
should  be  kept  boiling  over  an  oven,  and  a  (halt  part)  of 
the  pu'verised  purgative  roots  should  be  cast  into  it,  a 
little  before  it  is  completely  boiled.  Then  the  basin  should 
be  taken  off  the  fire,  and  powders  of  aromatic  drugs 
known  as  Trij^ta  strewn  over  it,  and  the  compound  sub- 
sequently made  into  boluses  (Gutika)  of  adequate  size 
according  to  the  requirements  of  the  case  under  treatment. 

One  part  of  any  of  the  pulverised  purgative  drugs 
(such  as  the  Trivrit  roots,  etc.)  should  be  boiled  with 
four  parts  of  their  own  decoction,  and  one  part  of  pow- 
dered wheat  steamed  in  the  fumes  of  a  separate  quantity 
of  a  similar  boiling  decoction,  should  be  pounded  with  a 
quantity  of  clarified   butter   boiled   and   prepared   with 

*  The  quantity  of  old  treacle  should  be  equal  to  the  aggregate  weight  of 
the  other  drugs  in  the  compound  under  similar  circumstances. 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^O^? 

the  same  decoction.  Then  having  cooked  a  quantity  of 
thin  treacle  in  a  separate  utensil,  powders  of  wheat 
and  purgative  drugs  prepared  as  above,  should  be 
cast  into  it,  immediately  before  being  completely 
cooked,  and  the  vessel  should  be  taken  down  from 
the  oven  and  allowed  to  cool.  Then  this  confection 
(Modaka)  should  be  perfumed  with  aromatic  drugs 
and  regarded  as  ready  for  use.  In  short,  this  purgative 
Modaka  is  good  food  as  well. 

Purgative  preparations  of  lYIudga, 
etc.: — The  soup  of  Mudga  pulse  saturated  with  the 
decotion  of  a  purgative  drug,  and  taken  with  clarified 
butter  and  rock  salt,  acts  as  a  good  purgative  as  well. 
Similarly,  soups  of  other  pulses  (such  as  the  Musara, 
etc.)  soaked  in  a  decoction  of  any  of  the  purgative 
drugs  and  drunk  with  the  aforesaid  adjuvants,  exert 
purgative  virtues.  Drugs  possessed  of  emetic  properties 
may  be  used  through  the  preceding  media  of  pulse- 
soups  as  well. 

A  bit  of  sugar-cane  should  be  longitudinally  split, 
and  then  paste  of  Tribhandi  should  be  placed  in  its 
middle  ;  then  it  should  be  tied  up  (with  the  blades  of 
Kusha  grass),  and  plastered  over  with  a  coat  of  clay,  and 
inserted  in  a  gentle  fire  of  dung  cake.  After  that,  it 
should  be  taken  out  of  the  fire,  fully  roasted  ;  the  juice 
squeezed  out  and  cooled,  would  prove  a  good  purgative 
to  a  patient  laid  up  with  a  Pittaja  distemper. 



A  compound  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  sugar  and 
powdered  Ajagandha,  Tvakkshiri,  Vidari  and  Trivrit  and 
licked  with  honey  and  clarified  butter,  proves  curative 
in  a  fever  with  thirst  and  a  burning  sensation  of  the 

A  compound  consisting  of  one  part  of  pulverised 
Trivrit  and  a  quarter  part  each  of  the  drugs  known  as 
Tvak,  Patram  and  Maricha,  and  administered  with 
an  adequate  quantity  of  honey  and  sugar,  should  be 
regarded  as  a  good  purgative  for  delicate  persons. 

A  Pala  weight  of  sugar  should  be  boiled  with  a  half 
Kudava  weight  of  hone)',  and  Trivrita  powders  to  the 
weight  of  a  quarter  part  (of  the  combined  weight  of 
honey  and  sugar)  should  be  added  to  the  boiling 
compound  at  the  later  part  of  the  cooking.  The 
remedy  should  be  administered  cool,  and  looked  upon 
as  a  good  purger  of  Pittam. 

A  compound  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  pow- 
dered Trivrit,  Shyama  (Vriddha-Daraka),  Yavakshara, 
Shunti  and  Pippali,  and  taken  with  honey,  acts  as 
one  of  the  most  effective  purgatives  in  diseases  due 
to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham. 

Over-ripe  Pathya,  Kdshmari,  Dhatri,  Dadima  and 
Kola  fruit  taken  with  their  seeds  or  stones,  should 
be  boiled  (with  a  quantity  of  water  weighing 
sixteen  times  their  combined  weight).  The  decoc- 
tion    thus     obtained   should    be     boiled  with  (castor) 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  ^oc 

oil,  and  the  juice  of  Amlaphala  etc.  (to  the  weight  of  a 
quarter  part  thereof),  should  be  added  to  it.  The 
whole  should  be  boiled  together  until  reduced  to  a 
considerable  consistence.  The  powders  of  the  three 
aromatic  drugs  (Trisugandha)  and  Trivrit*  should '  be 
then  added  to  it,  which  should  be  administered  to  a 
patient  as  an  electuary  with  hone)".  This  remedy 
will  prove  a  good  purgative  in  respect  of  a  delicate 
person  of  Kaphaja  temperament. 

A  compound,  consisting  of  one  part  of  powdered 
Nili  fruit,  one  part  of  powdered  Tvak  and  Ela,  and 
two  parts  of  pulverised  Trivrit,  and  mixed  with  an 
adequate  quantity  of  sugar,  and  taken  with  honey 
and  the  juice  of  Amlaphalam,  should  be  regarded  as  a 
purgative  remedy  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  destroying 
the  concerted  action  of  the  three  deranged  humours 
of  the  body. 

A  compound,  consisting  of  equal  parts  of  powdered 
Trivrit,  Shyama  (Vriddhadaraka),  Pippali  and  Triphal^ 
and  made  into  a  confection  ( Modaka)  (with  the  addition 
of  honey  and  sugar),  should  be  regarded  as  one  of  the 
most  potent  cures  (purgatives)  for  S^nnipata  (simul- 
taneous derangement  of  the  three  vital  humours), 
haemoptysis  and  fever. 

A  compound   consisting   of  three   parts  of  Trivrit, 

*  The  weight  of  honey   and    pulverised  Trivrit   should    be   equal  to  a 
fourth  part  of  the  entire  quantity  of  medicine  taken  at  a  time* 

4o6         THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [  Chap  XLIV. 

one  part  of  Triphala,  one  of  Yavakshara,  one  of 
Krishna  (Pippali),  and  one  of  Vidanga,  pounded 
together  and  used  as  an  electuary  with  the  addi- 
tion of  honey  and  clarified  butter,  or  made  into 
bolases  (Gutika)  with  treacle,  proves  curative  in 
cases  of  enlarged  spleen,  in  Gulmas  due  to  the  action  of 
the  deranged  Kapham  and  Vayu,  in  Halimaka  .Chlorosis), 
as  well  as  in  cases  of  abdominal  dropsy,  etc.  The 
present  remedy  (purgative)  is  one  of  the  most  harmless 
purgative  compounds  (of  our  pharmacopoeia}.  A  pur- 
gative compound  consisting  of  Shyama  (Vriddhadaraka), 
Trivrit,  Xili,  Katvi,  Musta,  Duralabha,  Chavya,  Indra- 
yava  and  Triphala,  administered  through  the  vehicle 
of  clarified  butter,  essence  of  meat,  or  water,  is  com- 
mended to  persons  of  dry  temperament. 

Preparations  of  Purgative  Asavas 
(Wines): — All  purgative  drugs*  should  be  duly 
boiled  in  water.  Three  parts  of  the  decoction  thus 
prepared  should  be  mixed  with  two  parts  of  cold 
powdered  barley  (Phanitam)  and  again  boiled  over  a 
fire.  Then  after  boiling  it,  it  should  be  taken  down 
from  the  oven,  cooled  and  poured  into  a  pitcher 
previously  coated  inside  with  a  special  plaster.t  Then 
according   to  the  difference  of  the  season  (cold  or  hot), 

*  Several  authorities  exclude  the  plant  known  as  Sudh^  (ManasS), 
while  others  stick  to  Trivrita  alone  in  exclusion  of  all  other  drugs. 

t  A  new  earthen  pitcher  is  first  washed  with  water  and  dried  in  the 
shade.  Then  its  inside  is  coated  with  a  plaster  of  honey  and  powdered 
Pippali  and  is  fumigated  with  the  fumes  of  Aguru  (Eagle  wood). 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANaM.  407 

the  pitcher  should  be  kept  buried  in  a  heap 
of  paddy  for  a  month,  or  a  fortnight.  It  should 
be  taken  out  and  understood  to  be  ready  for  use 
as  soon  as  it  would  emit  a  winy  or  fermented 
odour.  Asavas  (fermenting  liquours)  of  animal  urines 
and  alkaline  substances  should  be  likewise  prepared 
in  the  foregoing  manner. 

Preparations  of  purgative  rice  Surar 

(Wines)  etc.  : — Quantities  of  Masha  pulse  and  Shali 
rice  should  be  respectively  first  soaked  and  washed  in  a 
decoction  of  purgative  roots.  Then  they  should  be  dried 
and  pounded  together  and  made  into  balls,  which  should 
be  subsequently  dried  in  the  sun  and  again  pulverised.* 
After  that  a  separate  quantity  of  Shali  rice  steamed 
in  the  vapours  of  the  aforesaid  decoction,  and  kept 
apart,  should  be  made  into  cakes.  Then  three  parts 
of  these  cakes  should  be  mixed  with  one  part  of  the 
aforesaid  powdered  ball.  The  compound  thus  obtained 
should  be  soaked  in  an  adequate  quantity  of  that 
purgative  decoction  previously  kept  apart  in  an  earthen 
pitcher  of  the  plastered  type,  described  before.  The  Sura 
should  be  deemed  ready  for  use,  as  soon  as  it  would 
emit  the  peculiar  honey-like  smell.  Suras  of  emetic 
drugs  should  be  likewise  made  in  the  same  manner. 

Preparations  of  purgative  Souvira- 

kas  (Barley  Wines)  ;~-Trivrit  roots   and   drugs 

*  For  imparting  to  it  liie  necessary  Enzyme, 

4o8  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  XLiv. 

belonging  to  the  groups  of  Vidarigandha  and  major 
Panchamulam,  as  well  as  Murva,  Sh^rngashta,  Sudha, 
Haimavati,  Triphala,  Ativisha  and  Vacha  should 
be  mixed  together  and  then  set  apart  in  two 
equal  parts.  A  decoction  should  be  made  of  one  of 
them,  while  the  other  should  be  reduced  to  a  state 
of  powder.  After  that,  a  quantity  of  well  thrashed 
and  huskless  barlej^  should  be  soaked  in  the  aforesaid 
decoction  for  seven  days,  and  should  be  subsequently 
dried  and  fried  a  little.  Then  three  parts  of  the 
latter  and  one  part  of  the  aforesaid  powder  (powdered 
Trivrita  roots  etc.)  should  be  mixed  together  and  soak- 
ed in  the  aforesaid  cold  decoction  of  those  drugs. 
The  mixture  should  be  then  kept  into  an  earthen 
pitcher  of  the  foregoing  type  and  administered  in  ade- 
quate doses  as  soon  as  the  characteristic  winy  smell 
of  the  mixture  (Jatarasa)  would  be  detected.  The  pre- 
paration is  called  the  purgative  Sauvirakam. 

Preparations  of  purgative  Tusho- 
dakam  (fermented  liquors  of  barley  with  husks): — The 
drugs  enumerated  in  connection  with  the  foregoing 
preparation  should  be  mixed  together  and  di^•ided  in 
halves  and  kept  in  two  separate  vessels.  One  half  of 
the  mixture  should  be  well-thrashed  and  tied  up  in  a 
piece  of  clean  linen  with  a  quantity  of  unthrashed 
barley  in  husks  and  should  be  boiled  with  a  decoction 
of  Ajashringi  in  a  separate  basin.   Then  barley  in  husks 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  409 

should  be  separated  from  the  rest  of  the  components  of 
the  mixture  after  it  has  been  thoroughly  cooked.  Then 
three  parts  of  these  barley  grains  subsequently  thrashed 
should  be  again  soaked  in  their  decoction,  and  a  fourth 
part  of  the  aforesaid  pulverised  drugs  'such  as  the  roots 
of  Trivrit,  etc.)  should  be  added  to  it,  and  the  entire 
mixture  should  be  kept  in  an  earthen  pitcher  of 
the  before  mentioned  type.  This  preparation  is  called 
Tushodakam  (lit:  Washings  of  husks  ,  and  should  be 
used  as  soon  as  the  characteristic  smell  of  fermentation 
(Jatarasa)  would  be  emitted  from  the  pitcher.  The 
processes  of  preparing  Sauvirakam  and  Tushodakam 
have  been  described.  They  should  be  used  after  the 
expiry  of  six  or  seven  nights  from  the  date  of  their 
being  in  the  pitcher. 

The  rules  and  processes  regarding  the  preparation 
of  Tri\Tit  compounds  hold  good  in  cases  of  similar  pre- 
parations made  of  the  rest  of  purgative  drugs  (such 
as,  Danti,  Dravanti,  etc.) 

The  roots  of  Danti  and  Dravanti  should  be  first 
pulled  up  and  collected,  after  which  they  should  be 
dried  in  the  sun.  After  that,  they  should  be  mixed  with 
honey  and  pasted  Pippali  and  placed  in  a  box  of  Kusha 
grass  firmly  tied  up  and  plastered  with  a  layer  of  clay. 
The  box  should  be  put  into  a  fire  of  dried  cowdung 
cakes.  The  compound  inside  the  plastered  grass  box 
should  be  cooked  according  to  the  process  of  Putapaka, 


4IO  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [  Chap.  XLIV. 

and  should  be  taken  out  and  used  in  diseases  due  to 
the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham  and  Pittam  and  in 
combination  and  through  vehicles  described  in  connec- 
tion with  the  purgative  compounds  of  Trivrit. 

Pastes  (Kalkas'  and  decoctions  of  Danti  and  Dra- 
vanti  should  be  boiled  with  clarified  butter,  and  Chakra 
Tailam  (sesamum  oil  pressed  in  an  oil  mill).  The  clarified 
butter,  thus  cooked  and  prepared,  would  prove  curative  in 
cases  of  Erysipelas,  Kaksha,  burning  sensation  of  the 
body  and  Alaji,  while  cases  of  Meha,  Gulma,  retention 
of  flatus,  (kapham)  and  obstruction  of  the  bowels 
would  prove  amenable  to  the  oil  above  described. 
Diseases  due  to  the  retention  of  urine,  semen  and 
Vavu  or  fecal  matter  readily  yield  to  one  of  the  four  oily 
substances  (Chatuh-sneha,  oil,  clarified  butter,  lard  and 
marrow)  cooked  and  prepared  with  the  paste  and 
decoction  of  Danti  and  Dravanti. 

A  compound  consisting  of  Danti,  Dravanti,  Maricha, 
Kanakahvaya,  Yavasaka,  \'ishs^a-veshaja,  Mridvika, 
and  Chitraka  powdered  together  and  successi^"ely  soaked 
in  cow's  urine  for  seven  days,  should  be  administered 
for  purgative  purposes,  through  the  medium  of  clarified 
butter.  A  diet  of  powdered  barley,  stirred  in  honey, 
should  be  given  to  the  patient  after  the  assimilation  of 
the  abovesaid  medicine.  Diseases  such  as  indigestion, 
pain  at  the  sides,  jaundice,  enlargement  of  the  spleen 
as  well  as   those   due   to   the   combined   action   of  the 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  41  j 

deranged   Kapham  and   Pittam    readily   yield   to   the 
curative  efficacy  of  this  purgative  remedy. 

Twenty  pulverised  Pathyas  mixed  with  the  powders 
of  Danti  and  Chitraka  roots,  each  weighing  a  Pala  in 
weight,  as  well  as  with  two  tola  weights  each  of 
powdered  Pippali  and  Trivrit,  should  be  cooked 
with  eight  pala  weights  of  treacle.  The  com- 
pound thus  prepared  should  be  made  into  ten  large 
balls  of  confection  (Modaka),  each  of  which  should  be 
taken  on  every  tenth  da}'.  Warm  water  should  be  used 
for  drinking  and  bathing  purposes  while  using  the  medi- 
cine, which  does  not  entail  any  strict  regimen  of 
conduct  (as  non-exposure  to  cold  wind,  etc.).  It  proves 
curative  in  dysentery,  jaundice,  pile  and  cutaneous 
affections  and  subdues  the  three  deranged  humours  of 
the  bod5\ 

Trivrida'Shtaka  :~The  nine  following  drugs, 
viz.  Trikatu,  Trijata,  Musta,  Vidanga  and  Amalaka 
taken  in  equal  parts,  and  eight  parts  of  Trivit,  and  two 
parts  of  Danti  roots  should  be  separately  pulverised  and 
sieved  through  a  piece  of  thin  linen.  The  powders  thus 
prepared  should  be  pounded  together  and  mixed  with 
six  parts  of  sugar  and  a  little  quantity  of  honey  and 
rock  salt.*  Cold  water  should  be  given  to  the  patient 
after  he  had  taken  the  medicine,  which   proves  curative 

*  The  term  little  (Ishat)  in  the    present    instance    stands    for  a   quarter 

412  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XLIV. 

in  colic  pain  in  the  bladder  (Vasti-Shula),  thirst,  fever, 
vomiting,  anasarca  (Shotha),  chlorosis  and  vertigo.  It 
does  not  entail  any  strict  regimen  of  conduct  like  other 
purgatives  and  acts  as  a  good  eliminator  of  poison.  The 
compound  is  called  the  Trivridashtakam  and  is  specially 
recommended  in  Pittaja  affections.  Persons,  suffering 
from  diseases  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Pittam 
and  Kapham,  should  take  the  medicine  through  the 
vehicle  of  milk.  The  medicine  should  be  prescribed 
for  rich  persons,  owing  to  its  dietetic  character. 

Purgative  barks  : — The  external  skin  of  the 
Lodhra  bark,  to  the  exclusion  of  its  inner  lining,  should 
be  taken  and  pulverised.  The  powder,  thus  prepared, 
should  be  divided  into  three  equal  parts,  two  of  which 
should  be  soaked  in  a  decoction  of  the  same  (Lodhra) 
bark  and  filtered  twenty- one  times  according  to  the 
process  laid  down  in  connection  with  the  preparation  of 
alkalis.  The  remaining  third  part  of  the  powders  should 
be  soaked  in  the  aforesaid  filtered  decoction  and 
subsequently  dried  in  the  sun,  and  again  soaked  in  a 
decoction  of  the  drugs,  which  coUectiveh'  go  by 
the  name  of  Dashamulam.  The  medicine  should  be 
prescribed  in  forms  (wines,  electuaries,  etc.)  pre- 
viously described  in  connection  with  the  Trivrit 

The  mode  ol  preparing  and  administering  purgative 
medicines  out  of  barks  endued  with  similar  virtues  has 

Chap.  XLIV.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  413 

been  described.    We   shall   presently  deal   with   those 
made  with  purgative  fruits. 

Fruit  Purgatives  :— Sound  and  stoneless 
Haritakis  administered  in  the  wa}'  of  Trivrit  com- 
pounds  prove  curati^'e  in  all  forms  of  disease  and 
in  malignant  sores  and  internal  abscesses.  Thev  are 
the  best  of  elixirs  and  improve  the  intellectual 
faculties.  Haritaki  and  Vidanga,  as  well  as  rock  salt, 
Xagaram,  Trivrit  and  Maricha  mixed  in  equal  parts 
and  taken  with  cow's  urine,  act  as  good  purgatives. 
Similar!}',  powders  of  Haritaki,  Bhadra-daru,  Kushtham, 
Puga-phalam,  Saindhava  salt  and  Shringaveram  taken 
through  the  medium  of  cow's  urine,  act  as  good  purga- 
tive. For  purgative  purposes,  a  man  should  lick  a  com- 
pound consisting  of  the  powders  of  Xilini  fi-uits,  Nagara, 
Abhaya  and  treacle  and  subsequently  drink  a  good 
draught  ot  vrarin  water.  A  compound  composed  of 
Haritakis  pasted  with  a  decoction  of  the  drugs  con- 
stituting the  group  of  Pippalyadi  and  a  bit  of 
Saindhava  salt,  exerts  an  instantaneous  purgative  action. 

Haritakis  eaten  with  Nagaram  or  treacle  and  with 
a  bit  of  rock  salt  added  to  it,  is  an  excellent  stomachic. 
The  specific  virtue  of  Haritaki  consists  in  restoring  the 
normal  condition  of  the  bodily  Vayu  (laxative),  in 
rejuvenating  an  used  up  or  exhausted  frame,  and  in 
soothingly  in^•igorating  the  sense  organs.  Haritaki 
destroys   all   diseases,   which   are   due   to    the   use    of 

414  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.  XLIV . 

sweet  or  richly  cooked  dishes  (Santarpanam)  such  as, 
thirst,  etc.  Amalakam  is  cooling,  and  refrigerent ;  it  sub- 
dues Pittam  and  Kapham  and  is  antifat  in  its  virtues. 
Vibhitakam  is  cooling  ;  it  subdues  Pittam  and  Kapham. 
The-  group  of  medicinal  fruits  known  as  the  Triphala 
consists  of  Haritaki,  Amalakam  and  Vibhitakam,  which 
are  collectively  marked  by  an  acid-astringent  taste  with 
a  shade  of  bitter  and  sweet.  Powdered  Triphala 
regularh'  taken  with  clarified  butter  of  a  three  quarter 
part  of  its  own  weight  acts  as  a  regular  panacea  and 
is  endued  with  a    rejuvenating  virtue. 

All  fruits  possessed  of  purgative  properties, 
should  be  used  in  the  manner  described  in  connection 
with  Haritaki  with  the  exception  of  Chaturangulas.  The 
Chaturangula  fruit  should  be  collected  in  the  proper 
season,  and  then  kept  buried  for  a  week  in  a  bed  of 
sand.  After  that,  they  should  be  unearthed  and  dried 
in  the  sun,  and  their  stones  or  seeds  (lit.  marrow)  should 
be  taken  out.  Then  the  essential  oil  of  the  seeds 
should  be  extracted  by  pressing  them  in  an  oil-mill  like 
the  seeds  of  sesamum,  or  b}'  boiling  them  with  water 
(hot  expression).  The  oil  is  a  good  purgative  for  a 
child  up  to  its  twelfth  year. 

Hot  water  taken  after  having  licked  a  compound 
consisting  of  Castor  oil  saturated  with  powdered 
Kushtha  and  Trikatus,  acts  as  a  good  purgative.  Castor 
oil  taken  with  a  decoction  of  Triphalas,  double   its  own 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  41^ 

measure,  or  with  milk  or  extract  of  meat,  acts  as  a 
good  purgative,  which  should  be  prescribed  for  infants, 
old  men,  or  persons  debilitated  from  the  effects  of 
ulcer  cachexia,  or  of  delicate  constitution. 

I  have  finished  describing  the  preparation  and  appli- 
cation of  fruit  purgatives.  Now  hear  me,  O  Sushruta, 
discourse  on  similar  milky  exudations  of  plants  and 
trees,  etc.  which  are  possessed  of  purgative  properties. 
The  milky  juice  of  a  Sudha  plant  is  the  strongest 
of  all  purgatives,  which  being  imprudently  used 
by  a  medical  ignoramus,  may  be  attended  with 
dangerous  consequences,  while  the  same  in  the  hands 
of  a  judicious  physician  proves  strong  enough  to  dis- 
integrate a  mighty  accumulation  of  deranged  humours 
and  to  successfully  combat  man}'  an  irremediable  dis- 

One  part  of  the  decoction  of  each  of  the  drugs 
constituting  the  gi'oup  of  major  Panchamulam  and 
Vrihati,  etc.  should  be  mixed  with  one  part  of  the  milky 
juice  of  a  Sudha  plant  (thus  forming  an  eighth  part  of 
the  whole  compound).  After  having  boiled  it  over 
a  charcoal  fire,  the  compound  should  be  taken  with 
two  Tola  (kola)  weights  of  any  acid  liquid  (such  as  wine, 
sour  rice  gruel,  cream  of  curd,  etc.)  in  the  manner  of 
Trivrit  compounds.  A  gruel  made  of  rice  saturated  with 
the  milky  exudation  of  a  Mahavriksha,  or  a  sweetened, 
porridge-like  preparation  of  the  same  substance  (Utka- 

41 6  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.      [Chap.XLIv. 

rika)  made  with  treacle,  should  be  deemed  as  possessed 
of  purgative  properties.  As  an  alternative,  an  electuary 
composed  of  sugar,  clarified  butter  and  the  milky  juice 
of  a  Snuhi  plant,  should  be  used  for  purgative  purposes. 

Powders  of  Pippali  soaked  in  the  milk}^  juice  of 
the  same  plant  should  be  used  with  rock  salt  for  moving 
the  bowels.  Powdered  Kampillakam  made  into  boluses 
with  Snuhi  juice  ma)^  be  as  well  prescribed  for  the  same 
end.  Powders  of  Saptala,  Shankhini,  Danti,  Trivrit  and 
kernel  of  Aragvadham,  should  be  saturated  with  cow's 
urine  and  then  soaked  in  the  milky  juice  of  a  Snuhi 
plant  successively  for  seven  consecutive  days.*  A  smell 
of  the  powder  thus  prepared  and  strewn  over  the 
flower-garlands,  and  clothes  worn  by  a  man  whose 
bowels  are  easil}^  moved,  acts  as  a  mild  purgative. 

The  use  and  preparation  of  purgative  remedies 
concocted  with  roots,  barks  and  milk}'  exudations  of 
plants,  etc.  have  been  described,  w-hich  should  be 
prescribed  after  carefully  considering  the  nature  of 
the  case  under  treatment  and  according  to  their  specific 

A  compound  consisting  of  three  Shana  weights 
(one    tola   and   a   half)    of   powdered     Trivrit,     three 

*  The  mode  of  preparing  the  porridge  is  as  follows  : — First  the  wheat 
should  be  saturated  with  the  milky  juice  of  a  JNlaha-Vriksha  and  then 
macerated.  The  powder  should  be  then  cooked  with  mil-<  and  treacle  and 
made  into  a  thick  porridge. 

Chap.  XLIV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  4,7 

Shana  weights  of  powdered  Triphala  pulp,  and  three 
Shana  weights  of  powdered  Vidanga,  Pippali  and 
Yavakshara,  mixed  and  pounded  together,  should  be 
licked  with  honey  and  clarified  butter,  or  they  should 
be  made  into  a  confection  with  treacle  for  purgative 
purposes.  The  medicine  does  not  entail  any  strict 
regimen  of  diet  and  conduct.  It  is  one  of  the  most 
effective  remedies  (of  our  pharmacopoeia)  and  proves 
curative  in  Gulmas,  enlargement  of  the  spleen,  cough, 
Halimakam  (  chlorosis  ),  non-relish  for  food  and 
in  diseases  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged 
Kapham  and  Vayu.  A  wise  and  intelligent  physician 
should  administer  purgative  medicines  through  the 
vehicles  of  clarified  butter,  oil,  milk,  Mad3'a  (wine) 
cow's  urine,  meat  essence,  or  through  the  expressed 
juice  of  drugs,  or  through  articles  of  food,  or  in 
forms  of  electuar}'.  The  six  kinds  of  purgatives  are 
the  milky  exudations,  expressed  juices,  pastes,  decoctions, 
cold  infusions  and  powders  of  medicinal  drugs  or 
herbs,  and  each  of  these  preceding  factors  should  be 
deemed  stronger  than  the  one  immediately  following 
it  in  the  order  of  enumeration. 

Thus  ends  the  forty-fourth  Chapter  of  the  Sutrasthinam  in  the  Sushruta 
SamhitS,  which  treats  of  the  choice  of  purgatives. 



Now  we  shall  discourse  on  the  Chapter,  which 
deals  with  the  rules  to  be  observed  in  respect  of  liquid 
substances  in  general  (Drava-Dravya-Vidhi- 

Water  Group  : — Atmospheric,  or  rain  water 
is  possessed  of  a  non-patent  taste.  It  is  ambrosial 
in  its  nature,  pleasant  and  beneficial  to  life.  It  is 
enlivening,*  invigorating  or  strength-giving,  f  re- 
frigerent,  frigorific,  antipyrotic_,  anti-hypnotic,  and 
conquers  vertigo,  drowsiness  and  fits  of  fainting. 
It  is  most  wholesome  to  the  human  body.  After 
having  fallen  upon  the  surface  of  the  earth  it  acquires  one 
of  the  six  different  tastes  according  to  the  nature 
of  its  receptacle  such  as,  a  river,  or  a  Xada  (a  river 
with  a  masculine  name),  a  pond,  a  tank  (Vapi)  i, 
a  Kupa  §,  a  Chunti  \\,  a  fountain,  an  Artesian 
spring  a  Vikira  1,  fallow  land  (Kedar),  or  a  pond 
covered      over     with     a    growth     of    aquatic    plants 

*  Enlivens  ihe  body  during  fits  of  fainting  and  such  like  cases. 

+  Imparts  strength  to  the  exhausted  or  emaciated  frames. 

J  A  tank  or  a  large  well  with  its  sides  protected  by  buttresses  of 
masonry  work. 

§  A  well  with  flights  of  masonry  steps  descending  to  its  bottom. 

II  An  ordinary  well,  unprotected  by  buttresses  and  unpro\-ided  with 

If  A  flow  of  subterranean  water  dug  out  of  a  bed  of  sand. 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  419 

(Palvala).  Certain  authorities  maintain  that  heavenly 
or  atmospheric  water  having  fallen  on  a  red,  brown, 
grey,  yellow,  blue  or  white  coloured  soil,  respectively 
assumes  a  sweet,  acid,  saline,  pungent,  bitter  or  an 
astringent  taste.  But  the  theory  is  not  a  soTind 
one  in  as  much  as  the  comparative  predominance 
of  the  attributes  of  the  five  material  principles  in 
a  particular  soil  determines  the  taste  of  the  water 
contained  therein.  Water,  contained  or  collected  in 
a  soil  marked  by  a  predominance  of  the  attributes 
of  earth-principle,  acquires  an  acid  and  saline  taste. 
Water,  contained  in  a  soil  marked  by  a  predominance 
of  the  attributes  of  fire,  acquires  a  bitter  and  pungent 
taste.  Water,  contained  in  a  soil  marked  by  a  pre- 
dominance of  the  attributes  of  air,  acquires  an 
astringent  taste.  The  sky  is  devoid  of  all  tastes,  and 
hence,  the  water  contained  in  a  soil,  which  is  largely 
possessed  of  the  specific  attributes  of  that  element, 
is  characterised  by  the  absence  of  any  taste  whatever. 
Only  the  last  named  kind  should  be  used  for  drinking 
purposes  where  atmospheric  water  would  not  be 

Atmospheric  water  (Antariksha  Jalam),  in  its 
turn,  may  be  divided  into  four  classes  such  as, 
rain  water,  hail  water,  frost  water  or  dew,  and 
snow  water,  of  which  the  first  is  the  best  for  its 
lightness.  Rain  water  may  be  divided  into  two 
classes    such  as    the    Gangam  and    the    Samudram, 

^20  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [Chap.  XLV. 

according  as  the  rain- cloud  is  charged  with  vapours 
evaporated  from  the  bosom  of  the  Ganges  or  the  sea. 
Gangetic  rain  generally  descends  in  the  month  of 
Ashvina,  but  both  kinds  should  be  subjected  to  a 
test;  The  test  in  the  case  of  Gangam  rain  water 
consists  in  exposing  to  it,  for  a  Muharta  (forty-eight 
minutes),  a  quantity  of  undiscoloured  Shali  rice  in  a 
silver  bowl  which  is  not  extremely  softened  by  boiling. 
To  ascertain  whether  it  is  Gangetic  rain  water  or  not, 
Gangetic  rain  water  should  be  ascertained  from  the 
fact  of  the  aforesaid  Shali  rice  not  being  in  any  way 
affected  in  its  colour  ;  whereas  a  change  in  its 
colour  under  exposure,  as  well  as  the  fact  of  its 
being  formed  into  shredd}'  or  seedy  balls  mixed  with 
slimy  secretions,  would  indicate  that  the  rain  water  had 
been  formed  of  the  vapours  of  the  sea  ;  Samudram),  and 
should  be  regarded  as  extremely  unwholesome.  Rain 
water  from  a  cloud  entirely  formed  of  sea-vapours  and 
collected  in  the  month  of  Ashvina,  is  as  wholesome 
as  what  is  technically  known  as  Gangetic  rain  water, 
but  the  latter  is  the  best  of  the  several  kinds  of  atmos- 
pheric water. 

The  means  of  collecting  atmospheric  (rain)  water 
is  as  follows  : — A  broad  piece  of  clean  and  white 
linen  should  be  hung  out  in  the  open  air,  (with  a  stone 
placed  across  the  middle  to  dip  its  centre  of  gravity). 
The  rain  water  thus   collected   should  be   kept  in  a 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTKASTHANAM.  421 

vessel.  As  an  alternative,  rain  water  flowing  from 
the  waterspouts  of  a  house  should  be  collected 
in  a  clean  receptacle,  and  subsequently  poured  into 
a  golden,  silver  or  an  earthen  vessel.  The  water  thus 
collected  can  be  taken  at  all  times,  and  ma}^*  be 
substituted  by  any  other  terrestrial  water  in  the 
event  of  its  not  being  available  at  the  time. 

Terrestrial  water  is  generally  marked  by  a  pre- 
dominance of  the  specific  properties  of  the  sky,  and 
admits  of  being  grouped  (under  seven  sub-heads  such 
as,  well-water,  river-water,  lake- water,  tank- water, 
fountain  water,  spring  (Artesian)  water,  and  Chunti  (well 
unprovided  with  masonry  steps)  water.  Atmospheric 
or  spring  water  should  be  used  for  their  high  efficacy 
during  the  rains  (Varsha).  All  kinds  of  water  may  be 
used  in  Sharat  on  account  of  their  clearness.  Lake  or 
tank  water  should  be  used  in  Hemanta  ;  well  and  foun- 
tain water,  in  spring*  (Vasanta)  and  summer ;  and 
Chunti  water,  as  well  as  all  water  not  of  recent  origin, 
nor  due  to  an  excessive  down-pour  or  inundation, 
should  be  used  during  Prdvrit. 

Metrical  Texts  : — He  falls  an  easy  victim  to 
internal  and  external  diseases  (cutaneous  affections), 
etc.,   who   drinks  of  or  bathes     in   a   pool    of  water, 

*  The  "  rains  "  in  the  present  passage  should  be  interpreted  to  mean 
the  end  of  the  rainy  season  or  the  month  of  Ashvina,  and  not  the  month  of 
Bh^dra,  as  its  use  is  specially  forbidden  in  that  month. 

422  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.        [Chap.  XLV. 

which  is  full  of  poisonous  worms,  or  is  saturated 
with  urine  or  fecal  matter,  or  is  defiled  with  germs 
of  vermin  or  decomposed  animal  organisms,  or  is 
covered  over  with  the  growths  of  aquatic  plants,  or 
is  stiewn  over  with  withered  and  decomposed  leaves, 
or  which  in  any  way  is  rendered  poisonous  and 
contaminated,  as  well  as  he,  who  drinks  and  bathes 
in  the  freshly  collected  water  of  a  pool  or  a  reservoir 
during  the  rains. 

A  sheet  of  water,  which  is  entirely  covered  over 
with  the  growths  of  aquatic  plants  such  as,  moss, 
zoophytes,  water  weeds,  lotus  leaves,  etc.,  or  which 
looks  turbid  owing  to  oozy  mire,  or  is  not  exposed  to 
the  currents  of  fresh  air,  nor  illumined  by  the  sun  or 
the  moon,  and  is  possessed  of  a  definite  smell,  colour, 
and  taste,  should  be  regarded  as  contaminated  or 
defiled  (V3'apannam).  Water  may  be  affected  with  regard 
to  the  six  categories  of  touch,  sight,  taste,  smell, 
potenc}^,  and  chemical  transformation  or  re-action  (lit  : 
digestion).  Roughness,  sliminess,  warmth,  and  the 
production  of  a  shivering  sensation  (lit  :  tooth-edge) 
are  the  tactual  defects  (Sparsha- Dosha)  of  defiled  water, 
whereas  a  varied  colour,  and  the  presence  of  mire,  sand, 
and  shreds  of  moss  are  the  defects,  which  mark  its  look 
or  appearance  (Rupa-Dosha).  A  distinct  taste  marks  the 
water,  which  is  affected  as  regards  its  taste  (Rasa-Dosha), 
while    an      unpleasant    smell    is    the    characteristic 

Chap.  XLV.  J  SUTRASTHANAM.  423 

of  the  water,  which  is  aiEFected  as  regards  its 
smell  (Gandha-Dosha).  The  water,  which  being  taken 
gives  rise  to  thirst  and  to  a  sense  of  heaviness  of  the 
limbs,  colic,  and  a  fluent  coryza,  is  said  to  be  affected 
or  vitiated  in  its  potency  (Virya-Dosha ,  whereas 
that,  which  takes  a  long  time  to  be  digested,  or  is 
retained  in  the  stomach  for  an  inordinate  length  of 
time,  is  said  to  be  affected  as  regards  digestion  or 
chemical  transformation  (Vipaka-Dosha).  Atmospheric 
water  is  free  from  the  abovesaid  defects.  The  defiled 
or  contaminated  water  should  be  purified  by  boiling 
it,  or  by  heating  it  in  the  sun,  or  by  immersing  a 
red-hot  iron,  or  hot  sands  or  stones  in  the  same,  and 
its  smell  should  be  removed  by  perfuming  it  with  the 
Nageshvara,  Champaka,  Utpala,  or  Patala  flowers,  etc. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— Water  should  be  drunk 
perfumed  in  a  golden,  silver,  copper  or  an  earthen 
goblet,  or  in  a  bowl  made  of  bell  metal  or  of  precious 
stones.  Contaminated  water,  as  well  as  rain  water 
accumulated  in  an  improper  season,  should  never 
be  used  for  drinking  purposes,  inasmuch  as  it 
tends  to  derange  the  fundamental  humours  of  the 
body,  and  is  positively  injurious  to  the  human"  system. 
The  man,  who  drinks,  or  bathes  in,  any  contaminated 
water  without  previously  purifying  it  as  before  directed, 
incurs  the  risk  of  being  speedily  affected  with  oedema, 
jaundice,    cutaneous    affections,  indigestion,  dyspnaa, 

424  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XLV. 

cough,  catarrh,  colic  pains,  abdominal  glands,  ascites  or 
any  other  dreadful  disease. 

There  are  seven  modes  of  purif3'ing  water  such 
as,  b}-  immersing  the  Kataka  fruits,  the  gems  known 
as  the  Gomedha,  the  roots  of  lotus  plants,  or 
of  aquatic  mosses,  a  piece  of  linen,  or  a  pearl,  or  a  crystal 
in  a  pitcher  or  vessel  containing  it.  The  bottoms  of  a 
water  pitcher  are  made  of  five  different  shapes  such  as,  the 
Phalakam  (rectangular  wooden  stool),  the  Try^ashtakam 
(octagonal  wooden  tripod),  the  Manju  Valayam  (ring 
made  of  the  blades  of  Manju  grass),  the  Udaka-Manchika 
(wooden  scaffold  for  a  pitcher)  and  the  Shiky 
(pendent  bracket\  There  are  seven  ways  of  cooling 
water,  such  as  by  exposing  a  water  pitcher  to 
currents  of  air,  immersing  a  water  pitcher  (tied  round 
with  a  piece  of  wet  cloth)  neck-deep  in  a  vessel  full  of 
water,  churning  it  with  a  stick,  by  fanning,  or  siphoning 
it  by  means  of  a  piece  of  linen,  or  b}'  burying  a  water 
pitcher  underneath  a  bed  of  sand,  or  by  keeping  it 
suspended  in  a  pendent  bracket. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— The  water,  which  is  devoid 
of  all  smell  or  taste,  and  is  pure,  cool,  limpid, 
transparent,  refrigerent  and  pleasant,  should  be  regarded 
as  possessed  of  all  the  commendable  traits.  The  water 
of  rivers,  (which  drain  the  J^ngala  countries)  and 
flow  into  the  western  sea,  is  light,  and  therefore 
wholesome.      The     water     of    rivers,   which   traverse 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  .35 

the  marshy  (Anupa)  countries  and  empty  themselves  into 
the  eastern  sea,  is  heav}'  and  therefore  not  com- 
mended to  be  used.  The  water  of  rivers,  which  run 
into  the  southern  sea,  is  neither  too  heavy  nor  too  light 
owing  to  the  fact  of  its  traversing  countries  which 
have  a  Sadharana  character. 

The  water  of  rivers,  which  have  their  sources  in  the 
Sajhya  mountains,  begets  cutaneous  affections  ;  while  the 
water  of  those,  which  rise  from  the  Vindhya  mountains, 
produces  Kushtha  and  Jaundice.  The  water  of  rivers, 
which  rise  on  the  mount  Mala)'a,  begets  worms  and  in- 
testinal parasites,  while  the  water  of  those,  that 
have  their  sources  in  the  Mahendra  mountain,  begets 
elephantisis  and  abdominal  dropsy.  The  water  of  rivers, 
which  rise  on  the  Himalaya,  produces  angina  pectoris, 
(Hridroga),  anasarca,  diseases  of  the  head,  elephantisis, 
or  goitre  in  persons  using  it  for  the  purposes  of  life. 
Similarh%  the  water  of  rivers,  which  drain  the  eastern 
portion  of  the  country  of  Avanti,  or  flow  through  its 
western  part,  begets  piles  ;  while  the  water  of  those, 
which  rise  on  the  mount  of  Paripatra  is  wholesome, 
strength -giving,  and  conducive  to  health. 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — The  water  of  clear  and 
swift- running  rivers  is  light,  while  the  water  of  those, 
which  are  sluggish  in  their  course  and  are  covered 
with  mosses  and  other  aquatic  plants,  is  heavy.  The 
water  of  rivers,  which  run  through  Marudesha  (Modem 


426  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [  Chap.  XLV. 

Marwar)  is  possessed  of  a  bitter  saline  taste,  or  is 
endued  with  a  sweet  taste  blended  with  a  shade  of  the 
astringent,  and  is  easil}"  digestible  and  strength-giving 
in    its  properties. 

Every  kind  of  terrestrial  water  should  l)e  collected 
early  in  the  morning,  since  it  is  obtained  the  clearest 
and  coolest  at  that  part  of  the  day  ;  and  since  these 
two  attributes  by  far  form  the  most  commendable  traits 
in  water. 

lYIetrical  Texts  : — The  water,  which  gets  the 
light  of  the  sun  in  the  day  and  reflects  the  moon  in  the 
night,  and  which,  moreover,  neither  produces  Kapham 
nor  a  parched  condition  in  the  body,  should  be  regarded 
as  one  in  virtue  with  the  atmospheric  water.  Atmos- 
pheric water,  collected  in  a  good  and  proper  receptacle, 
has  the  virtue  of  subduing  the  three  deranged  humours 
of  the  body,  and  acts  as  a  pure  tonic  and  elixir, 
its  virtue  varying  with  the  excellence  of  the  vessel  in 
which  it  is  contained.  The  cool  and  limpid  washings 
of  the  gem  known  as  the  Chandrakanta  Mani  (the  moon- 
stone) should  be  regarded  as  possessed  of  the  mystic 
virtue  of  warding  off  the  attacks  of  monsters  and 
demons,  and  of  subduing  the  deranged  Pittam.  They  are 
beneficial  in  fever  and  in  cases  of  poisoning  marked  by 
a  burning  sensation  of  the  body,  etc. 

Cold  water  usually  proves  beneficial  in  epileptic  fits, 



in  hot  seasons,  and  in  a  burning  sensation  of  the  body 
due  to  the  deranged  action  of  the  Pittam,  in  blood- 
poisoning,  ha3moptysis,  abuse  of  wine  (Mad^tya), 
loss  of  consciousness,  fatigue  or  exhaustion,  vertigo, 
Tamaka  and  vomiting.  The  use  of  cold  \v*ater 
should  be  avoided  in  pain  at  the  sides  (pleurodynia  ?), 
in  catarrh,  in  rheumatism,  in  diseases  of  the 
larynx,  in  distention  of  the  stomach  by  gas  or  air,  in 
cases  of  undigested  faeces,  in  the  acute  stage  of  fever, 
and  just  after  the  exhibition  of  any  emetic  or  purgative 
remedy,  in  hic-cough,  and  immediately  following  upon 
an  oily  or  fatty  drink  (Snehapana).  River  water  pro- 
duces Vayu  and  a  parched  condition  in  the  body,  and 
is  light,  stomachic  and  (Lekhana)  liquefacient.  On  the 
contrary,  that  which  is  heavy,  comparatively  denser  in 
its  consistency,  sweet,  and  cooling,  brings  on  catarrh. 
The  water  of  a  lake  ( Sarasam)  quenches  thirst  and  is 
strength-giving,  light,  sweet  and  astringent.  The 
water  of  a  pond  or  a  tank  (Tadaga)  produces  V^yu, 
and  is  sweet,  astringent,  and  pungent  in  digestion.  The 
water  from  a  Vapi  (a  large  tank)  subdues  the  deranged 
Vayu  and  Kapham,  and  generates  Pittam,  and  is  pungent 
in  taste  and  is  found  to  be  charged  with  a  solution  of 
alkali.  The  water  from  a  Chunti  is  a  good  digestant, 
sweet,  and  parchifying,  though  it  does  not  give  rise  to 
Kapham  in  the  system.  The  water  from  a  well  (Kupa) 
generates  Pittam  and  is  appetising.  It  subdues  the 
deranged   Kapham,  and  is  light    and    alkaline.    The 

428  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         Chap.  XLV. 

water  of  a  fountain  is  light,  appetising,  and  pleasant, 
and  destroys  Kapham.  The  water  of  an  Artesian  spring 
is  sweet,  and  subdues  Pittam.  It  is  antacid  in  its 
digestive  reaction.  The  water  from  a  Vikira  is  light, 
appetising,  pungent,  and  is  charged  with  potash  (Khara). 
The  water  accumulated  in  an  open  field,  or  in  fallow 
land,  is  heavy  to  digest  and  tends  to  augment 
the  deranged  humours  of  the  body.  The  water  of 
a  Palvalam  is  possessed  of  the  same  virtue  as  the 
preceding  one,  with  the  exception  that  it  greatly 
aggravates  the  deranged  humours  of  the  body. 
Sea-water  has  a  fishy  smell,  and  a  saline  taste  ; 
it  aggravates  all  the  three  deranged  humours  of 
the  bod3\  The  water  of  an  Anupa  (marshy)  country  is 
the  source  of  man}'  an  evil.  It  is  extremely  condemnable, 
as  it  increases  the  slini}^  secretions  of  all  the  bodily 
organs,  etc.  The  water  of  a  J^ngala  country  is  free 
from  the  preceding  baneful  traits.  It  is  faultless,  acid 
in  its  digestive  reaction  (Vidahi),  is  possessed  of  all  com- 
mendable traits,  and  is  pleasing  and  refrigerant.  The 
water  accumulated  in  a  Sadharana  country  is  light, 
cool,  pleasant  and  appetising  (Dipanam). 

Warm  water  subdues  the  deranged  V^yu  and 
Kapham.  It  is  antifat,  appetising,  diuretic,  (Vasti- 
shodhak)  and  febrifuge.  It  proves  beneficial  in  cases  of 
cough  and  dyspnoea,  and  is  wholesome  at  all  times. 
Water  boiled   down   to  a  quarter  part   of  its  original 



quantity  and  then  cooled  down  with  all  its  froth  and 
ebullitions  removed^  is  light  and  limpid,  and  may  be 
safely  commended  to  the  use  of  all.  Water,  boiled 
overnight,  should  not  be  knowingly  given  to  a 
thirsty  person  inasmuch  as  it  has  acquired  an  'acid 
taste  and  will  augment  the  internal  Kapham  of  the 
body,  and  becomes  positively  injurious.  Water  boiled 
and  subsequently  cooled  down  should  be  given  to  a 
person  suffering  from  an 3^  of  the  diseases  due  to  an 
abuse  of  wine  or  to  Pittam,  or  from  a  complaint  brought 
about  through  the  concerted  action  of  the  three 
deranged  humours. 

The  water  found  inside  the  shell  of  a  cocoanut 
is  heavy,*  demulcent,  cool,  pleasant  and  appetising  etc. 
It  is  diuretic,  (Vasti-shodhaka)  spermatopoietic,  and 
subdues  Pittam  and  thirst.  The  use  of  water  boiled  and 
subsequently  cooled  down  is  recommended  in  dysentery, 
burning  of  the  skin,  haemoptysis,  diseases  due  to  the 
abuse  of  wine,  or  to  the  effects  of  any  imbibed  poison, 
as  well  as  in  thirst,  vomiting,  catarrh,  vertigo  and  loss  of 
consciousness.  Water  should  be  taken  as  little  as 
possible  by  a  person  suffering  from  any  of  the  following 
diseases  viz.,  loss  of  relish  for  food,  catarrh,  water-brash, 
oedema,  any  of  the  wasting  diseases,  impaired  digestion, 
abdominal  dropsy,  cutaneous  affection,  fever,  diseases 
affecting  the  eyes,  ulcer  and  diabetes  (Madhumeha,  etc), 

*  Light  according  to  Jejjada. 


THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [Chap.  XLV, 

The  lYIilk  Group  :— The  milk  of  a  cow,  she- 
goat,  she-camel,  ewe,  she-buffalo,  mare,  she-elephant, 
or  of  a  woman,  is  what  generally  comes  to  the  use  of 

The  milk  is  the  white  fluid  essence  of  drugs  and 
cereals,  which  enter  into  the  food  of  the  aforesaid  milk- 
giving  animals,  and  is  therefore  the  best  of  all  nutritive 
substances  (literally  life-giving).  It  is  heavy,  sweet, 
slimy,  cold,  glossy,  emollient,  laxative  and  mild. 

Hence  it  proves  congenial  to  all  sentient  animals. 
And  since  milk  is  kindred  in  its  nature  to-the  essential 
principles  of  life  and  so  very  congenial  to  the  panzoism 
of  all  created  animals,  its  use  may  be  unreservedly 
recommended  to  all,  and  is  not  forbidden  in  diseases 
due  to  the  deranged  action  of  (Vayu)  or  Pittam,  or  in 
ailments  affecting  the  mind  (Mansa),  or  the  vascular 
system  of  man.  Its  beneficial  and  curative  efticac}' 
ma}'  be  witnessed  in  cases  of  chronic  fever,  in  cough, 
dyspnoea,  phthisis  and  other  wasting  diseases,  in 
Gulma  (abdominal  glands),  insanity,  ascites,  epileptic 
fits,  in  vertigo,  in  delirium,  in  burning  sensation 
of  the  bod}^,  in  thirst,  in  diseases  affecting  the  heart 
and  the  bladder,  in  chlorosis  and  dysentery,  in  piles,  colic 
and     obstinate     constipation,    in    Grahani,   Pravahika, 

*  From  the  construction  of  the  present  sentence  in  the  original  texts,  we 
are  warranted  to  include  the  milk  of  a  doe,  or  of  a  she-mule,  or  of  a  cow- 
rhinoceros  in  the  list,  as  they  sometimes  prove  beneficial  for  external  appli- 

Chap.  XLV.l  SUTRASTHAiNAM.  431 

miscarriage  and  other  diseases  peculiar  to  the  female 
reproductive  organs,  and  in  ha^'moptysis.  It  is  a 
refrigerant  and  acts  as  a  bracing  beverage  after  physi- 
cal exercise.  It  is  a  sacred,  constructive,  tonic,  spermato- 
poietic,  rejuvenating  and  aphrodisiac.  It  expands*  the 
intellectual  capacities  of  a  man,  brings  about  the  adhe- 
sion of  broken  or  fractured  bones  (Sandhana)  rejuvenates 
used  and  exhausted  frames,  forms  an  excellent  enemata, 
increases  the  duration  of  life,  and  acts  as  a  vitaliser.  It  is 
an  emetic  and  a  purgative  remedy,  and  imparts  a  healthy 
rotundity  to  the  frame,  and  which  through  its  kindred  or 
similar  properties  augments  the  quality  of  bodily  albu- 
men (Ojah)  and  is  the  most  complete  and  wholesome 
diet  for  infants,  old  men  and  persons  suffering  from 
cachexia  witnessed  in  cases  of  ulcers  in  the  chest,  as 
well  as  for  persons  debilitated  from  insufficient  food, 
sexual  excesses  or  excessiAC,  physical  labour. 

Metrical  Texts  :— Cow-milk  is  demulcent, 
and  does  not  ■  set  up  or  increase  the  normal  quantity 
of  slimy  secretions  in  the  internal  channels  of  the  body. 
It  is  heavy  and  is  a  good  elixir,  and  proves  curative  in 
hajmoptysis.  It  is  cold,  and  sweet  both  in  taste  and 
chemical  reaction.  It  subdues  both  Vayu  and  Pittam 
and  is  accordinglj'  one  of  the  most  efficient  of  vitalising 

The  milk  of  a  she-goat  is  possessed  of  properties 
similar  to  those  of  a  cow,  and   is  specially  beneficial  to 

432  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.  [  Chap.  XLV. 

persons  suffering  from  phthisis.*  It  is  light,  astringent, 
appetising  (Dipana),  and  is  efficacious  in  dyspnoea,  cough 
and  haemoptysis  (Amlapitta— A.  T.).  The  milk  of  a 
she-goat  proves  curative  in  all  diseases  owing  to  the 
smiillness  of  her  limbs  and  her  agile  habits,  as  well  as 
for  the  fact  of  her  drinking  comparatively  a  less  quantity 
of  water  and  living  upon  bitter  and  pungent  herbs. 
The  milk  of  a  she-camel  is  parchifying,  heating,  hght, 
palatable  and  possessed  of  a  little  saline  taste.  It 
proves  curative  in  oedema,  abdominal  glands,  ascites, 
piles,  intestinal  worms  and  Kushtha,  and  is  a  good 
antitoxic  agent.  The  milk  of  a  ewe  is  sweet,  demulcent, 
heavy  and  proves  aggravating  in  disorders  of  Pittam 
and  Kapham.  It  forms  a  good  diet  in  Kevalavata 
and  in  cough  due  to  the  deranged  condition  of  the  bodily 

The  milk  of  a  she-buffalo  is  sweet  in  taste,  tends 
to  impair  digestion  and  increases  the  slimy  secretion 
of  the  organs.  It  is  heavy,  soporific,  cooling,  and 
contains  more  latty  matter  than  cow's  milk. 

The  milk  of  a  she-animal  with  unbifurcated  hoofs 
(Ekashapha)  such  as,  the  mare,  etc.,  is  tonic,  light, 
parchifying,  sweet  and  acid  in  taste,  leaving  a  saline 
after-taste,  and  proving  curative  in  cases  of  rheumatism 
restricted  to  the  extremities. 

*  It  has  been  recently  discovered  by   a   German    physician    thai   tuber- 
culosis bacilli  do  no  not  thrive  in  goat's- blood — Translator. 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  433 

The  milk  of  a  woman  is  cold  and  sweet,  leaving  an 
astringent  after-taste.  It  proves  beneficial  as  an  errhine 
and  acts  as  a  good  wash  in  eye  diseases.  It  is  whole- 
some, vitahsing,  light  and  appetising.  The  milk 
of  a  she- elephant  is  sweet  though  it  leaves  an  astringent 
after-taste.  It  is  spermatopoietic,  heavy,  demulcent, 
cooling  and  tonic.     It  invigorates   the  e5'esight. 

The  milk  of  a  she-animal,  milched  in  the  morning, 
is  heavy,  cold  and  takes  a  long  time  to  be  digested 
owing  to  her  entire  repose  (literally  want  of  physical 
exercise  or  locomotion)  during  the  night,  when  cooling 
attributes  preponderate.  Similarl)^,  the  milk  milched 
in  the  evening  is  found  to  be  possessed  of  refrigerant 
and  eye-invigorating  properties.  Moreover,  it  restores 
the  bodily  Vayu  to  its  normal  condition  owing 
to  the  physical  labour  undergone  by  the  animal 
in  the  day  time,  exposed  to  the  ra3's  of  the  sun 
and  the  currents  of  free  air.  Cold  or  unboiled 
milk  is  extremely  heavy,  and  serves  to  increase  the 
slimy  secretions  of  the  organs,  whereas  by  boiling 
it  is  freed  from  those  injurious  traits.  But  this 
rule  does  not  hold  good  in  the  case  of  woman's  milk, 
which  is  wholesome  in  its  natural  or  unboiled  state. 
Freshly  milched  warm  milk  should  be  regarded  as 
extremely  wholesome,  which,  being  cooled  down,  loses 
its  efficacious  virtues  and  becomes  unwholesome.  On 
the  contrary,  over-cooked  milk  is  heavy  and  fat-making 

434  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.         [  Chap.  XLV. 

(lit  : — imparting  stoutness  to  one's  body).  The  milk, 
which  emits  a  fetid  smell,  or  has  become  discoloured 
and  insipid,  or  has  acquired  an  acid  taste  and  looks 
shreddy  and  curdled,  or  tastes  saline,  should  be  regarded 
as  Unwholesome  and  injurious. 

The  Curd-group  :— There  are  three  kinds  of 
curd  such  as,  the  sweet,  the  acid,  and  the  extremely 
acid  curd.  Milk  curd  generally  leaves  an  astringent 
after-taste.  It  is  demulcent  and  heat-making  in  its 
potency,  as  well  as  spermatopoietic,  vitahsing  and 
auspicious.  It  proves  curative  in  Pinasa  (nasal  catarrh), 
intermittent  fever  (Vishama  Jvara,  dysentery,  non- 
relish  for  food,  difficult  urination,  and  general  cachexia. 

Metrical  Text  :— Sweet  curd  greatly  in- 
creases the  slimy  secretions  of  the  organs  and  the 
quantity  of  fat  and  Kapham  in  the  body.  Acid 
curd  deranges  the  Pittam  and  the  Kapham^,  while 
the  extremely  acid  curd  vitiates  the  blood.  Curd, 
which  has  been  not  perfectly  curdled  (Mandajatam) 
is  acid  in  its  (digestive)  chemical  reaction,  acts  as 
an  inordinately  strong  purgative  and  diuretic  agent, 
and  deranges  the  three  fundamental  humours  of 
the  body. 

Curdled  cow's  milk  is  demulcent,  sweet  in  digestion, 
appetising,  srength- increasing  and  acrid.  It  subdues  the 
bodily  Vayu  and  imparts  a  relish  to  one's  food. 
Curd   prepared  with   the   milk  of  a   she-goat   is  light, 

Chap.  XLV.]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  4^5 

and  subdues  the  deranged  Pittam  and  Kapham.  It 
proves  curative  in  Vata  and  wasting  diseases,  and 
is  a  good  appetiser.  Its  beneficial  effect  is  witnessed 
in  cases  of  piles,  dyspncea  and  cough.  Curd,  pre- 
pared with  the  milk  of  a  she-bufFalo,  is  sweel  in 
digestion,  and  spermtopoietic.  It  pacifies  the  deranged 
Vayu  and  Pittam,  and  serves  to  augment  the  normal 
quantity  of  bodih'  Kapham.  It  is  specifically  a 
demulcent  substance.  Curd  prepared  with  the  milk 
of  a  she-camel  is  pungent  in  digestion.  It  is  found 
to  be  charged  with  alkali,  and  is  heavy  and  a  purgative. 
A  continued  use  of  curdled  camel's  milk  proves 
curative  in  Vata,  piles,  cutaneous  affections  (Kushtha), 
worms  in  the  intestines,  and  abdomimal  dropsy. 
Curd  prepared  with  the  milk  of  a  ewe  proves  aggra- 
vating in  derangements  of  the  Vayu  and  Kapham, 
as  well  as  in  cases  of  piles.  It  is  sweet  in  taste  and 
its  chemical  reaction  increases  the  slimy  secretions 
of  the  organs,  and  tends  to  derange  the  bodily  humours. 
Curd,  prepared  with  the  milk  of  a  mare,  is  appe- 
tising. It  proves  injurious  to  the  eyes,  and  tends 
to  augment  the  bodily  Vayu.  It  is  pajchifying  and  hot 
in  its  potenc}^  and  is  astringent  in  taste.  It  diminishes 
the  secretions  of  stool  and  urine.  Curd  prepared 
with  the  milk  of  a  womin  is  demulcent,  sweet  in 
digestion,  tonic,  pleasant,  heavy,  and  specially  beneficial 
to  the  eyes.  It  subdues  the  deranged  humours  and 
is  specially   efficacious  in   its  virtues,  and  is  the  best 

4-6  THE  SUvSHRUTA  SAMHITA,  fChap.  XLV. 

of  all  kinds  of  curd,  and  of  all  emollient  remedies 
(Santarpanam).  Curd  prepared  with  the  milk  of  a 
she-elephant,  is  light  in  digestion,  subdues  Kapham, 
and  is  heat-making  in  its  potency.  It  impairs  digestion, 
leaves  an  astringent  after-taste  and  increases  the  quan- 
tity of  fecal  matter.  Of  all  the  preceding  kinds  of 
curd,  the  one  prepared  with  cow's  milk  should  be 
regarded  as  the  best  in  virtue  and  quality.  This  curd 
well  filtered  through  a  piece  of  clean  linen,  imparts  a 
relish  to  the  food,  whereas  the  curd,  which  had  been 
prepared  with  boiled  milk,  should  be  deemed  the 
most  efficacious.  The  cloth-filtered  curd  subdues 
the  deranged  Va^ai.  It  is  demulcent  and  restorative, 
though  it  tends  to  increase  the  Kapham  without  bring- 
ing about  a  similar  augmentation  of  the  Pittam. 
The  curd  prepared  with  boiled  milk  subdues  the 
deranged  V^yu  and  Pittam,  imparts  a  relish  to  the  food, 
and  acts  as  a  good  stomachic  remedy.  It  increases  the 
strength  and  the  root  principle  of  life.  The  cream 
of  curd  is  heavy  and  spermatopoietic.  It  subdues  the 
deranged  Vayu,  impairs  digestion  and  is  phlegma- 
gogic  and  aphrodisiac.  Curd  made  without  cream  is 
parchifying,  astringent  and  arrests  stool  and  urine 
(Vistambhi),  It  increases  the  bodily  Vayu.  It  is  appe- 
tising and  is  comparatively  lighter,  a  little  astringent  in 
taste,  and  imparts  a  rehsh  to  food. 

The  use  of  curd  is  generally  prohibited  in  (Vasanta) 



spring,  (Grishma)  summer,  and  (Sharat)  autumn,  whereas 
it  is  recommended  during  the  rains  (Varsha)  and  in  the 
forepart  of  winter  (Hemanta),  and  in  the  cold  season 
proper  (Shishira).  The  residuar}^  sediment  of  curd 
(Mastu)  is  frigorific  and  refrigerant,  light  and  purifying 
to  the  internal  channels  of  the  body.  It  has  a  sweet 
and  astringent  taste  and  is  anti-aphrodisiac.  It 
destroys  the  deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham,  and  is 
pleasant  and  palatable.  It  acts  as  a  speedy  purga- 
tive, and  imparts  strength  to  the  system  and  relish 
to  the  food.  In  this  group  have  been  described  the 
virtues  of  the  seven  kinds  of  curd  such  as,  the  sweet, 
the  acid,  the  extremely  acid,  the  curd  of  incomplete 
curdling,  the  curd  of  boiled  milk,  curd  cream,  and 
the  creamless  curd,  as  well  as  the  residuary  sediment 

The  Takra  Group  :— The  Takra  (whey)  is 
sweet  and  acid  in  taste,  and  leaves  an  astringent  after- 
taste. It  is  light,  appetising  and  heat-making  in  its 
potency,  and  has  a  parchifying  effect  upon  the  organism. 
Its  curative  efficacy  is  witnessed  in  cases  of  chemical  or 
combinative  poisoning,  oedema,  dysentery,  diarrhoea, 
jaundice,  piles,  enlarged  spleen,  abdominal  glands,  non- 
relish  for  food,  intermittent  fever,  thirst,  vomiting,  water- 
brash,  colic  and  obesity.  It  subdues  the  deranged  V^yu 
and  Kapham,  and  is  non-aphrodisiac.  It  is  sweet  in 
its  digestive    reaction    and   pleasant  to  the  system.    It 

438  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAAIHITA'.  [  Chap.  XLV. 

proves  curative  in  difficult  urination,  and  in  diseases  due 
to  the  abuse  of  emollient  medicinal  remedies  and 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — A  compound  made  of  equal 
parts  of  curd  and  water  and  subsequenth'  churned  so  as 
to  have  the  contained  cream  or  butter  completely 
skimmed  off,  and  which  is  neither  too  thick  nor  too 
thin,  is  called  Takram.  It  possesses  a  taste  blended 
of  the  sweet,  acid  and  astringent.  Waterless  curd, 
churned  with  the  entire  butter  or  creamy  sub- 
stance inherent  in  it,  is  called  Gholam  {a  kind 
of  whey).  The  use  of  Takram  is  prohibited  in  the 
hot  season,  nor  should  "it  be  given  to  a  weak  person,  nor 
to  one  suffering  from  an  ulcer,  or  laid  up  with  an  attack 
of  hccmoptysis,  or  to  one  suffering  from  epileptic  fits, 
vertigo  (Bhrama),  or  from  a  burning  sensation  in  the 
body.  The  use  of  Takram  is  recommended  during  the 
cold  months  of  the  3'ear,  as  well  as  to  persons  suffering 
from  diseases  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Kapham, 
or  from  suppression  of  stool  or  urine,  etc.,  or  from 
the  effects  of  the  deranged  Vayu. 

Again  sweetened  Takram  soothes  the  deranged 
Pittam  and  aggravates  the  Kapham.  Acid  Takram 
subdues  the  Vayu  and  produces  Pittam. 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — In  a  case  of  deranged  or 
disordered  V^yu,  acid  Takram  should  be  drunk  mixed 
with  rock-salt,  and  with  sugar  in  disorders  of  the  Pittam, 



while  in  a  case  of  deranged  Kapliam  it  should  be  mixed 
with  Yavakshara  and  the  powders  of  the  drugs  known 
as  Vyosha.  TakrakurcMka  (Inspissated  milk)  is  astrin- 
gent (^Gr^hi),  parchifying  and  hard  to  digest.  It  produces 
Vayu.  The  Manda  or  the  residuary  sediment  of  a«com- 
pound  made  of  the  aforesaid  Kurchika  and  Dadhi 
Takram  fcurd-whey)  is  lighter  than  whey.  Kilata*  is 
heavy,  hypnotic,  spermatopoietic  and  subdues  V^yu. 
Similarly,  Morathat  and  Piyusha?  are  sweet  to  the 
taste  and  restorative  and  aphrodisiac  in  their  properties. 

Fresh  butter  (Navanita'i  is  an  albuminous  substance, 
and  is  light,  sweet,  cooling,  demulcent,  pleasant,  appe- 
tising, slightly  acid  and  astringent.  It  subdues  the 
deranged  Vayu  and  Pittam.  It  is  spermatopoietic, 
antacid  in  its  reaction,  and  conduces  to  the  improve- 
ment of  one's  memory  and  intellectual  capacities. 
It  proves  beneficial  in  cases  of  consumption,  cough, 
d3'spnoea,  ulcer,  piles  and  fecial  paralysis. 

Butter  (of  a  few  days  standing)  is  heav)\  It 
increases  the  quantity  of  fat  and  Kapham,  and  imparts 
strength  and  rotundity  to  the  body,  and  proves  especially 
wholesome  to  children.  Butter  made  of  thickened 
milk  is  the  best  of  all  oily  or  (Kshira)  substances.     It 

*  Boiled  milk  curdled  and  subsequently  heated  and  made  into  a  paste  is 
called  KiMta. 

t  The  milk  of  a  cow  recently  delivered  of  a  calf  is  called  I'iyusha 
till  the  seventh  day  after  its  birth,  while,  it  is  subsequently  called  JNIoratha 
till  it  is  perfectly  purified  and  becomes  fit  for  the  use  of  man. 

440  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.      [  Chap.  XLV. 

is  sweet,  cooling  and  astringent  ;  and  imparts  softness 
to  the  body,  improves  the  eye-sight,  and  proves  curative 
in  haemoptysis  and  eye-diseases. 

Cream  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu.  It  is 
a  pleasing  (Tarpani )  tonic,  is  spermatopoietic,  demulcent, 
palatable,  heavy  and  sweet  in  taste  and  digestion, 
and  proves  remedial  to  hsemoptj'^sis. 

Metrical  Texts  : — The  virtues  and  properties 
of  these  modifications  of  curdled  cow-milk  have 
been  described  in  detail  since  it  is  the  best  of  all  kinds 
of  milk  described  before.  The  virtues  and  properties 
of  similar  preparations  made  from  the  milk  of  other 
animals  should  be  regarded  as  identical  with  those 
of  the  milk  of  the  animal  out  of  which  they  have  been 

Clarified  Butter  (Ghritam)  :~Ghritam 

or  clarified  butter  is  Saumj^'a  or  cooling  in  its  essence 
and  potency,  and  is  mild  and  sweet.  It  slightly  in- 
creases the  slimy  secretions  of  the  organs,  and  acts  as  a 
lubricating  moistener,  proving  efficacious  in  Ud^varta 
insanity,  epilepsy,  colic,  fever  (chronic)  and  distention 
of  the  abdomen  from  the  suppression  of  stool  and 
urine  (Anaha).  It  is  appetising  and  subdues  the  Vayu 
and  the  Pittam.  It  improves  memory,  intelligence, 
complexion,  voice,  personal  beauty,  amiabihty  of  features 
and  the  principle  of  strength  ;albumen,Ojas)  in  the  body. 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  441 

It  is  vitalising,  rejuvenating,  spermatopoietic  and  heavy. 
It  improves  the  eyesight,  increases  the  quantity  of  bodily 
Kapham  and  the  duration  of  life.  It  is  sacred  and  is 
regarded  as  an  appeaser  of  adverse  fate.  It  eliminates 
poison  from  the  body  and  wards  off  the  invasions  of 
monsters  and  demons. 

IVIctrical  Texts :— Clarified  butter  made 
of  cow  milk  is  sweet  in  digestion,  and  cool  in 
its  potency.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and 
Pittam,  and  serves  to  eliminate  poison  from  the 
system.  It  improves  the  eyesight  and  possesses 
excellent  tonic  and  invigorating  properties.  Cow- 
butter,  in  its  clarified  state,  is  the  best  of  all  kinds 
of  butter.  Clarified  butter  made  of  the  milk  of  a 
she-goat  is  appetising  (Dipanam),  eye-invigorating  and 
strength-increasing.  It  proves  a  wholesome  diet  in 
cases  of  cough,  dyspnoea  and  consumption  (any  wasting 
disease),  and  is  h'ght  in  digestion.  Clarified  butter 
prepared  with  the  milk  of  a  she-buffalo  is  sweet,  heav)"- 
in  digestion,  and  proves  remedial  in  haemoptysis.  It  is 
coohng  and  increases  the  quantity  of  bodily  Kapham, 
and  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and  Pittam.  Clarified 
butter  made  with  the  milk  of  a  she-camel  is  anti-toxic, 
appetising  and  pungent  in  digestion.  It  subdues 
the  deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham,  and  proves  curative 
in  oedema,  worms  in  the  intestines,  cutaneous 
affections,  abdominal  glands,  and  ascites.  Clarified 
butter  made  with    the  milk  of    a  ewe  is  light    in 


442  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.       [Chap.  XLV. 

digestion.  It  does  not  enrage  Pittam,  and  proA'es 
beneficial  in  cases  of  rigour,  phthisis  (Shosha)  and  in 
diseases  due  to  the  action  of  the  deranged  Vayu 
and  Kapham,  as  well  as  in  those  which  affect  the 
female  organs  of  generation.  Clarified  butter  made 
with  the  milk  of  a  mare  (lit  : — any  female  mammal 
with  unbifurcated  hoops)  is  light  in  digestion,  heat- 
making  in  its  potency,  and  astringent  in  taste.  It  is 
appetising,  anuretic,  and  subdues  the  action  of  the 
deranged  Kapham. 

Clarified  butter  made  with  the  milk  of  a  woman 
is  possessed  of  e3'e-invigorating  virtues,  and  should 
be  regarded  as  the  protot5'pe  of  divine  ambrosia 
on  earth.  It  is  light  (in  digestion),  anti-toxic,  stomachic, 
and  constructive.  Clarified  butter  prepared  with 
the  milk  of  a  she-elephant  is  astringent  in  taste, 
and  brings  about  a  suppression  of  stool  and  urine. 
It  is  bitter,  light,  and  stomachic  (Agnikara),  and  proves 
curative  in  cutaneous  affections  (Kushtha),  poisoning, 
worms  in  the  intestines,  and  derangements  of  the 

Butter  churned  out  of  thickened  milk  and  clarified 
(Kshira  Ghritam)  is  astringent,  and  proves  beneficial  in 
eye-diseases,  hcemoptysis,  epileptic  fits,  and  vertigo. 

The  condensed  upper  stratum  of  clarified  butter 
( Jhrita-manda)  acts  as  a  laxative,  cures  aching 
pain     in     the     vagina,  ears,     eyes,     or     in  the   head, 

Chap.  XLV.]  SUTRASTHA'NAM.  ^^^ 

and  is  recommended  to  be  used  as  an  errhine,  an  enema 
or  as  eye-drops. 

Old  clarified  butter  is  laxative  and  pungent  in 
digestion.  It  subdues  the  three  deranged  bodily 
humours,  and  proves  curative  in  epileptic  fits,  obesity, 
insanity,  abdominal  dropsy,  fever,  chemical  poison- 
ing, oedema,  hysteria,  and  in  aching  pain  in  the 
vagina,  ears,  eyes  or  head.  It  is  appetising  and  is 
recommended  to  be  used  as  eye-drops  and  enema, 
and  for  sternutatory  purposes. 

Authoritative  verses  on  the  sub- 
ject:—Old  or  matured  clarified  butter  proves 
curative  ni  Timira  (Gutta  Serena),  dyspnoea, 
catarrh,  fever,  cough,  epileptic  fits,  and  Kushtam,  in 
cases  of  poisoning,  mental  aberration,  and  hysteria 
ascribed  to  the  influence  of  malignant  planets. 
Clarified  butter  matured  from  eleven  to  a  hundred 
years  is  called  the  Kumbha  Gritam  (Pitcher  clarified 
butter),  while  that,  which  is  older  than  the  one  of 
the  preceding  kind,  is  called  the  Maha  GLritam 
(the  great  clarified  butter).  Kumbha  Ghritam  is 
said  to  be  possessed  of  the  mystic  potency  of 
warding  off' the  invasions  of  monsters,  while  the  Maha 
Ghritam  is  highly  efficacious,  sacred,  and  specifically 
curative  in  the  disease  known  as  Timira.  It  acts  as  a 
prophylactic  against  the  malignant  influences  of  all 
evil  spirits  and  baneful  planets,  and  should   be  taken 

^^^  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAAIHITA.        L  Chap.  XLV. 

by  men  in  whom  V^yu  predominates.  It  subdues  the 
deranged  Kapham,  and  improves  the  strength  and 

The  Oil  Group  :— Oils,  which  belong  to  the 
category  of  fiery  (Agneya)  substances,  are  hot  or  heat- 
making  in  their  potencies,  irritating,  and  sweet  in  taste 
and  digestion,  and  are  constructive  (Vrinhanam),  and 
pleasant.  They  expand  through  the  entire  system  im- 
mediately after  being  drunk  or  rubbed  (Vyavayi),  and  are 
subtile,  clear,  heavy,  and  laxative  (Sara).  They  tend  to 
expand  the  bone-joints  and  contribute  to  their  free  and 
easy  movements  (Vik^si).  They  act  as  spermatopoietics 
(Vrishyam),  and  purify  the  skin,  improve  the  memory, 
and  impart  softness  to  the  skin  and  complexion.  They 
are  flesh-making  and  strength-imparting,  and  increase 
the  firmness  of  the  body.  They  are  possessed  of  eye- 
invigorating  virtues,  and  are  anuretic,  liquefacient 
(Lekhana),  bitter  and  stomachic  (P^chana).  They  cure 
V^yu  and  Kapham.  They  are  vermifuge  and  pro- 
duce a  slight  Pittam,  leaving  an  astringent  after-taste. 
They  relieve  aching  pain  in  the  head,  ears,  and  the 
female  organs  of  generation  (Yoni),  act  as  purifying 
agents  in  respect  of  the  uterus,  and  prove  curative  in 

The  use  of  sesamum  oil  is  recommended  in  cases  of 
cut,  cleft,  punctured,  severed,  lacerated,  blistered, 
thrashed  or  contused  wounds  and  ulcers,  and   in   burns 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  445 

and  scalds  whether  due  to  the  application  of  heat 
or  any  vesicant  alkaline  solution,  as  well  as  in  bites 
of  wild  beasts  and*  birds,  etc.,  and  act  beneficially  in 
baths,  unguents  and  lubrications. 

Metrical  Texts  :— Oil  should  be  used  in 
snuffing,  and  as  enematas  (Vasti),  eye-drops,  ear-drops, 
as  well  as  in  seasoning  soups,  curries  and  cordials,  etc. 
It  pacifies  the  bodily  Vayu. 

Castor  Oil  is  sweet,  hot  in  its  potency \  irritating  and 
appetising.  It  leaves  a  pungent  astringent  after-taste, 
and  is  subtile.  It  acts  as  a  cleansing  agent  in  respect  of 
the  internal  channels  of  the  body,  and  is  wholesome 
to  the  skin.  It  is  spermatopoietic,  sweet  in  digestion 
(Vipaka),  and  rejuvenating.  It  purifies  the  semen, 
vagina,  and  removes  vaginal  and  uterine  disorders,  and 
contributes  to  the  preservation  of  sound  health.  It 
improves  the  memory,  complexion  and  intellect  (of  its 
user),  subdues  the  bodily  Vayu  and  Kapham,  and 
cleanses  the  system  from  all  injurious  principles  by 
inducing  purging. 

Oils  obtained  from  the  seeds  of  Nimba,  Atasi,  Mulaka, 
Jimutaka,  Vrikshaka,  Kritavedhana,  Arka,  Kampillaka, 
Hastikarna,  Prilhvika,  Pilu,  Karanja,  Ingudi,  Shigru, 
Sarsapa,  Suvarchala,  Vidanga  or  of  Jyotishmati  seeds, 
are  irritating,  light,  non -heat-making  in  their  potency, 
and  pungent  in  taste  and  digestion.  They  act  as  a  good 
laxative,  and   prove  curative    in    diseases    due    to    the 

446  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap.  XLV. 

deranged   V.-Cyu,  or  Kapham,  as    well   as    in    cases    of 
Kushtha,  Prameha,  head  disease,  and  intestinal  parasites. 

IVIetrical  Texts  :— Ksliaiima  (Linseed)  oil  is 
sweet.  It  subdues  the  bodily  V^yu  and  is  strength- 
giving,  and  pungent  in  digestion.  Devoid  of  an}'  eye- 
invigorating  properties,  it  is  hot  tliough  demulcent,  and 
heavy.      It  increases  the  Pittam. 

Mustard  oil  is  light,  and  acts  as  a  vermifuge.  It 
proves  curative  in  itch  and  cutaneous  affections, 
reduces  V^yu,  Kapham  and  fat,  and  is  pungent,  appetising 
and  Lekhana  (liquefacient).  Oil  obtained  from  the  seeds 
of  Ingudi  is  a  vermifuge,  and  is  light,  and  slightly  bitter 
in  taste.  It  proves  curative  in  Kushtha  and  parasitic 
disorders,  and  affects  the  strength,  semen  and  the 
eyesight  of  its  user.  The  oil  obtained  from  Kushnmbha 
flowers  is  pungent  in  digestion  and  leads  to  the  derange- 
ment of  all  the  bodily  humours.  It  is  irritating,  and  acid 
in  its  reaction  (Vidahi).  It  is  devoid  of  any  eye-cleans- 
ing property  and  brings  on  haemoptysis. 

The  Oils  obtained  from  the  Kirata-tiktaka,  Atimuktaka, 
Vibhitaka,  N^rikela,  Kola,  Akshoda,  Jivanti,  Piydla, 
Karvudara,  Surjavalli,  Trapusa,  Erv^ruka,  Karkaru, 
and  Kushm^nda  seeds,  etc.  are  sweet  in  taste,  potency 
and  digestion,  and  tend  to  pacify  the  deranged  V4yu  and 
Pittam.  Cooling  in  their  potency,  they  increase  the  slimy 
secretions  of  the  organs,  impair  digestion,  and  help  the 
copious  evacuation  of  stool  and  urine. 



The  Oils  of  the  Madhuka  (Maula),  Kishmarya,  and 
Palasha  seeds  are  sweet  and   astringent.     They  pacif}^ 
the  deranged  Kaph^m    and  Pittam.      The  oils    of    the 
Tuvaraka   and    Bhallataka   are    heat-making,  sweet 
and  astringent,  and  leave  a  bitter  after-taste.  The}^  ptove 
curative  in  diseases  due  to  the  action  of  deranged  V^Cyu 
and  Kapham,  as   well   as  in    obesity,  Meha,  cutaneous 
affections,  and  intestinal  worms,  and  cleanse  the  system 
both    b}'  their  emetic  and  purgative   actions.     The  Oils 
obtained  from  the  piths  (Sara    of  such  trees  as,  Sarala, 
Devadaru,  Gandira,  Shiushapa  and  Aguru,  are  bitter, 
pungent    and    astringent    in    their   tastes,    and  act   as 
purifying  agents  in  respect  of  bad  ulcers.     The}'  prove 
curative  in  skin  diseases  and  destroy  the  deranged  Va)^!, 
Kapham,  and  intestinal  worms.     The  Oils  obtained  from 
the   seeds   of   Tumvi,    Koshamra,   Danti,    Dravanti, 
Shyama,  Saptala,  Nilika,  Kampiilaka,  and  Siiankhini, 
are  bitter,  pungent  and  astringent  in  their  tastes.     They 
serve  to   cleanse   the   system    from   all   impurities   and 
baneful   principles   through   their   purgative  properties. 
They  act  as   purifying   agents   in  respect  of  malignant 
ulcers,    and   prove   curative   in    diseases    due     to     the 
deranged  V^yu  and  Kapham,  as  well  as  in  skin-diseases 
(Kushtha),   and    parasitic    complaints.     Yavatikata-oil 
tends  to   subdue  all  the   deranged   humours,    is  slightly 
bitter,  and  acts  as  a  good  elixir.     It   is   appetising,  acid, 
and  liquefacient.     It  is  holy  and  wholesome  (Pathyam), 
and  serves   to   improve   the  memory  of  its  user.     The 

448  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [  Chap.  xLv. 

Oil  From  Ekaishika  seeds  is  sweet,  and  extremely 
cooling.  It  subdues  the  Pittam,  increases  the  Kapham 
and  aggravates  the  V^yu.  The  Oil  of  the  seeds  of 
mango  stones  is  slightly  bitter  in  taste,  and  extremely 
aromatic.  It  subdues  the  Va}^!  and  Kapham.  It  is 
parchifying,  sweet  and  astringent,  palatable,  and  not 
highly  Pittam-making. 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — The  therapeutic  properties  of 
the  oils  from  the  seeds  of  fruits,  which  have  not  been 
specifically  described  in  the  present  chapter,  should  be 
considered  as  identical  with  those  of  the  fruits  or 
seeds  of  which  they  have  been  so  pressed  out.  All  the 
vegetable  oils  (Sneha)  described  above  should  be 
regarded  as  possessed  of  the  virtue  of  subduing  the 
bodily  Vayu,  and  they  possess  some  of  the  properties, 
which  specifically  belong  to  Besainum  oil.  Sesamum 
oil  is  the  most  commendable  of  all  oils  inasmuch 
as  the  very  word,  which  signifies  oil  (Tailam),  is 
etymologically  derived  from  Tilam  (sesamum). 

The  oil,  myosin  (Vasd),  fat,  marrow,  and  Ghritam 
obtained  from  animals,  which  live  in  villages  (Gramya), 
or  frequent  the  marshy  swamps  (Anupa),  or  are  aquatic 
(Audoka)  in  their  habits,  are  heavy,  heat- making  in  their 
potency,  and  sweet  in  taste.  They  subdue  the  bodily 
Vayu,  while  those  obtained  from  J^ngala  (such  as 
deer,  etc.)  or  carnivorous  animals,  or  from  those 
possessed  of  unbifurcated  hoofs,  are  light,  cool    in   their 



potenc}',  astringent  in  taste,  and  prove  curative  in  cases 
of  haemoptysis.  The  fat,  marrow,  etc.  of  animals  of  the 
Pratuda  and  Vishkira  species  (doves,  pigeons^  etc.) 
reduce  the  bodily  Kapham.  Of  clarified  butter,  oil, 
myosin  (Vasa),  fat  and  marrow  of  animals  eacli  is 
heavier  in  digestion,  and  possesses  a  greater  power  of 
subduing  the  bodily  Vayu  than  the  one  immediately 
preceding  it  in  the  order  of  enumeration. 

The  Honey  Group  : — Honey  is  sweet,  and 
leaves  an  astringent  after-taste.  It  is  parchifying,  cold, 
stomachic,  cosmetic,  tonic,  light,  softening,  palatable, 
liquefacient  (Lekhanan),  and  fermenting  (Sandhanam). 
It  acts  as  a  purifying  and  healing  agent  in  respect  of 
ulcers  and  eyes,  is  aphrodisiac,  astringent,  and  tends  to 
permeate  all  the  minutest  channels  and  capillaries  of  the 
organism.  It  is  antifat  and  pacifies  the  deranged 
Pittam  and  Kapham,  and  proves  curative  in  hiccough, 
Meha,  dyspnoea,  cougli,  dysentery,  vomiting  and  thirst. 
It  is  a  vermifuge,  antitoxic  and  demulcent,  and 
influences  the  subduing  of  the  three  deranged  humours. 
Owing  to  its  lightness  it  subdues  the  deranged  Kapham, 
and  proves  a  good  antidote  to  the  deranged  Vayu 
and  Pittam  owing  to  its  sliminess,  sweetness  and 
astringent  taste. 

IVIetrical  Texts  : — Eight  different  kinds  of 
honey  are  commonly  used  such  as,  the  Pauttikam, 
Bhr^maram,      Kshaudram,      Mdkshikam,      Chh^tram, 


450  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [Chap.  XLV. 

Argh3'am,  Auddalakam  and  Dalam.*  Of  these  the 
honey  obtained  from  the  hives  of  bees,  known  as  the 
Puttikas,  is  hot  and  parchifying  owing  to  their  habit 
of  sucking  the  juice  or  sap  of  flowers  and  plants  without 
eliminating  therefrom  other  foreign  or  poisonous  matter, 
that  might  have  become  naturally  or  accidentally 
mixed  with  it.  This  kind  of  honey  is  intoxicating  and 
acid  in  its  re-action,  and  tends  to  aggravate  the  Vayu, 
blood  and  Pittam.  It  acts  as  a  liquefacient  or  dis- 
cutient  agent.  Honey,  known  as  the  Bhramaram,  is 
extremely  heavy  owing  to  its  extremely  sweet  taste 
and  slimy  character,  while  the  one  known  as  the 
Kshaudram  is  extremely  cool,  light  and  liquefacient. 
Honey  known  as  the  Makshikain  is  lighter,  dryer  and 
more  efficacious  than  the  honey  of  the  preceding  class 
(Kshaudram),  and  proves  specially  benencial  in  cases 
of  dyspnoea,  etc.     Honey,  known   as  the  Chhatram,  is 

*  (l)  The  kind    of  honey    obtained    from    hives   of  large,  yellow  bee*, 
is  called  the  Pauttikam. 

(2)  The  kind  of  honey    obtained   from    hives    of  bees  of  the  Bhramara 
species  is  called  Bhramaram. 

(3)  The  kind  of  honey  ol^tained  from  hives  of  small,  tawny  brown  bees 
is  called  the  Kshaudram. 

(4)  The  kind  of  honey  obtained  from  the  hives  of  large,  brown    bees  of 
the  jNIakshik^  species  is  called  Makshikam, 

(5)  The  kind  of  honey  obtained  from  the  umbrella  shaped   hives  of  bees 
of  the  Chhatra  species  is  called  Chhdtram. 

(6)  The  honey  obtained   from    the   hives   of  thin-mouthed  bees   of  the 
Argha  species  often  found  in  ant-hills  is  called  Arghyam. 

(7)  The  kind  of  honey  obtained  from  the  hives  of   small    brown  bees    of 
the  Uddiilakam  species  is  called  Auddalakam. 

(8)  The  kind  of  honey  found  accumulated  in    leaves    of  honey-bearing 
plants  is  called  D^lam. 



sweet  in  digestion,  heav}",  cooling  and  slimy.  It  acts 
as  a  vermifuge,  proves  curative  in  haemoptysis,  psoriasis 
and  Meha,  and  is*  possessed  of  a  high  efficacy.  Honey 
known  as  the  Arghyam  is  possessed  of  properties 
highly  beneficial  to  the  eye.  It  is  a  gi^eater  subduer  of 
Pittam  and  Kapham  than  any  other  kind  of  honey, 
is  astringent  in  taste,  and  pungent  in  digestion.  It 
is  a  bitter  tonic  and  does  not  generate  Vayu  in 
the  system.  Honey  known  as  the  Auddalakam 
improves  the  voice  and  relish  for  food.  It  is  antitoxic,  and 
proves  curative  in  cutaneous  affections.  It  is  heat-mak- 
ing in  its  potency,  and  acid  and  astringent  in  taste. 
It  generates  Pittam,  and  is  pungent  in  digestion. 
Honey,  known  as  the  D^lam,  is  parchifying  and  proves 
beneficial  in  cases  of  vomiting  and  Meha.  Fresh 
honey  is  constructive  and  aphrodisiac,  acts  as  a  mild 
laxative,  and  to  a  small  extent  subdues  the  deranged 
Kapham.  Old  honey  is  astringent  and  liquefacient, 
and  reduces  fat  and  obesity.  Honey,  that  has 
attained  a  thickened  or  condensed  state  in  course 
of  time  (Pakka  Madhu),  tends  to  subdue  the  three 
deranged  humours,  while  thin  and  im matured  honey 
(Ama  Madhu)  is  possessed  of  contrary  properties, 
and  tends  to  agitate  the  three  fundamental 
humours  of  the  body.  In  conjunction  with  many  other 
drugs  and  medicinal  remedies,  honey  proves  curative  in 
various  diseases,  and  partakes  of  the  virtues  of  the  drugs 
or  substances  with  which  it  is  so  used  (Yoga-Vahika). 

4^2  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA'.     [  Chap.  XLV. 

Honey  is  not  collected  from  the  flowers  of  any 
particular  species.  On  the  other  hand,  the  honey- 
making  bees  cull  it  from  the  sap  and  juice  of  flowers 
and  plants,  which  are  incompatible  with  one  another 
in  respect  of  their  nature,  taste,  virtue,  potency  and 
re-actionary  (chemical)  effect.  For  these  reasons,  and 
further  from  the  fact  of  it  being  prepared  by 
poisonous  bees,  honey  becomes  positively  injurious 
after  contact  with  heat  or  fire,  and  accordingly  the 
u^e  of  hot  or  boiled  honey  is  forbidden. 

Metrical  Texts  : — On  account  of  its  poisonous 
contact  in  its  origin  honey  exerts  a  similar  injurious 
virtue.  Used  in  a  boiling  or  heated  state,  or  in 
a  hot  country,  or  during  the  hot  season  of  the 
year,  or  in  a  heated  state  of  the  body,  honey  is 
sure  to  prove  fatal  like  poison.  Honey  is  specially 
made  injurious  by  hot  contact  owing  to  its  placidity 
and  coolness,  and  further  for  the  reason  of  its 
being  collected  from  the  sap  of  a  variety  of 
flowers  and  plants.  Atmospheric  water  (rain-water), 
like  heat,  serves  to  impart  an  injurious  character 
to  all  kinds  of  honey  (except  the  one  known  as 
the  Arghyam  Madhu). 

Wletrical  Texts  :— For  emetic  purposes  honey 
may  be  administered  with  any  other  hot  substance, 
inasmuch  as  it  is  intended  in  such  a  case  that 
the    imbibed     lioney,    instead   of  being     retained     or 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  453 

digested  in  the  stomach,  should  be  ejected  immediately 

after  its  use.* 

Undigested  honey  is  more  painful,  or  gives   rise  to  a 

greater  discomfort  than    all  other  undigested  substances 

in    the  stomach,   more  so  because  internal  fermenfation 

and  use  of  hot  water,  which  are  usually   resorted   to  in 

a  case  of  deranged  digestion,  can  not  be  used  in   a   case 

of  undigested  honey  retained  in  the  stomach,   owing   to 

the  poisonous  nature    of  the  chemical  change   (Vip^ka) 

it   undergoes  therein   in   contact   with   hot  substances 

in  general.    Hence,  undigested  honey  is  as  fatal  as   any 


The  Sugar-cane  group  :-  Sugar  cane  is 
sweet  in  taste  and  digestion,  heavy,  cool,  demulcent, 
strength-giving,  spermatopoietic,  and  diuretic.  It 
produces  Kapham  in  the  bod}",  and  proves  remedial 
in  haemoptysis,  and  helps  the  germination  of  worms 
in  the  intestines. 

Metrical  text  : — There  are  many  species  of 
sugar-cane  such  as,  the  Paundraka,  Bhiruka,  Vanshaka, 
Shataporaka,  K^ntara,  Tapasekshu,  Kastekshu,  Suchi- 
patraka,  Naipala,  Dirghapatraka,  Nilapora,  and 
Koshakrit.      Now   we   shall   deal     with     the    specific 

*  Though  the  use  of  honey  with  hot  substances  is  not  forbidden  in 
such  cases,  still  many  an  experienced  physician  of  the  Ayurvedic  scliool 
thinks  it  safe  to  refrain  from  its  use,  lest  it  might  be  retained  in  the 
stomach  for  a  considerable  time,  or  find  out  a  downward  outlet  and  pass  off 
with  the  stool. 

454    '  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.     [Chap.  XLV. 

virtues  of  each  of  them.  The  Sugar-cane  of  the 
Paundraka  and  Bhiruka  t^-pes  is  cooHng,  sweet,  demul- 
cent and  constructive.  It  produces  Kapham  and  is 
laxative  without  giving  rise  to  imperfect  gastric  diges- 
tion. It  is  heavy  and  spermatopoietic.  The  Sugar- 
cane of  the  Vanshaka  species  is  possessed  of  similar 
properties  as  the  two  foregoing  ones,  though  a 
little  alkaline  in  its  constitution,  while  that  of  the 
Shatapora  species  is  a  little  more  heat-making  than 
that  of  the  preceding  class,  and  is  found  to  subdue 
the  deranged  Vayu.  The  Sugar-cane  of  the  Kdntara 
and  Tapasa  species  is  possessed  of  the  same  virtues 
as  that  of  the  Vanshaka  class.  The  Sugar-cane  of 
the  Kastekshu  species  is  identical  in  its  properties 
with  that  of  the  aforesaid  Vanshaka  class,  though  it 
tends  to  agitate  the  bodil)"  Va3'u.  The  Sugar-cane 
of  the  Suchipatra,  Nilapora,  Naipala  and  Dirghpatra 
species  produces  Vayu  in  the  system,  and  subdues 
the  Kapham  and  Pittam.  It  is  slightly  astringent 
in  taste  and  indigestible  (gives  rise  to  acidity  after 
digestion).  The  Sugar-cane  of  the  Koshakara  species  is 
heavy  (in  digestion),  cooling  and  proves  curative  in 
cases  of  haemopt5^sis  and  wasting  diseases  in  general. 
Sugar-cane  is  extremely  sweet  about  the  roots,  sweet 
at  the  middle,  and  saline  at  the  tops  and  joints. 

The  juice   of  a   sugar-cane  when' eaten  raw  is  not 
marked   by   any   acid   reaction   after   digestion.     It   is 



spermatopoietic,  and  subdues  the  Vayu  and  the  Kapham, 
and  is  pleasant  to  the  taste.  The  juice  of  sugar-cane 
otherwise  pressed* out  is  heavy  in  digestion,  is  long 
retained  in  the  stomach,  and  is  followed  by  reactionary 
acidity,  and  arrests  the  evacuation  of  stool  and  iiTine. 
The  juice  of  ripe  sugar-cane  is  heavy  in  digestion, 
possessed  of  laxative  properties,  keen,  and  demulcent. 
It  subdues  the  Vayu  and  Kapham.  The  inspissated  or 
half  boiled  juice  of  sugar-cane  (Phanitam)  is  sweet  in 
taste  and  heavy.  It  increases  the  slimy  secretions 
of  the  organs,  acts  as  a  flesh-builder,  and  is  devoid  of  all 
spermatopoietic  properties.  It  brings  about  a  simul- 
taneous derangement  of  the  three  bodil}''  humours. 

Common  treacle  is  found  to  be  charged  with  a  little 
alkali.  It  is  sweet  in  taste  and  not  too  cooling.  It 
acts  as  a  demulcent  and  purifier  of  the  blood  and 
urine.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and,  to  a  slight 
extent,  deranges  the  Pittam  as  well.  It  increases 
fat,  Kapham,  and  corpulency,  and  is  possessed  of 
tonic  and  spermatopoietic  properties.  White  and  purified 
(Shuddha)  treacle  is  sweet  in  taste,  and  purifies  the 
blood.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham,  and 
is  one  of  the  most  wholesome  diets  for  man.  Its  efficacy 
increases  with  its  years. 

The  different  modifications  of  treacle  such  as,  the 
Matsandika,  Khamda,  and  Sharkara  (sugar)  which  are 
progressivly  more  refined,   should  be  deemed  as  gaining 

456  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.    [  Chap,  XLV. 

more  in  their  cooling,  demulcent  and  aphrodisiac  pro- 
perties, and  getting  heavier  in  digestion  in  each  of  the 
successive  stages  of  refinement.  They  are  successively 
more  frigorific,  and  beneficial  in  cases  of  ha3moptysis. 

lYIctrica!  Texts  :— To  the  properties  considered 
as  specially  belonging  to  each  of  these  modifications 
of  treacle  should  be  attributed  its  power  of  producing 
its  own  refinement  and  efficacy.  The  virtues  of 
sugar  such  as,  laxativeness,  etc.,  should  be  regarded  as 
proportional  to  its  refinement,  freedom  from  alkaline 
saturation,  and  the  actual  quantity  of  sweetening  matter 
(lit.  substance)  contained  in  it. 

Sugar  prepared  from  concentrated  honey  (Madhu 
Sharkara)  is  parchifying  and  liquefacient.  It  proves 
beneficial  in  cases  of  vomiting  and  dysentery,  is 
pleasant,  has  a  sweet  and  astringent  taste,  and  is 
sweet  in  digestion.  Sugar  prepared  from  a  decoction  of 
Yavasa  Sharkara  (Duralabha)  has  a  sweet  and  astringent 
taste,  leaves  a  bitter  after-taste,  and  is  possessed  of 
laxative  properties,  and  subdues  the  deranged  Kapham. 
All  kinds  of  sugar  tend  to  assuage  burning  sensations 
in  the  body,  and  prove  curative  in  hoemoptysis,  vomiting, 
epileptic  fits,  and  thirst.  The  sweet  and  concentrated 
extract  (Phanitam)  of  Modhuka  flowers  should  be 
regarded  as  parchifying.  It  produces  Vayu  and  Pittam, 
and  subdues  Kapham.  It  is  sweet,  astringent  in  its 
digestive  transformation,  and  deranges  the  blood. 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  457 

Madya  Varga  (  Wines  and  spirits):— 

All  species  of  wine  are  acid  in  taste,  and  appetising. 
They  generate  Pittam,  and  impart  a  greater  relish 
to  one's  food.  They  act  as  mild  purgatives,  subdue^  the 
deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham,  and  are  pleasing,  exhilarat- 
ing and  diuretic. 

They  are  light  in  digestion  and  give  rise  to  a  kind  of 
re-actionary  acidity.  They  are  keen  and  heat-making, 
stimulate  the  sense  organs,  expand  the  joints  and 
increase  the  discharge  of  urine  and  stool.  Now  hear 
me  specifically  describe  the  properties  of  each  kind 
of  wine. 

Metrical  Texts  :— The  wine  knov" 
Madvirkam  and  ]-.cpared  --.n  the  jiu>.v.  aiv...  nuits 
as  grapes  and  raisins,  does  not  gi'  "^  .ise  to  any  sort 
of  reactionary  acidity  after  its  use,  and  accordingly 
is  not  forbidden  by  learned  physicians  even  in 
cases  of  ha3moptysis.  It  has  a  sweet  taste,  and 
leaves  an  astringent  after-taste.  It  is  parchifying,  light 
and  easy  of  digestion,  acts  as  an  aperient,  and 
proves  curative  in  chronic  fevers,  phthisis  and  other 
wasting  diseases. 

The  wine  prepared  from  the  juice  of  the  date  palm 
(Kharjuram)  possesses  properties,  which  are  slightly 
different  from  those  of  the  preceding  kind.  It  tends 
to  enrage  the  bodily  Vayu,  is  clear,  and  imparts  a  relish 
to  one's  food,  and  reduces  fat  and  Kapham.  It  is  light, 

45 B  THE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA.    [  Chap.  XLV. 

has  a  sweet  and  astringent  taste,  is  pleasing  and 
aromatic  and  increases  the  agility  of  the  limbs  and 

The     wine   known     as    the   Sura   (made    of  rice- 
paste  and   other   fermenting  drugs)   proves   curative  in 
cough,     piles,   chronic   indigestion   and   diarrhoea,    and 
retention  of   mine.     It  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and 
is   tonic   and   appetising.     It    purifies   the   breast   milk 
of    a     woman   and   proves   beneficial   in    all   types   of 
diseases   of  the    blood,  as  well  as   in  wasting   diseases. 
White  Sura   is   used  with  benefit   in  all  cases  of  cough, 
piles,  diarrhoea,  dyspnoea  and  catarrh.     It  builds  up  new 
^ugcii  ,^^|    tissues,  and  increases  the  quantity   of   blood. 
It  is*gii1[}ii!   P'guic  in  its  effect,  and  increases   the  quan- 
tity  of   Kaphaln^  .'  ■«   the   body.     The    wine   known  as 
the   Prasinna   (the    cream   or   the   limpid   surface     of 
Sura)   may   be   taken    with    advantage     in     vomiting, 
non-relish    for   food,    aching   or   colic   pain  at  the  sides 
or  about   the   cardiac  region,   constipation,    suppression 
of  stool   and   urine    or    flatus,    as  well  as  in  all  cases  of 
obstinate   constipation    and   derangement  of  the  bodily 
Vayu.     The    wine    prepared   from    barley     lYavasura) 
generates  PiLtam  and  tends    to  enrage  the  bodily  Vayu. 
It   is  dry   and   slightly   generates  Kapham.     The  wine 
prepared  from   Madhulika   (a   kind     of  small     barley) 
is   heavy    and   generates    Kapham   in    the    body.      It 
is    long     retained     in     the    stomach,    and    arrests   the 



evacuation  of  stool  and  urine.  The  Ahshiki  ^vine 
prepared  from  the  bark  of  Vibhitaka  trees  etc.) 
is  parchifying,  digestant,  and  slightly  produces  Kapham. 
It  is  possessed  of  aphrodisiac  properties.  The  wine 
known  as  the  Kohala  brings  on  the  simultaneous 
derangement  of  the  three  fundamental  bodily  humours, 
is  pleasant  to  the  taste,  acts  as  a  purgative  (Bhedya) 
and  is  possessed  of  aphrodisiac  properties.  The 
wine  known  as  the  Jagala  (the  un(lerl3nng  dregs  or 
residue  of  wine)  is  astringent  and  heat-making 
in  its  potency,  and  acts  as  a  digestant.  It  is  parchifying, 
and  proves  beneficial  in  cough,  thirst  and  phthisis.  It  is 
pleasant  to  the  taste,  cures  diarrhoea,  distention  of  the 
stomach,  piles  and  oedema.  It  forms  and  subdues  the 
deranged  Vayu  as  well.  The  wine  known  as  the 
Vakkasa  /-"'"^^■^'•I'-'^.long  undigested  in  the  stomach 
owing  t''om  the  juice  't  iing  pithless.  It  is  a 
good  appetiser  and  tends  to  enrage  the  deranged 
Vayu,  and  acts  as  a  purgative  and  diuretic  tonic. — A.T.) 
It  is  heavy  and  slightly  intoxicating.  The  wine 
known  as  the  Guda  Sidhu  (prepared  with  the  boiled 
juice  of  sugar-cane  and  Dhataki  flowers,  etc.  has  a 
sweet  and  astringent  taste,  and  acts  as  an  appetiser  and 
digestant.  Sugar  wine  Sharkara  Sidhu)  is  sweet 
in  its  taste,  increases  one's  relish  for  food,  is  appe- 
tising and  diuretic.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and 
is  exhilarating,  sweet  in  digestion,  and  increases 
the   action   (lit  :  rouses   up)   of  the  sense  organs.    The 



wine  known  as  the  Pakka  Rasa  Sidhu  is  possessed 
of  properties  similar  to  the  preceding  kinds  (Sharkar^ 
Sidhu).  It  improves  the  complexion  and  imparts 
strength  to  the  system  and  relish  to  one's  food. 
It  is  pleasant,  laxative_,  appetising  and  proves  beneficial 
in  cases  of  Kapham  and  piles  and  reduces  swellings. 
The  wine  known  as  the  Sheeta  Rasika  Sidhu  (pre- 
pared from  the  unboiled  juice  of  Sugar-cane  in  con- 
tradistinction with  the  preceding  kinds  prepared 
from  the  boiled  juice  of  sugar- cane j,  acts  as  an 
anti-epispastic,  and  a  digestant  and  vocal  tonic,  proves 
curative  in  adeina  and  abdominal  dropsy,  improves  the 
complexion,  removes  the  suppression  of  flatus,  urine 
and  stool  (Vivandha),  and  proves  beneficial  in  cases 
of  piles.  The  wine  known  as  the  Akshika  Sidhu 
(prepared  from  a  decoction  of  Vi^^Ve  wme"ith  treacle 
etc.  and  improved  with  the  +l-ie  limpid  si^Dhataki) 
proves  beneficial  in  cases  of  ulcer  and  jaundice.  It 
is  light  and  astringent,  and  has  a  sweet  and  astringent 
taste.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Pittam  and  purifies 
the  blood.  The  wine  known  as  the  Jamvava  Sidhu 
fwine  prepared  from  the  expressed  juice  of  the  Jambalin 
fruit,  a  decoction  of  coriander  seeds,  treacle  and 
Dh^taki  flowers,  etc.)  is  anuretic,  reduces  the  quantity 
of  urine,  has  an  astringent  taste,  and  tends  to  enrage 
the  bodily  Va}^!.  The  wine  known  as  the  Surasava 
f  Asava  distilled  with  wine  instead  of  with  water)  is  keen, 
pleasant,     and     diuretic.     It     subdues    the     deranged 

Chap.  XLV.  ]  SUTRASTHANAM.  46, 

V^yii  and  Kapham,  or  the  deranged  Vayii  alone,  and 
is  palatable,  and  possessed  of  a  more  durable 
intoxicating  povier.  The  wine  known  as  the 
Madhvasava  wine  is  light,  tends  to  disintegrate  the 
knotty  accumnlations  or  collections  of  phlegm  (Cl^hedi), 
and  proves  curative  in  Meha  (unhealth)^  discharges 
from  the  urethra),  cutaneous  affections,  and  poisoning 
(antitoxic).  It  has  a  taste  blended  of  the  sweet  and  the 
astringent,  is  keen  and  anti-epispastic,  and  does  not 
generate  an  abnormal  quantity  of  Vayu  in  the  system. 
The  wine  known  as  the  Maireya  (prepared  from  the 
Paishtisura,  treacle- made  spirit  and  honey)  is  keen,  and 
has  a  sweet  and  astringent  taste.  It  is  intoxicating,  and 
proves  curative  in  piles,  Kapham  and  Gulma  (abdominal 
glands  .  It  is  antifat  and  a  vermifuge,  and  is  heavy  in 
digestion,  and  subdues  the  deranged  Vayu.  Wines  pre- 
pared from  the  juice  of  grapes  or  sugar-cane  (Ikshu 
or  Dhrakshasava)  are  tonic  and  choleric.  They 
subdue  the  deranged  Pittam,  and  serve  to  improve 
the  complexion.  Sidhu  (wine)  prepared  from  the 
Madhuka  flowers  is  parchifying,  takes  a  long  time  to 
be  digested,  and  is  followed  by  an  acid  re-action.  It 
improves  the  strength  and  digestive  capacity,  and  has  an 
astringent  taste.  It  subdues  the  deranged  Kapham,  and 
serves  to  aggravate  the  Vayu  and  Pittam.  Wines 
prepared  from  the  distilled  juice  of  bulbs  or  roots  should 
be  deemed  as  possessed  of  properties  pertaining  to  them 
individually.    New  wine  is  heavy,  bad  smelling,  insipid, 

462  TEIE  SUSHRUTA  SAMHITA     [Chap.  XLV. 

unpleasant,  unpalatable,  and  tends  to  increase  the 
slini}^  secretions  of  the  organs.  It  enrages  the  deranged 
humours  of  the  bod}',  takes  a  long  tim<3  to  be  digested, 
and  is  followed  by  an  acid  re-action.  Old  Wine  is  sweet-,  acts  as  an  appetiser,  and  brings  on  a  relish  for 
food.  It  is  pleasant  and  a  vermifuge,  and  cleanses  the 
internal  channels  of  the  organism.  It  is  light  and 
subdues  the  deranged  Vayu  and  Kapham. 

The  species  of  wine  known  as  the  Arishta 
(fermented  liquor)  is  highly  efficacious  owing  to  the 
concerted  action  of  a  variety  of  drugs  entering  into 
its  composition.  It  proves  curative  in  a  large  number 
of  diseases,  tends  to  subdue  the  deranged  humours  of 
the  bod}',  and  is  a  good  appetiser.  It  subdues  the 
Vayu  and  Kapham  and  is  laxative  and  not  hostile  to  the 
Pittam.  It  proves  beneficial  in  colicpain,  distention 
of  the  stomach,  abdominal  dropsy,  fever,  enlarged 
spleen,  indigestion  and  piles.  Asava  wine  prepared 
from  the  drugs  known  as  the  Pippali,  etc.  (Pippaly^di 
Asava)  proves  curative  in  Gulma  (abdominal  glands) 
and  diseases  due  to  the  deranged  Kapham.  The 
Aristhas  of  other  therapeutic  virtues  will  be 
speciall)''  described  later  on  in  chapters  on  Therapeutics 
(Chikitsitam).  An  experienced  physician  should  pre- 
scribe the  different  species  of  wine  such  as,  the  Aristha, 
Asava,  Sidhu,  etc.,  in  different  diseases  in  considera- 
tion of  the  therapeutic  properties  of  drugs,  which   enter 

Chap.  XLV.]  SUTRASTHANAM.  463 

into  their  composition,  or  with  which  they  have  been 
purified,  and  according  as  each  of  them  would  be 
indicated  in  practice. 

The  following  kinds  of  wine  should  always  be 
rejected  viz.,  such  as  are  thick,  bad  smelling,  or  insipid 
or  full  of  worms,  or  heavy  and  acid  in  digestion,  un- 
pleasant, new,  strong  and  heat-making  in  their  potency, 
or  which  have  been  preserved  in  an  improper  vessel,  or 
which  have  been  prepared  with  a  comparatively 
lesser  number  of  ingredients  or  have  been  iTecanted 
over-night,  or  are  extremely  slimy  or  transparent,  as 
well  as  the  dregs  of  all  kinds  of  wine. 

The  wine  prepared  from  a  comparatively  lesser 
number  of  ingredients,  or  that  which  is  slimy,  heavy 
and  takes  a  long  time  to  be  digested,  should  be  deemed 
as  an  agitator  of  the  bodily  Kapham.  The  wine  which 
is  marked  by  a  deep  yellow  colour  is  strong  and  hot, 
is  only  imperfectly  digested  and  followed  b}^  a  kind  of 
acid  re-action.  It  tends  to  aggravate  th